Adumbratio Lexici Anglico-Latini

a Davide Morgan, beatae memoriae, incohati

et nunc a Patricio Owens curati

“Nova verba non sine quodam periculo fingere”

Quintilianus, Inst. Orat. 1, 5, 71

symbols and abbreviations

+  medieval word (first found 700-1400)

*  modern word (first found since 1400)

Parentheses surrounding the above two symbols indicate that the word itself is ancient, but the meaning is first found in the medieval or modern period. Certainty about the first appearance of post-ancient Latin words is impossible; my indications are based on consultation of certain dictionaries (see preface) and a number of primary sources.

//    GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES

// /general city: King's Mountain, Königsberg, Monterrey, Montréal  ► Regi(o)montium, i n.

// /general city: Newcastle, Neuchâtel, Châteauneuf  ► Novum Castellum  ¶ 1771 WAY dedication page (of the county in Delaware).

// /general city: Newport, Nieuwpoort  ► Neoportus, ûs m.  ¶ Graesse.  ► Neoportum, i n.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 28, of Belgian town.

// /town names in "St.": examples of use:  to the town of Saint-Laurent  ad fanum Divi Laurentii (1652 TURS. 371)  |  from the town of Saint-Laurent  e fano Divi Laurentii (1652TURS. 372)

// 2 Bengali  ► lingua Bengalica

// Arctic  arcticus, a, um (Hyg.; DANTE Aqua 477; EGGER S.L. 7)  ► arctôus (SEN. in tragedies; MART. )

// Arctic Ocean  Glacialis Oceanus (1811 PALLAS vi)  ► Mare Glaciale (1595 MERCATOR II "Polus Arcticus" map; 1811 PALLAS xi)

// Arctic zone  zona arctica (1811 PALLAS 52)

// Arctic: Antarctic  adj.  antarcticus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 25)

// Arctic: Antarctica  terra antarctica (EGGER D.L. 25)

// Arctic: North Pole  ► polus arcticus  ¶ DANTE Aqua 477.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 16.  ► polus septentrionalis  ¶ EGGER S.L. 44.   ► axis septentrionalis  ¶ EGGER S.L. 44.  ►polus glacialis  ¶ OV. M. 2, 173.   ► polus gelidus  ¶ OV. H. 18, 152.

// Arctic: South Pole  polus antarcticus (APUL.; DANTE Aqua 477)  ► polus austrâlis (OV. M. 2, 131)  ► polus austrînus (PLIN. 5, 56)

// Atlantic islands: Azores  ►► Tertiariae Insulae (1652 TURS. 263)

// Atlantic islands: Canary Islands  ► Insulae Fortûnâtae (f. pl.)  ¶ PLIN.  1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  1794 RUIZ viii.  ► Insulae Canariae (f. pl.)  ¶ Arn.  1595 MERCATOR II"Europa."

// Atlantic islands: Canary Islands: Tenerife  ► Teneriffa, ae f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ viii.  ► Ninguâria, ae f.  ¶ Plin. 6, 204.  Egger N.L.  ► Nivâria, ae f.  ¶ Plin. 6, 204 (variant reading). Egger N.L.

// Atlantic islands: Madeira  Materia, ae f.

// Atlantic Ocean  Mare Atlanticum (CIC.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Africa."  ► Oceanus Atlanticus (EGGER S.L. 34)

// Eurasia  Eurôpâsia, ae f., Eurâsia, ae f.;  adj.  Eurôpâsiânus, a, um, Eurâsiânus, a, um

// Pacific Ocean  Mare Pacificum (1784 DUCRUE 221)

//1 /Europe  Eurôpa, ae f. (Oros. 1, 2)

//1 /Europe  Eurôpa, ae f. (PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Orbis Terrae."  |  adj.  Eurôpaeus, a, um

//1 Austria  ► Austria, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae." 1674 MILTON XIII. 28.  1652 TURS. 206 et passim.  1784 DUCRUE 265.  EGGER S.L. 26.

//1 Austria cities: Innsbruck  Aenipons, ontis m. (EGGER D.L. 12)  ► Oenipons, ntis m.;  adj.  Aenipontînus, a, um, Oenipontînus, a, um (PERUGINI, Concordata 26)

//1 Austria cities: Salzburg  Salzburgensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Austria cities: Vienna  ► Vienna, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae."  1652 TURS. 252 et passim.  1843 TRAPPEN 26.  EGGER S.L. 58, quoting Latin inscription of 16th-century coin.  ► Vindobona, ae f.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ vi.  EGGER S.L. 57.  |  adj.  ► Viennensis, e  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae."  1652 TURS. 332.  ►► Vienna is slightly more common than Vindobona in printed books (WC).

//1 Austria regions: Carinthia  Carinthia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Salzburg" map)

//1 Austria regions: Styria   Stiria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Stiria")

//1 Austrian  subst.  ► Austriacus, i (1652 TURS. 314; 1784 DUCRUE 265; 1843 TRAPPEN 51; PERUGINI, Concordata 42)  |  adj.  ► Austriacus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Austria";1652 TURS. 249 et passim; PERUGINI, Concordata 33; EGGER S.L. 57)

//1 Belgium  ► Belgium, i n.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 78.  ► Belgium Meridiânum  ¶ Cf. the use of Belgium Septentrionale of the Netherlands:  Alexander Suerman, Specimen historico-medicum de cholerae Asiaticae itinere per Belgium septentrionale, annis 1832-1834 (Utrecht, 1835).    ►► The term Belgium, at least through the 18th century, refers in Latin to the Low Countries generally.

//1 Belgium cities: Antwerp  Antverpia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Brabantia"; 1652 TURS. 263)  |  adj.  Antverpiensis, e (1652 TURS. 367)

//1 Belgium cities: Bruges  Bruga, ae f. (1652 TURS. 386)  ► Brugae, arum f. pl. (WC)

//1 Belgium cities: Brussels  ► Bruxellae, arum f. pl.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 30.  1652 TURS. 382.  ► Bruxella, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Brabantia."  1652 TURS. 348.  |  adj.  ►Bruxellensis, e  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 327.  ►► Bruxellae is much more common than Bruxella in printed books (WC).

//1 Belgium cities: Charleroi

//1 Belgium cities: Ghent  Gandavum, i n. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Flandria"; 1652 TURS. 401)  |  adj.  Gandavensis, e (1652 TURS. 367, 401)

//1 Belgium cities: Leuven, Louvain  Lovanium, i n. (1540 VIVES Exer. 363; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Brabantia"; 1652 TURS. 263, 348)

//1 Belgium cities: Liège

//1 Belgium cities: Namur  Namurcum, i n. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hannonia," map)  |  adj.  Namurcensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hannonia")

//1 Belgium cities: Ostend, Oostende  ► Ostenda, ae f.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 28.  1652 TURS. 281.

