FROM: Adumbratio

26 football: rugby, American football, Australian football, any one of several sports originating from rugby football (ball or game)  ► **harpastum, i **n.  ¶ MART. 4, 19, 1-7: "Hanc tibi Sequanicae pinguem textricis alumnam, / ... peregrinam mittimus endromida, / seu lentum ceroma teris tepidumque trigona, / sive harpasta manu pulverulenta rapis, / plumea seu laxi partiris pondera follis."  \ MART. 7, 32, 7-10, of a young man who preferred study to sports: "Non pila, non follis, non te paganica thermis / praeparat ... / non harpasta vagus pulverulenta rapis."  \MART. 14, 48, under the lemma *harpasta*: "Haec rapit Antaei velox in pulvere draucus, / grandia qui vano colla labore facit" (where "Antaei pulvus" refers to a playing field, "draucus" to an athletic man).  \ [1569]{.underline} MERCURIALE 133-34: "Ultimum et quartum Latinorum pilae genus *harpastum* fecimus, quod ob nominis similitudinem idem prorsus videtur quod αρπαστόν Graecorum. Erat enim pila quam ludentes alter alteri eripiebat, cuius vero magnitudinis, et ex quâ materia foret, haudquaquam ab ullo auctore explicatum habemus, nisi quod Athenaeus his verbis manifestum facit harpastum rotundum fuisse: 'Το δε καλούμενον δια της σφηαίρας αρπαστον, *φενίνδα* εκαλειτο, ο εγω πάντων μάλιστα ασπάζομαι.' Id est, 'Lusus autem pilae harpastum nuncupatum *pheninda* vocabatur, quem ego maxime omnium diligo.' ... Ludus qui hodie *a calce* nuncupatur [scil. *calcio fiorentino*], etsi in aliquibus assimiletur harpasto, in hoc tamen ab harpasto antiquorum differre videtur, quod illud parvum erat; pila autem quâ nostrates calce ludunt maior est. Nam et antiquiores et pulverulento solo hac pilâ ludebant, ut testatus est Martialis [locos affert] ... Quae omnia argumento esse possunt hanc exercitationem perarduam fuisse, solisque validioribus hominibus convenisse. Quod etenim nequaquam mulieres hoc genere ludere valerent ... eiusdem poetae versûs comprobant ubi Philaenim quandam tribadem exprobans quod omnibus fere virorum muniis fungeretur, quasi rem mulieribus prae aliis maxime insuetam ageret, post multa dixit, 'Harpasto quoque subligata ludit'" (citing Mart. 7, 67, 4, quoted above).  \ [1698]{.underline} HOFMANN 753 s.v. *pila*: "Harpastum ... pila fuit quam ludentium alter alteri eripiebat; magnitudo incerta, rotundum fuisse Athenaeus dictat. Parvam pilam vocat Galenus, similisque videtur hic ludus illi quem hodie a calce nuncupant Itali [scil. *calcio fiorentino*], nisi quod pia quâ illi calce ludunt maior est. In pulverulento solo, ut folliculus, olim haec pila ludebatur, fuitque exercitatio talis perardua, et non nisi validioribus hominibus conveniens."  \ [1771]{.underline} FORCELLINI: "HARPASTUM ... *palla di calcio*, genus pilae grandioris quam pila paganica, minoris quam follis; ab αρπάζω, 'rapio,' quod plures proiectum harpastum conentur arripere et extra ludi limites eiicere. Nam hoc pilae genus non repercutitur, sed cum multi ludentes in duas partes divisi sunt, quisque annititur pilam arripere et ad eos qui post se sunt viciniores limitibus transmittere; eiusque partis victoria est quae pilam extra limites adversariae partis eiecerit. Laboriorsum ludi genus est, grandibus tantum conveniens. Cum enim multi simul pilam arripere conantur, in terram se invicem prosternunt, pulvereque et sudore infecti flavescunt."  \ [1801]{.underline} SCHWEIGHÄUSER tr.ATHENAEUS 1, 25-26 (pp. 54-55): "Quod vero in pilae ludo *harpastum* vocant (το δε καλούμενον δια της σφηαίρας αρπαστον), *phaeninda* olim appellabatur; quo genere ego omnium maxime delector. Habet autem multum laboris contentionisque certamen eorum qui pilâ ludunt, et violentas imprimis cervicis inflexiones ... Describit vero phaenindae ludum idem Antiphanes his verbis: 'Acceptam pilam / huic laetus dedit, illum simul effugit; / huius (pilam) repulit, illum de statu deiecit, / magnis cum clamoribus: / 'Extra!' 'Procul!' 'Praeter illum!' 'Ultra illum!' 'Deorsum!'"  \ [1840]{.underline}DÜBNER tr. EPICTETUS 2, 5, 15-17, taking the game of *harpastum* -- where it's not the ball itself that matters, but what you do with it -- as an allegory of life: "Idem facere et eos videbis qui pilâ scite ludunt. Nemo eorum de harpasto contendit tamquam de bono aut malo; sed de eo iaciendo et rursus excipiendo. Igitur in hoc omnis solertia ponitur, in hoc ars, celeritas, dexteritas ... Quodsi vero cum perturbatione et metu vel exceperimus vel emiserimus, quis iam ludus?  \ Cf. Artem. Onirocrit. 1, 55: "Αρπαστον δε και σφαιρα φιλονεικίας απεράντους σημαίνουσι, πολλάκις δε και εταιρας έρωτα. Εοικε γαρ η σφαιρα και το αρπάστον εταίρα δια το μηδαμου μένειν και προς πολλους φοιταν."  ►► As with other ancient games, the information on *harpastum* is not detailed enough to permit a full description; but several factors suggest it was similar enough to the group of closely related games including rugby and American football to justify a transfer of the term to them:  (1) It involved a number of players on an outdoor field, competing for possession of a ball.  (2) It was intensely physical, appropriate only for toughened male athletes.  (3) The emphasis on "snatching" or "stealing" the ball, from which the game took its name, suggests the tackling of rugby and football.  (4) The ball was frequently passed between players, sometimes with a feint strategy, with others trying to intercept.  (5) Mercuriale (the most influential early modern authority on ancient athletics), followed by Hofmann, Forcellini, and others, expressly draws a parallel between*harpastum* and the Renaissance Italian game *calcio* (now called *calcio fiorentino* or *storico*, and preserved as a vintage sport), a game that resembles rugby, and is thought by some actually to have evolved from the *harpastum* of later antiquity.   ||  *Der neue Pauly* s.v. *harpaston*: "A highly physical game played on a field ... The player with possession of the ball is attacked by the opposing team, which seeks to take it away from him (αρπάζειν, 'to grab, snatch, steal'), while he tries to pass it to his teammates ... This leads to shoving, tripping, kicking, and a general no-holds-barred struggle for control of the ball ... *Harpaston* required a high degree of skill and dexterity."  ||  PW s.v. *harpastum*, summarizing the ancient passages: "Thus *harpastum* has two parts: first, a player must get control of the ball, αρπάζειν, and then throw it on to another player -- but deceptively, as if intending to throw it to a different player ... The ball goes through so many hands that Artemidor (Oneirocrit. I, 55) compares it to a courtesan ... It would be pointless to try to describe in details the rules of *harpastum* ... It has been compared to football (*Fußballspiel*), and also to lawn-tennis ... *Harpastum* was a game for manly individuals. Martial (6, 67) mentions a female player, Philaenis; but he singles her out as a manly woman, who does precisely what is inappropriate for women. The game appears to have been very popular in Rome."