//1 Belgium regions: Brabant  Branbantia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Branbantia"; 1652 TURS. 333, 348)

//1 Belgium regions: Flanders  ► Flandria, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Flandria."  1674 MILTON XIII. 28.  1652 TURS. 345 et passim.

//1 Belgium regions: Fleming  Flander, dri m. (1652 TURS. 369)

//1 Belgium regions: Flemish  Flandricus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 92)  ► Flandrensis, e (1540 VIVES Exer. 332)

//1 Belgium regions: Hainault  Hannonia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hannonia")

//1 Belgium: Low Countries (historical region of Europe, corresponding roughly to contemporary Netherlands, Belgium and Luxemburg)  ► Belgium, i n.  ¶ 1674MILTON XIII. 12; 28.  1652 TURS. 272 et passim.  1784 THUNBERG xiii.  ► Belgica, ae f.  ¶  ► Belgium Inferius  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Belgii Inferioris Tabula."

//1 Britain  Brittania, ae f.;  British  subst.  Britannus, i m., Anglobritannus, i m. 1843 TRAPPEN 24 et passim)  |  adj.  Britannicus, a, um

//1 Britain cities: Cambridge  Cantabrigia, ae f.

//1 Britain cities: Canterbury  Cantuaria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 10)  |  adj.  Cantuarensis, e (1652 TURS. 367; EGGER S.L. 10)

//1 Britain cities: Dover  Dubrae, arum f. pl. (EGGER citing ancient source)  ► Dovertium, i (1652 TURS. 389)

//1 Britain cities: Edinburg  Edinburgum, i n.;  adj.  Edinburgensis, e  ►► Edimburgensis (EGGER S.L. 10)  ► Edimburgum (EGGER S.L. 11)

//1 Britain cities: Glasgow  Glasgua, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 11)

//1 Britain cities: Greenwich  ► Grenovîcum, i n.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 28.

//1 Britain cities: Liverpool  adj. Liverpulensis, e (EGGER S.L. 11)

//1 Britain cities: London  ► Londînium, i n.  ¶ TAC.; Amm.   ► Londînum, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 276, 323.  1826 LÜDERS v.  1843 TRAPPEN 25. |  adj.  Londîniensis, e  ¶ EGGER S.L. 10.  ► Londînensis, i  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 2.  1843 TRAPPEN 111.  ►► In the title pages of printed books, the spellings in -ium and -iensis are much rarer than those in -um and -ensis (WC).

//1 Britain cities: London: Palace of Westminster, Houses of Parliament  ► aula Vistminsterii  ¶ 1652 TURS. 411.

//1 Britain cities: London: Tower of London  Turris Londînensis (1652 TURS. 410)  ► Turris Londîni (1652 TURS. 413)

//1 Britain cities: London: Westminster (area of central London)  ► Vestmonasterium, i n.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 8 et passim: "Westmonasterio," at end of official government letters).

//1 Britain cities: Oxford  Oxonia, ae f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 256)

//1 Britain cities: York  Eboracum, i n. (Eutr.)  |  adj.  Eboracensis, e (1652 TURS. 347)

//1 Britain counties: Cheshire  ►    ►► Chestria, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Devon  ► Devonia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Dorset  ► Dorsetia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Gloucestershire  ► Glocestria, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Hampshire  ► Hampia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Kent  ► Cantium, i n.  ¶ 1771 WAY dedication page (of the county in Delaware)

//1 Britain counties: Lancashire  ► Lancastria, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Leicestershire  ► Leicestria, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Lincolnshire  ► Lincolnia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Somerset  ► Somersetia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain counties: Sussex  ► Sussexia, ae f.  ¶ 1771 WAY dedication page (of the county in Delaware)

//1 Britain counties: York  ►    ►► Yorkia, ae f. 1826 LÜDERS 7.

//1 Britain islands: Hebrides  Haebudes, um f. pl. (PLIN. 4, 103)  ► Hebrides, um f. pl. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa")

//1 Britain islands: Isle of Man  Mona, ae f. (CAES.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Britannicae Insulae")

//1 Britain islands: Isle of Wight  Vectis, is f. (PLIN.; SUET.)

//1 Britain islands: Jersey  Caesarea, ae f. ; Barsa, ae f. (cf. Berry)

//1 Britain islands: Jersey: Guernsey , Caesarea, ae f. (cf. Berry)

//1 Britain islands: Orkney Islands  Orcades, um f. pl. (PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Britannicae Insulae."

//1 Britain islands: Shetland Islands Aemodae Insulae, arum f.pl. (Mela 182), Shetlandia, ae f.

//1 Britain regions: England  ► Anglia, ae f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 325.  1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  1652 TURS. 328 et passim.  EGGER S.L. 10.

//1 Britain regions: English  adj.  ► Anglicus, a, um  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 325.  1674 MILTON XIII. 48 et passim.  ► Anglicânus, a, um  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 4: "Senatus populusque Anglicanus."  1674 MILTON XIII. 32: "classem Anglicanam"; et passim.

//1 Britain regions: Englishman  subst.  ► Anglus, i m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 22 et passim.

//1 Britain regions: Scot(sman)  subst.  ► Calêdo, onis m.  ¶ Flor.   ► Scotus, i m.  ¶ nbsp;1674 MILTON XIII. 12.  1652 TURS. 357, 436.  EGGER S.L. 7.

//1 Britain regions: Scotch, Scottish  adj.  Calêdonius, a, um (PLIN.)  ► Calêdonicus, a, um (Sol.)  ► Scoticus, a, um

//1 Britain regions: Scotland  Calêdonia, ae f. (TAC.)  ► Scotia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa"; 1652 TURS. 274 et passim; EGGER S.L. 10)

//1 Britain regions: Wales  ► Vallia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 436.  EGGER S.L. 10.  ► Cambria, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 10.

//1 Britain regions: Welsh  subst.  ► Camber, bri m.  ¶  ► Cambrobritannus, i m.  ¶ 1832 Alexandre 7A, 179.  |  adj.  ► Vallicus, a, um  ¶   ► Cambricus, a, um  ¶  ► Cambro-britannicus, a, um  ¶ Ducange s.v. manganum in article. 

//1 Britain: Anglo-Saxon  subst.  Anglosaxo, onis m. (DUCANGE s.v. iurata in article)

//1 Britain: English Channel  Fretum Brittanicum (EGGER S.L. 53)

//1 Britain: English Channel  Mare Britannicum (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia" map)  ► Frêtum Britannicum

//1 Britain: Great Britain  Britannia, ae f., Maior Britannia (1652 TURS. 278 et passim)  ► Magna Britannia (1652 TURS. 347; EGGER S.L. 78)

//1 Britain: Manchester  Mancestria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 11)  ► Mancunium, i n. (EGGER S.L. 11)

//1 Britain: United Kingdom

//1 Celt, Kelt  subst.  Celta, ae m. (Caes.; Liv.)

//1 Celt: Gael (Scottish or Irish Celt)  subst.  Gaedelus, i m. (Zeuss viii; cf. Annals of the Caledonians, Picts, and Scots, ed. Joseph Riston [Edinburg, 1828], II. 70, in a medieval Scottish chronicle: Goedelicus)  ►► In Zeuss, the terms Gaedelus and Gaedelicus (like English Gael and Gaelic in the 19c) apply only to the Scottish Celts.

//1 Celt: Gaelic  adj.  Gaedelicus, a, um (Zeuss viii et passim)  ► Gadelicus, a, um  ¶ See titles Silva GadelicaCarmina Gadelica. [Also gadelica, gadelici in Analecta Bollandiana, in continuous prose, snippet view.]

//1 Celt: Gaelic (language)  linguae Gaedelica  |  in Gaelic  Gaedelicê  |  Irish Gaelic  lingua Hiberna Gaeledica

//1 Celtic, Keltic  adj.  Celticus, a, um (Plin.)

//1 Czech (language)  ► lingua Bohêmica  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ iv.  |  in Czech  ► Bohêmicê  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Bohemia."

//1 Czech cities: Pilsen, Plzeň  Pilsna, ae f. (1652 TURS. 311)

//1 Czech cities: Prague  ► Praga, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Bohemia."  1652 TURS. 275 et passim.  1843 TRAPPEN 26.  EGGER R.A. 100.  |  adj.  ► Pragensis, e  ¶ 1652 TURS.227, 308.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ vi.

//1 Czech regions: Moravia  Moravia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Moravia."  |  adj.  Moravicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 312)

//1 Czech Republic  Bohêmia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Bohemia"; 1652 TURS. 338)  ► Boêmia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 212 et passim)

//1 Czech, Bohemian  adj.  ► Bohêmicus, a, um  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 263.  ► Boêmicus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 179, 222. 

//1 Czech, Bohemian  subst.  ► Bohêmus, i m.  ¶ TAC. G. 28.  1784 DUCRUE 222.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ iii.  ► Boêmus, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 224 et passim.  ► Zechus, i m.  ¶ 1670DUCANGE trans. 12th-c. CINNAMUS 409 (in index): "Zechi ... Zechorum princeps a Conrado imperatore rex dictus."  Cf. Zechius, of Čech, legendary founder of the Czech nation:  1688DUCANGE Graec.: "T ζέχοι , Bohemi, sic dicti a Zechio primo eorum duce, de quo Aeneas Sylvius in Hist. Bohem. c. 4, et Luccarius in Annal. Ragusin. lib. 1."  1670 DUCANGE trans. 12th-c.CINNAMUS 332: "a Lecho primo gentis [Polonicae] auctore, Zechii Bohemiae principis fratre."  ► Tzechus, i m.  ¶ 1650 CLAUSER trans. 15th-c. LAONICUS CHALCONDYLES bk. 5 (PG 159, 258): "Pannones [scil. Hungari] gerebant bellum cum Germanis ... Postea bellum indixere Tzechis, qui Bohemi dicuntur ( προς Τζέχουςκαι Βοεμίους καλουμένους)."  1670 DUCANGE trans. 12th-c. CINNAMUS 2, 18 (p. 84): "Horum alter Tzechorum genti imperitabat (των Τζέχων κατηρχεν έθνους) ... alter praeerat Lechis [scil. Polonis], Scythicae genti."  Ibid. 5, 8 (p. 222): "Gnarum vero Tzechorum linguae (της Τζέχων συνιέντα γλώττης) Romanum quendam ad se vocat ut mutatis vestibus castra hostium subiret, atque ubi ad regis Tzechorum venisset conspectum, eum hisce verbis alloqueretur."  EGGER D.L. 38.  Cf. Byz. Gr. Τζέχος:  1688 DUCANGE Graec., quoted above.    ►► The ancient manuscripts have various spellings: Boi(h)emus, Boi(h)aemus, Bo(h)emus.  In printed books in Latin, Bo(h)emus, Bo(h)emia has been the standard form, the spelling with h being considerably more common than that without (WC titles).  ||  In the Czech language the same adjective (český) means "Bohemian" and "Czech."  Thus the Czech name for the Czech Republic (Česká republika) could also be translated as "Bohemian Republic."  ► Cechus (EGGER D.L. 38). 

//1 France cities: Aix-en-Provence  Aquae Sextiae f. pl. (LIV.; PLIN.)  |  adj.  Aquensis, a (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)

//1 France cities: Ajaccio  Aiax, âcis m.;  adj.  Aiacensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Corsica")

//1 France cities: Angers  Andegavum, i n.

//1 France cities: Avignon  Avenio, ônis m. (Plin; 1652 TURS. 220, 301)  |  adj.  Avenionesis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania."  ►► Avennio (EGGER R.A. 27)

//1 France cities: Besançon  Vesontio, ônis m. (CAES.)  |  adj.  Vesontînus, a, um (cf. 1595 MERCATOR I, "Burgundia")

//1 France cities: Bourdeaux  ► Burdegala, ae f.  ¶ MART.  1652 TURS. 213.  |  adj.  ► Burdegalensis, e  ¶ Aus.  1540 VIVES Exer. 353: "vinum Burdegalense."  1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania."  1652 TURS. 34.  1826 LÜDERS 26.

//1 France cities: Caen  Cadomum, i n. (1652 TURS. 318)

//1 France cities: Cannes  Canoae, arum f. pl. (Noël)

//1 France cities: Carcassonne  Carcassôna, ae f. (1652 TURS. 371)

//1 France cities: Chartres  Carnûtum, i n. (1652 TURS. 314; cf. Carnûtes, um m., CAES., of the Gallic people that give the town its name)  ► Carnotum, i n. (Graesse)  ► Autricum Carnutum (WC publication locations)  |  adj.  Carnûtensis, e (WC titles)  ► Carnotensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia."  ► Carnôtênus, a, um (SulpSev., of the Gallic people; Graesse)

//1 France cities: Clairmont  Claramontium, i n.;  adj.  Claramontanus, a, um, Claramontensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Berry")

//1 France cities: Dijon  Divio, onis (EGGER S.L. 20)  |  adj.  Divionensis, e (DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum; EGGER S.L. 20)

//1 France cities: Fontainebleau  Fons Bellae Aquae (DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)

//1 France cities: Fontainebleau  Fons Bellaqueus (Graesse; cf. title in WC: Marron, P.H., Ad Fontes Bellaqueos (Fontainebleau) in laeto de gravidâ Gallorum Imperatrice nuntio, Paris 1810)  ► Bellofontanum, i n. (Graesse)  ►► Fontenoblêum, i n. (1652 TURS. 273)

//1 France cities: Grenoble  Grâtiânopolis, is f. (AUG.; 1652 TURS. 265, 357)  |  adj.  Grâtiânopolitânus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)

//1 France cities: La Rochelle  Rupella, ae f. (1652 TURS. 262 et passim)  |  adj.  Rupellensis, e (1652 TURS. 279)  ► Rupellânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 322, 339)