FROM: Adumbratio

26 football: rugby: rugby  ► **harpastum Rugbiense (v. Britannicum)**  ¶ For the adjective *Rugbiensis*, see:  Walter Savage Landor, *Poemata et inscriptiones* (London 1847), 194, in a tribute to a former teacher: "Vale, Jamese! tuque Rugbiensium  ¶ fortis priorum contubernalis, vale!"  Arthur Stanley, *The Life and Correspondence of Thomas Arnold* (New York: Scribner's, 1910), 312, in an epitaph written by Rugby School headmaster Thomas Arnold: "Scholae Rugbiensis alumni."  Rugby School Prize Poems (Rugby, 1826), 3: "in Scholâ Rubgiensi publice recitatum."  *Anthologia Graeca in usum Scholae Rugbiensis* (Rugbiae, 1856).

FROM: Adumbratio

25 arena, stadium  ► **amphitheâtrum, i** n.  ¶  ► **stadium, i** n.  ¶ VITR. 5, 11, 4, of the stadium of the *palaestra*: "Post xystum autem stadium, ita figuratum ut possint hominum copiae cum laxamento athletas certantes spectare." \ 1569 MERCURIALE 60: "Omnium postremo in gymnasiis pars fuit *stadium*, ubi populus cum voluptate athletas spectabat; nilque aliud erat quam hemisphaerium quoddam, multis gradibus constructum, unde poterant commode spectatores, qui semper plurimi eo confluebant, certatores intueri." \ EGGER D.L. 40.  ► **sphaerodromus, i*** m. (appropriate for a stadium for football, soccer, rugby, cricket, etc.)  ¶ Cf. Byz. Gr. σφαιροδρομίοv, of a ball game, presumably polo:  [1754]{.underline} REISKE tr. PORPHYROGENITUS 1, 83 (pp. 381-82):"Hos itaque imperator, statim atque e sphaerodromio seu equestri cum pilâ ludo excesserit (μετα την του σφαιροδρομίου έξοδον), introduci mandat praefecto mensae."  \ Cf. also *hippodromus*, "race-track."

FROM: Adumbratio

26 football: rugby: American football  ► **harpastum Americânum**

FROM: Adumbratio

26 football: rugby: water polo  ► **harpastum aquâtile**  ► ? **hydatosphaera, ae*** f.   ►► EL: υδατοσφαιρίση.

FROM: Adumbratio

26 football: soccer (US), football (Brit.) (ball or game)  ► **follis pedâlis**  ► **pedifollium, i*** n.  ► **ludus follis pedumque**  ¶ EGGER S.L. 9.  ► ? **pediludium, i** n.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 9. ► ? **podosphaera, ae*** f.  ¶   | * adj*.  ► ?* ***pediludiarius, a, um***  ¶ EGGER S.L. 9.   |  a soccer game  ► **certamen folle pedibusque ludentium**  ¶ EGGER D.L. 52.   ►► EL: foot; fútbal;calcio; Fußbal; ποδόσφαιρο, ποδοσφαίριση.  ||  WP: "Αθλήματα ή παιχνίδια που θυμίζουν το ποδόσφαιρο συναντώνται από και παλιότερα. Ίχνη του ποδοσφαίρου βρίσκουμε στο 'επίσκυρος' των Ελλήνων και το "harpastum" των Ρωμαίων."  |  "Di origine arcaica, in uso presso gli antichi Romani con l'*harpastum*, nel quale due fazioni dovevano portare una palla oltre la linea di fondo avversaria e nel quale prevaleva l'aspetto antagonistico rispetto a quello agonistico, veniva probabilmente abbozzato, in seguito, per quello che conosciamo al giorno d'oggi durante il Medioevo in Italia (vedi Calcio fiorentino), ma la sua affermazione moderna e codificata si ebbe in Inghilterra, alla metà del XIX secolo."  |  "Il Calcio 'storico' fiorentino, conosciuto anche col nome di Calcio in livrea o Calcio in costume, è una disciplina sportiva che affonda le sue origini in tempi molto antichi. Ad oggi è riconosciuto da molti come il padre del gioco del calcio, anche se almeno nei fondamentali ricorda molto più il rugby."  "I Greci praticavano un gioco chiamato *sferomachia*, di cui sappiamo solo che adottato dai Romani prese il nome di *harpastum* (strappare a forza). L'*harpastum* veniva giocato su terreni sabbiosi da due squadre di ugual numero di giocatori che dovevano attenersi a dei regolamenti molto precisi. Visto il carattere virile della competizione, fatta di lotte serrate e di continui corpo a corpo per il possesso della palla, l'*harpastum* ebbe grande successo soprattutto tra i legionari che contribuirono così alla sua diffusione nelle varie zone dell'Impero Romano. Tra queste c'era sicuramente la colonia Florentia dove secoli dopo sarebbe diventato il gioco tipico della città toscana."

FROM: Silva

.ball football: **rugby** / follis ovati ludus (LRL)

FROM: Silva

.ball football: rugby / ovatae pilae lusus [Latinitas]; harpastum [Mart. 4, 19, 6] (Helf.)



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