//1 France cities: Le Havre  Franciscopolis, is f., Portus Gratiae (1652 TURS. 434)

//1 France cities: Lille  urbs Insulae (1652 TURS. 377)  ► Insulae, arum f. pl. (WC)

//1 France cities: Lyon  Lugdûnum, i n. (PLIN.; RABELAIS 942)  |  adj.  Lugdûnensis, e

//1 France cities: Marseille  Massilia, ae f. (CIC.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 284)  |  adj.  Massiliensis, e (CIC.; CAES.)  ► Massiliôticus, a, um (PLIN.; MART. Cap.)  ► Massilîtânus, a, um (VITR.; ;23)

//1 France cities: Monaco  Arx Monoeci, Monacum, i n. (1652 TURS. 386)  |  adj.  Monoecensis, e (EGGER S.L. 22, 54)  ►► Monoecus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 40)

//1 France cities: Montpellier  ► Monspelium, i n.  ► Monspessulum, i n.  ¶ RABELAIS 944.  ► Mons Pessulânus  ¶ 1652 TURS. 330.  1826 LÜDERS 26.  |  adj.  ►Monspessulânus, a, um  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 26.

//1 France cities: Nancy  Nanceium, i n. (1652 TURS. 346)

//1 France cities: Nantes  Namnêtes, um m. pl. (Ven. Ep. 3)  ► Nannêtes, um m. pl. (1652 TURS. 299: cf. 1652 TURS. 337: Nanetum)  |  adj.  Nannetensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia."  ►► The form found as publication place in printed books is Nanneti, orum (WC).

//1 France cities: Narbonne  Narbôna, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; 392).;  adj.  Narbônensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania")

//1 France cities: Nice  Nîcaea, ae (PLIN.)  |  adj.  Nîcaeensis, e (CIC.)

//1 France cities: Nîmes  Nemausum, i n. (PLIN.)  |  adj.  Nemausensis, e (PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania")

//1 France cities: Orléans  Aurêliâna, ae f. (cf. Jord. 37, 194: civitas Aureliana)  ► Aurêliâni, orum m. pl., Aurêlia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 343 et passim)  ► Aurêliânum, i n. (1652 TURS. 236)  ► Aurêliopolis, is f.;  adj.  Aurêliânensis, e (SID. 8, 15 urbs Aurêlianensis; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia"; 1652 TURS. 237 et passim)  ► Aurêliânus, a, um (Jord. 37, 194: civitas Aurêliâna; 1652 TURS. 344)  ►► As a publication place in Latin books, Aureliana, Aurelia and Aureliani are the most common (WC).

//1 France cities: Paris  Parisii, orum m. pl. (1540 VIVES Exer. 385; 1652 TURS. 261)  ► Lutetia, ae f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 385; RABELAIS 948; 1652 TURS. 265)  ► Lutetia Parisiorum (1540 VIVES Exer. 385; EGGER S.L. 20)  |  adj.  Parisiacus, a, um (Ven. Fort.; 1652 TURS. 425)  ► Parisînus, a, um, Parisiensis, e (1540 VIVES Exer. 353; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Francia, Picardia"; 1652 TURS. 265 et passim1843 TRAPPEN 7)  ► Lutetiânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 341)  ►► Parisii appears much more common than Lutetia (WC publication locations).  ThatLutetia belongs rather to the high style is clear from this exchange in one of VIVES' dialogues (Exer. 385)  ► where the first speaker is less cultivated than the second: "Unde tu iam nobis ... ?  – Lutetiâ.  – Quâ tandem Lutetiâ?  ... – Lutetiâ Parisiorum.  – Parisios nominari audieram, et quidem saepe, Lutetiam numquam; est ergo Lutetia quos nos Parisios dicimus?"

//1 France cities: Paris: (château of) Saint-Germain-en-Laye  castrum Divi Germani in Laia (1652 TURS. 396)

//1 France cities: Paris: Bastille  Bastilia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 302: "in arcem Bastiliae";  1652 TURS. 426: "Bastiliae castrum")

//1 France cities: Paris: Bois de Vincennes  saltus Vincennarum (1652 TURS. 304)

//1 France cities: Paris: Cathedral of Notre Dame  aedes Virgini Matri sacra (ERASMUS Coll. 172)  ► templum Beatae Virgini sacrum (1652 TURS. 419)  ► basilica Divae Mariae (1652TURS. 334)  ► aedes Beatae Virginis (Bonon. Acad. I, 69)

//1 France cities: Paris: Church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés  fanum Divi Germani (1652 TURS. 367)

//1 France cities: Paris: faubourg Saint-Germain  suburbium Divi Germani (1540 VIVES Exer. 387)

//1 France cities: Paris: Louvre  ► Lupara, ae f.  ¶  ► Musêum Luparêum  |  adj.  ► Luparêus, a, um  ¶ PG 159, 7 (contents page), of an scholarly edition published by the Imprimerie royale, housed in the Louvre: "ex editione Luparea anni 1650."

//1 France cities: Paris: Saint Denis Basilica, Basilique Saint-Denis  Sancti Dionysii basilica (1652 TURS. 397)

//1 France cities: Paris: Sorbonne  Sorbôna, ae f. (ERASMUS)  |  adj.  Sorbônicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 296: "doctor Sorbonicus")

//1 France cities: Perpignan  Perpiniânum, i n. (1652 TURS. 213 et passim)  |  adj.  Perpiniânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 391)

//1 France cities: Reims  ► Rêmi, orum m. pl.  ¶ Amm. 15, 11.  Hofmann s.v. Hugo Capetus: "Rex proclamatus est Novioduni, Remisque coronatus."  EGGER N.L.  ► Rhêmi, orum m. pl.  ¶1652 TURS. 236  |  adj.  Remensis, e  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Francia, Picardia."  EGGER N.L.

//1 France cities: Rennes  Redones, um m. pl.;  adj.  Redonensis, e (DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)

//1 France cities: Rouen  Rotomagus, i f. (Greg.)  ► Rotomagi, orum m. pl. (Amm.)  |  adj.  Rotomagensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia"; DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)

//1 France cities: Sedan (known for 1870 battle)  Sedânum, i n. (1652 TURS. 374)

//1 France cities: Strasbourg  Argentorâtus, i f. (EGGER D.L. 22; EGGER R.A. 84)  ► Argentîna, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; EGGER R.A. 84: "Argentina est nomen inferiore aetate inditum urbi Argentorato, quae est Alsatiae caput."  ►► The name Argentoratus is much more common than Argentina in printed books (WC).

//1 France cities: Toulouse  Tolôsa, ae f. (CAES.; CIC.; 1652 TURS. 313, 346)  |  adj.  Tolôsânus, a, um (CIC.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum)  ► Tolôsas, âtis (MART. )

//1 France cities: Tours  ► Turones, um m. pl.  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.   ► Turoni, orum m. pl.  ¶ CAES.  TAC.  1652 TURS. 314.  |  adj.  ► Turonicus, a, um  ¶ SulpSev.  ► Turonensis, e  ¶1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 19.  1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia."

//1 France cities: Verdun  Verodûnum, i (Greg.)  ► Verdûnum, i n. (1652 TURS. 397)  |  adj.  Verodûnesis, e

//1 France cities: Vichy  adj.  Viciensis, e (Dunglison 88)

//1 France mountains: Jura  Iûra, ae m. (CAES.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia")

//1 France mountains: Vosges  Vosegus, i m. (CAES.)  ► Vogesus, i m. (1595 MERCATOR I,Lotharingiae Ducatus")

//1 France regions: Alsace  Alsatia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 345, 423)  ► EGGER R.A. 84)  |  subst.  Alsâtus, i m.;  adj.  Alsaticus, a, um (all in WC)

//1 France regions: Anjou  adj.  Andegavensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Anjou"; 1652 TURS. 362, 396)

//1 France regions: Aquitaine, Gascony, southwestern France  Aquitânia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 350)

//1 France regions: Auvergne  Arvernia, ae (1652 TURS. 304)  ► Avernia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 284)  |  subst.  Arvernus, i m. (CAES.)

//1 France regions: Béarn  Bearnum, i n. (1652 TURS. 319)  |  adj.  Bearnensis, e (1652 TURS. 318)

//1 France regions: Bourbonnais  Borbonia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 336)

//1 France regions: Breton (language)  lingua Brittanica (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia."  |  speak Breton  Brittanicê loqui (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia")

//1 France regions: Brittany  Britannia Minor, Armorica, ae f. (CAES.; 1652 TURS. 270)  ► Arêmorica, ae f. (Aus.; EGGER S.L. 45 1652 TURS. 345)  ► Britannia Armorica (1652 TURS.337, 401)

//1 France regions: Burgundy  Burgundia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Burgundia"; 1652 TURS. 230 et passim)  |  subst.  Burgudio, ônis m. (PLIN.; SID.; 1652 TURS. 236)  ► Burgundius, i m. (Amm.)  ► Burgundus, i m. (1652 TURS. 230, 370)

//1 France regions: Champagne  Campania, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia"; 1652 TURS. 397)

//1 France regions: Corsica  Corsica, ae f.

//1 France regions: Dauphiné  Delphinâtus, ûs m. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania")

//1 France regions: Franche-Comté  Liber Comitâtus (1595 MERCATOR I, "Burgundia Superior")

//1 France regions: Gascony  Aquitânia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 318)

//1 France regions: Limousin

//1 France regions: Lorraine  Lotharingiae, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Lotharingiae Ducatus"; 1652 TURS. 335 et passim)  |  subst.  Lotharingius, i m. (1652 TURS. 436)  ► Lotharingus, i m. (1652 TURS. 236, 419)  ► Lotharênus, a, um (1652 TURS. 335;  adj.  Lotharingicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 275, 324)  ► Lotharênus, a, um (1652 TURS. 335

//1 France regions: Norman  subst.  Normannus, i m. (1652 TURS. 179)  |  adj.  Normannicus, a, um

//1 France regions: Normandy  Normandia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Britannia, Normandia" map; 1652 TURS. 375, 427)  ► Normannia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 188 et passim)  ► Northmannia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 318)

//1 France regions: Occitan language

//1 France regions: Occitan: Languedoc

//1 France regions: Occitan: Occitania, southern France  Occitânia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 272, 345)  ► Occitâna Gallia (1652 TURS. 342)  |  adj.  Occitânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 341)

//1 France regions: Occitan: Provençal  subst.  Provinciâlis, is m. (DANTE Vulg. El. 326)  |  adj.  Provinciâlis, e 

//1 France regions: Occitan: Provence  Provincia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; 1652 TURS. 254, 347)  |  adj.  Provinciâlis, is (1652 TURS. 284)

//1 France regions: Picardy  Picardia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Francia, Picardia"; 1652 TURS. 350, 396)

//1 France regions: Poitou  Pictavia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I,  "Poictou" map)  |  adj.  Pictaviensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I,  "Poictou."

//1 France regions: Roussillon  Rusillio, ônis (1652 TURS. 368, 391)  |  adj.  Russiliânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 371, 391)

//1 France regions: Savoy  Sabaudia, ae (1595 MERCATOR I, "Aquitania"; 1652 TURS. 238 et passim; EGGER S.L. 21, 54)  |  subst.  Sabaudus, i m. (1652 TURS. 395)  ► Sabaudiânus, i m. (1652 TURS. 333, 343)  ► Allôbrox, ogis m. (1652 TURS. 343)  |  adj.  Sabaudicus, a, um (WC)  ►► Sapaudus (EGGER R.A. 73)

//1 France rivers: Mose  Mosa, ae m. (CAES.; PLIN.)

//1 France rivers: Moselle  Mosella, ae f. (1652 TURS. 397)

//1 France rivers: Rhone  Rhodanus, i m.;  adj.  Rhodanicus, a, um

//1 France rivers: Seine  Sêquana, ae f.

//1 France: France  ► Gallia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  EGGER S.L. 78.  ► Galliae, arum f. pl.  ¶ CIC. Prov. Cons. 2, 3.  1794 RUIZ ix.  ► Francia, ae f.  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 387.  1652 TURS. 195 et passim, of both medieval and modern France.  DUCANGE s.v. parlamentum et passim.  ► Francogallia, ae* f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS v.  ► Gallofrancia, ae* f.  ¶1843 TRAPPEN 37.  ►► The ordinary terms for France at all periods are "Gallia" and "Francia"; the former is more common.  "Francogallia" appears to have coined by François Hotman for his book of that title (1574); it is rare before the 19th century, and "Gallofrancia" is still rarer.

//1 France: French  adj.  ► Gallicus, a, um  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 312.  1652 TURS. 256.  ► Francicus, a, um  ¶ DUCANGE s.v. parlamentumet passim.  1652 TURS. 236, et passim, referring to both medieval and modern periods.  ► Francogallicus, a, um  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 26.  ► Gallofrancicus, a, um  ►

//1 France: French (language)  ► lingua Gallica  ¶  |  in French  ► Gallicê  ¶ Marc. Emp. 31, 29 (p. 332), meaning "in the Gaulish language."

//1 France: Frenchman  subst.  Gallus, i m. (1652 TURS. 256)  ► Francus, i m. (DANTE Vulg. El. 325; 1652 TURS. 201 et passim, using Gallus and Francus without distinction, in passages referring to both medieval and modern periods)  ► Francogallus, i m., Gallofrancus, i m. 1843 TRAPPEN 23 et passim)

//1 German  subst.  Germânus, i m. 1843 TRAPPEN 51)  ► Theotiscus, i m.;  adj.  Germânicus, a, um (LEIBNIZ; Schegel; PERUGINI, Concordata 9; EGGER S.L. 15)  ► Theotiscus, a, um (Schlegel)  ►► Germanus and Germanicus are the usual words for "German."  The medieval Latin word Theotiscus appears since the Renaissance to have been used chiefly with respect to medieval Germany and in particular Old High German.  The spelling Theodiscus (HELFER; Albert) seems to be much rarer than Theotiscus (see WC).

//1 German (language)  ► lingua Germânica  |  in German  ► Germânicê  ¶ EGGER R.A. 145.  ► Theotiscê 

//1 German (language): Old High German  ► lingua Palaeogermanica  ¶ 1821 HAGEN title page: "monumenta ... palaeogermanica."

//1 Germanic  adj.  Teutonicus, a, um (in antiquity, of a particular Germanic people; since 17th c., as generally term for all Germanic peoples) (1595 MERCATOR I, "Flandria": "in Flandria Teutonica," of the Germanic-speaking part of Flanders, opposed to "Flandria Gallicana," of the French- or Wallon-speaking part)

//1 Germanic tribes: Frank  Francus, i m. (1652 TURS. 147)

//1 Germanic tribes: Goth  ► Gothus, i m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 54.  |  adj.  ► Gothicus, a, um

//1 Germanic tribes: Ostrogoth

//1 Germanic tribes: Vandal  ► Vandalus, i m.  ¶ SID.  Vop.  1674 MILTON XIII. 54.  ► Vandil(i)us, i m.  ¶ TAC.  PLIN.   |  adj.  ► Vandalicus, a, um  ¶ Jord.

//1 Germanic tribes: Visigoth

//1 Germany  Germânia, ae f.

//1 Germany cities: Aachen  Aquisgranum, i n. (1652 TURS. 298; EGGER N.L.)  ► Aquisgrana, ae (1652 TURS. 145)  |  adj.  Aquisgranensis, e (1652 TURS. 298; EGGER N.L.)

//1 Germany cities: Augsburg  Augusta, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Germany cities: Baden-Baden  Aurêlia Aquensis (WC publication locations)

//1 Germany cities: Berlin  ► Berolinum, i n.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 21.  EGGER S.L. 34.  |  adj.  ► Berolinensis, e  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxvi.

//1 Germany cities: Bremen  Bremum, i n. (1652 TURS. 353)  |  adj.  Bremensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Germany cities: Brunswick, Braunschweig  Brunsvicum, i n. (Graesse)  |  adj.  Brunsvicensis, e (1652 TURS. 336)

//1 Germany cities: Cologne  Colônia Agrippîna (TAC.; 1652 TURS. 435)  ► Colônia Agrippînensis (TAC.)  ► Colônia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 292 et passim; EGGER N.L.)  |  adj. Agrippînensis, e (TAC.)  ► Colôniensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 312 et passim; EGGER N.L.)

//1 Germany cities: Dresden  Dresda, ae f. (1652 TURS. 306; Sillig i; EGGER S.L. 34)  |  adj.  Dresdensis, i (Sillig i)

//1 Germany cities: Frankfurt  Francofurtum, i n. (1652 TURS. 312; EGGER N.L.)

//1 Germany cities: Hamburg  ► Hamburgum, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 362.  1843 TRAPPEN 51.  EGGER N.L.   |  adj.  ► Hamburgensis, e  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae."  1674MILTON XIII. 12.  EGGER N.L.

//1 Germany cities: Kiel  ► Kilia, ae f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS title page.  ► Kilonium, i n.  ¶ Graesse.  < Kilia is much more common in the titles of published books (WC).  |  adj.  ► Kiliensis, e ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 10.

//1 Germany cities: Leipzig  ► Lipsia, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 26.

//1 Germany cities: Lübeck  adj.  Lubecensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae')

//1 Germany cities: Mainz  Moguntia, ae (Ven. Fort.; 1652 TURS. 345)  ► Mogontiacum, i n. (TAC.; Eutr.)  |  adj.  Mogontiacus, a, um (Amm.)  ► Moguntînus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 312, 371)

//1 Germany cities: Munich  Monachium, i n. (PERUGINI, Concordata 13; EGGER D.L. 42)  ►► Monachium is far more common in the publication location of printed books thanMonac(h)um (WC)

//1 Germany cities: Münster  Monasterium, i n., Monasterium Vestfalorum (v. Vestfaliae) (all in WC publication locations)  |  adj.  Monasteriensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Vestfalia" map; 1652TURS. 405)

//1 Germany cities: Nuremberg, Nürnberg  ► Norimberga, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 277; 313.  |  adj.  ► Norimbergensis, e  ¶ 1726 Wolff 80.

//1 Germany cities: Regensburg  Ratisbona, ae f. (1652 TURS. 348, 366)  |  adj.  Ratisbonensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 331 et passim)

//1 Germany cities: Trier, Trève  Trêveri, ôrum m. pl. (Amm.)  |  adj.  Trêvericus, a, um (PLIN.)  ► Trêverensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae."  ► Triverensis, e (1652 TURS. 312)

//1 Germany cities: Weimar  Vimaria, ae f.;  adj.  Vimariensis (1652 TURS. 346, 353; PERUGINI, Concordata 9)

//1 Germany cities:  Würzburg  Herbipolis, is f. (1652 TURS. 292)

//1 Germany regions: Franconia, Franken  Franconia, ae (1595 MERCATOR I, "Franconia"; 1652 TURS. 292, 348)  ► Francia Orientâlis (1595 MERCATOR I, "Franconia" map; 1652TURS. 433)

//1 Germany regions: Holstein  ► Holsatia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Vestafalia" map.  1652 TURS. 399.  1826 LÜDERS 1 et passim.  |  adj.  ► Holsaticus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 26.

//1 Germany regions: Mecklenburg  ► Ducatus Megapolitânus 1826 LÜDERS 2.  ► Ducatus Magnopolensis ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Brandenburg."  |  adj.  ► Megapolitânus, a, um1826 LÜDERS 2.  ► Magnopolensis, e  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Brandenburg."

 //1 Germany regions: northern Germany  Germania inferior (1595 MERCATOR I, "Vestfalia")

//1 Germany regions: Pomerania  Pomerânia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Brandenburg"; 1652 TURS. 364)

//1 Germany regions: Prussia  ► Borussia, ae f.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 44.  1826 LÜDERS 20.  ► Prussia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia."  1652 TURS. 349.

//1 Germany regions: Prussian (subst.)  ► Borussus, i m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF title page.  1846 GROSSE title page.  |  adj.  ► Borussicus, a, um

//1 Germany regions: Schleswig  ► Slesvîcum, i n.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 9: "ducatuum Slesvici et Holsatiae."

//1 Germany regions: Swabia, Schwaben  Suêvia, ae (TAC.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia" map; 1652 TURS. 287 et passim)  |  subst.  Suêvus, i (CAES.)  |  adj.  Suêvicus, a, um (TAC.;1595 MERCATOR I, "Zurichgow")

//1 Germany regions: Westphalia  Vestfalia, ae (1595 MERCATOR I, "Vestfalia."  |  Vestphalia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 330, 345)  |  adj.  Vestfalicus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Vestfalia")

//1 Germany regions: Württemberg  adj.  Virtenbergensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Palatinatus Rheni" map)

//1 Germany states: Baden-Württemberg

//1 Germany states: Bavaria, Bayern  Bavaria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 312 et passim; PERUGINI, Concordata 9; EGGER D.L. 42)  |  subst.  Bavarus, i m. (1652 TURS. 220, 320)  |  adj.  Bavaricus, a, um (1652 TURS. 404)  ► PERUGINI, Concordata 9; EGGER D.L. 49)

//1 Germany states: Brandenburg  adj.  Brandeburgicus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Brandenbrug."  ► Brandeburgensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 312)

//1 Germany states: Hesse  Hassia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hassia."  ► Hessia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 387)

//1 Germany states: Hessian  subst.  Hessiânus, i m. (1652 TURS. 403)  ► Hessaeus, i m. (1652 TURS. 387, 404)

//1 Germany states: Lower Saxony, Niedersachsen  Saxonia Inferior (1595 MERCATOR I, "Saxonia Inferior")

//1 Germany states: Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

//1 Germany states: North Rhine-Westphalia, Nordrhein-Westfalen

//1 Germany states: Rhineland-Palatinate, Rheinland-Pfalz  Palâtînâtus Rhêni (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae."  ► Palâtînâtus Inferior (1652 TURS. 316)

//1 Germany states: Saarland

//1 Germany states: Saxon  subst.  Saxo, onis m. (Eutr.; DANTE Vulg. El. 325)  |  adj.  Saxonicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 312 et passim1846 GROSSE title page)

//1 Germany states: Saxony, Sachsen  Saxonia, ae f. (Ven. Fort.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 306, 357; 26)

//1 Germany states: Saxony-Anhalt, Sachsen-Anhalt

//1 Germany states: Schleswig-Holstein

//1 Germany states: Thuringia, Thüringen  Thuringia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Thuringia"; 1652 TURS. 307)  ► Turingia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 314)

//1 Greece  Graecia, ae f.

//1 Greece cities: Athens  Athênae, arum f. pl.;  adj.  Athênensis, e

//1 Greece cities: Naupactus, Nafpaktos, Lepanto (site of 1571 battle)  Naupactus, i f. (CAES.; CIC.; 1652 TURS. 248)

//1 Greece cities: Thessaloniki, Thessalonica, Salonica  Thessalonîca, ae f. (CIC.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Graecia."  |  adj.  Thessalonîcensis, e

//1 Greece regions: Crete  Crêta, ae f. (CIC.; Verg.)  ► Candia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Candia."  |  adj.  Crêtensis, e (CIC.)  ► Candiânus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Candia")

//1 Greek  subst.  Graecus, i m.;  adj.  Graecus, a, um

//1 Greek language: Modern Greek  \\ lingua Graeca recentior (v. vulgaris)  ► lingua Neograeca*

//1 Hungary  Hungaria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae"; 1652 TURS. 206 et passim)  ► Pannonia, ae f. (Melanchthon; 1652 TURS. 336)  |  subst.  Hungarus, i m. (DANTE Vulg. El.325; 1652 TURS. 191 et passim; EGGER S.L. 105)  |  adj.  Hungaricus, a, um (1652 TURS. 218 et passim)

//1 Hungary cities: Budapest  ► Budapestinum, i n.  ¶ WC publication locations.  ► Buda, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 252, 277: "Christianus exercitus ... Budam tentat, sed Pestum tantum oppositum oppidum capit."  ► Pestinum, i n.  ¶ WC publication locations.  ► Acincum, i n.  ¶ Amm. 30, 5, 13.  Graesse.  |  adj.  ► Budapestiensis, e  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ vi.

//1 Ireland  ► Hibernia, ae f.  ¶ CAES.  PLIN.  1595 MERCATOR II "Britannicae Insulae."  1674 MILTON XIII. 22.  1652 TURS. 328.  EGGER S.L. 31.  ► Irlandia, ae f.  ¶ 1595MERCATOR II "Scotia" map  1652 TURS. 387.

//1 Ireland cities: Dublin  Dubliniium, i n. (1652 TURS. 392)  ► Dublinum, i n. (1652 TURS. 387)  ►► Dublinium is much more common that Dublinum in the publication place of printed books (WC).

//1 Ireland: Northern Ireland, Ulster  Hultonia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 30)

//1 Irish  subst.  Hibernus, i m. (EGGER S.L. 89)  ► Irlandus, i m. (1652 TURS. 387)  |  adj.  Hibernicus, a, um, Irlandicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 393)

//1 Italian  subst.  Italus, i m.;  adj.  Italicus, a, um

//1 Italy  Italia, ae f.

//1 Italy cities: Anzio  Antium, i n. (CIC.; PLIN.)

//1 Italy cities: Bergamo  Bergomum, i n. (PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Bergomas, âtis (PLIN.)

//1 Italy cities: Bologna  Bononia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 85)  |  adj.  Bononiensis, e (DANTE Vulg. El. 326)

//1 Italy cities: Brescia  Brixia, ae f. (LIV.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 248)  ► Brescia, ae f.  (1595 MERCATOR I, "Brescia."  |  adj.  Brixiânus, a, um (LIV.; TAC.)

//1 Italy cities: Cagliari  adj.  Calaritanensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Sardinia")

//1 Italy cities: Catania  Catina, ae f. (CIC.; PLIN.)  ► Catania, ae f. (1652 TURS. 201)  |  adj.  Catinensis, e (CIC.)

//1 Italy cities: Ferrara  Ferraria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Lombardiae IIII"; 1652 TURS. 269)  |  adj.  Ferrariensis, e (1652 TURS. 248; 1843 TRAPPEN 28)

//1 Italy cities: Florence  ► Florentia, ae f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 323.  1674 MILTON XIII. 48.  EGGER S.L. 85)  |  adj.  ► Florentînus, a, um  ¶ DANTE Ep. 416.  1652 TURS. 214 et passim.

//1 Italy cities: Genoa, Genova  Genua, ae f. (LIV.; PLIN.)  |  adj.  Genuensis, e (Inscr.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Lombardiae III" map; 1652 TURS. 191)  ►► Inhabitants of the medieval and early-modern republic or city-state of Genoa are often called "Ligures" (e.g., 1652 TURS. 334, where "Ligur" and "Genuensis" are used as synonyms).

//1 Italy cities: Mantua, Mantova  Mantua, ae f. (Verg.; LIV.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 343)  |  adj.  Mantuânus, a, um (Stat.; 1652 TURS. 301, 343)

//1 Italy cities: Messina  Messâna, ae f. (CIC.; CAES.; 1652 TURS. 414)

//1 Italy cities: Milan  Mediolânum, i n. (PLIN.; TAC. 1652 TURS. 366)  |  adj.  Mediolânensis, e (CIC.; 1652 TURS. 240 et passim)

//1 Italy cities: Naples  Neapolis, is f.,  adj.  Neapolitânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 336)

//1 Italy cities: Padua, Padova  Patâvium, i n. (Verg.; SUET.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Patâvînus, a, um (MART. )  ► Padûanus, a, um (DANTE Vulg. El. 326)  ► Patâviensis, e (1595MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Italy cities: Palermo  Panormus, i f. (CIC.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Sicilia."  |  adj.  Panormitânus, a, um (CIC.)

//1 Italy cities: Parma  Parma, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Lombardiae IIII"; 1652 TURS. 248, 350)  |  adj.  Parmensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Lombardiae IIII" map; 1652 TURS. 349)

//1 Italy cities: Piacenza  Placentia, ae f. (CIC.; LIV.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Placentînus, a, um (CIC.; LIV.)

//1 Italy cities: Pisa  ► Pîsae, arum f. pl.  ¶ Verg.  Liv. |  adj.  ► Pisânus, a, um  ¶ Liv.  DANTE Vulg. El. 326.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 311.  1652 TURS. 248.

//1 Italy cities: Ravenna  Ravenna, ae f. (CAES.; CIC.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Ravennas, âtis (CIC.; PLIN.; DANTE Vulg. El. 326)

//1 Italy cities: Rimini  Arîminum, i n. (PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Arîminensis, e (HOR.; PLIN.)

//1 Italy cities: Rome  Rôma, ae f.;  adj.  Rômânus, a, um

//1 Italy cities: Rome: Basilica of St. John Lateran  Aedes Laterânensis (1652 TURS. 243)  ► Archibasilica Sanctissimi Salvatoris (official name)

//1 Italy cities: Rome: Castel Sant' Angelo, Mausoleum of Hadrian  Sancti Angeli Arx (1652 TURS. 230)  ► Sancti Angeli Castellum (1652 TURS. 379)  ► Arx Adriâna (1698Hofmann s.v. Savanarola)

//1  Italy cities: Rome: Castel Gandolfo Arx Gandulfi (Bacci IOE 132)

//1 Italy cities: Rome: Sistine Chapel  sacra aedes Xystîna (EGGER R.A. 134)  ► aedes Xystîna (EGGER R.A. 135)

//1 Italy cities: Rome: St. Peter's Basilica  (in Rome)  basilica Petriana (EGGER R.A. 126)  ► basilica Sancti Petri (EGGER R.A. 126)  ► Vaticanum Petri apostoli templum (1652 TURS.264)

//1 Italy cities: Rome: St. Peter's square or piazza  (in Rome)  area Petriana (EGGER R.A. 125)  ► area Sancti Petri

//1 Italy cities: Taranto  ► Tarentum n.  ¶ Cic.  Hor.  |  adj.  ► Tarentînus, a, um  ¶ Liv.  Plin.

//1 Italy cities: Tivoli  ► Tibur, uris n.  \ Verg.  \ Hor.  |  adj.  < Tiburs, urtis  \ Hor.  \ Liv.  < Tiburtînus, a, um  \ Plin. N.H.  \ Mart.

//1 Italy cities: Tivoli: Hadrian's villa  ► Hadriâni villa Tiburtîna  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 21: "in vestigiis Hadriani imperatoris Tiburtinae villae repraesentata."

//1 Italy cities: Trent, Trento  Tridentum, i n.;  adj.  Tridentînus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Italy cities: Turin  Augusta Taurinorum (EGGER D.L. 36; EGGER S.L. 59)  ► Taurînum, i n., (DANTE Vulg. El. 333; 1652 TURS. 357)  |  adj.  Taurinensis, e (EGGER S.L. 59)

//1 Italy cities: Urbino  Urbînum, i n. (TAC.)  |  adj.  Urbînas, âtis (CIC.; 1652 TURS. 335)

//1 Italy cities: Venice  ► Venetiae, arum f. pl.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 299: "Marcus Paulus, Venetiarum civis prudens et doctus."  1652 TURS. 222.  EGGER R.A. 81.  |  subst.  ►Venetus, i m.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 126.  1652 TURS. 222 et passim.  |  adj.  ► Venetus, a, um  ► Venetânus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 344.

//1 Italy cities: Verona  Vêrôna, ae f. (LIV.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Vêrônensis, e (Cato; PLIN.)

//1 Italy cities: Vicenza  Vicentia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Veronae Principatus")

//1 Italy ivers: Po  Padus, i m. (LIV.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 370)  |  adj.  Padânus, a, um (SID.)

//1 Italy language: Italian (language)  sermo Italicus, lingua Italica, sermo Etruscus, lingua Etrusca (cf. 1652 TURS. 217: "DANTEs Aldigerius poeta, carminibus Etruscis clarus."  |  in Italian Italicê, Etruscê

//1 Italy language: Latin

//1 Italy language: Romance language  ► lingua Rômânensis  ► lingua Rômânica  ¶ ThLL s.v. camisia in definition.  EGGER R.A. 112.  ► lingua Rômâna vulgaris  ¶ Schlegel.

//1 Italy language: Romance language: proto-Romance, late Vulgar Latin  ► lingua Rômâna  ¶ Hofman s.v. Meroveus, of Merovech, 5th c. founder of the Merovingian dynasty: "Conditor familiae Meroveus fuit, qui traiecto Rheno sedes cum suis Francis ad Axonam fluvium posuit. Inde permixtus Gallis, Romanam linguam cum Germanicâ, quâ Franci utebantur, in eam faciem corrupit quae hodie recepta est."

//1 Italy mountains: Apennines  Ap(p)ennînus, i m.

//1 Italy regions: Abruzzo  Aprutium, i n. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  ► Samnium, i n. (cf. 1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia": "Samnites" as synonym of "Abruzzo."  |  adj.  Aprucînus, a, um (1595MERCATOR I, "Abruzzo")

//1 Italy regions: Apulia, Puglia  Apulia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia"; 1652 TURS. 248)  |  adj.  Apulus, a, um

//1 Italy regions: Basilicata  Basilicata, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia")

//1 Italy regions: Calabria  Calabria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  |  adj.  Calaber, bra, brum

//1 Italy regions: Campania, Campagna  Campânia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 341, 414)  |  adj.  Campânus, a, um, Campânicus, a, um

//1 Italy regions: Emilia Aemilia, ae f. (MART.; 1652 TURS. 248)

//1 Italy regions: Fruili  Forum Iulium (1595 MERCATOR I, "Friuli" map)  ► Regio Foroiuliensis

//1 Italy regions: Latium, Lazio  Latium, i n. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  |  adj.  Latius, a, um

//1 Italy regions: Liguria  Liguria, ae f. (PLIN.; TAC.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  |  subst.  Ligur, uris m. (CIC.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 334)  |  adj.  Ligusticus, a, um (VARR.; PLIN.; 1652TURS. 239)

//1 Italy regions: Lombardy  ► Langobardia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 47.  ► Longobardia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 192.  ► Lombardia, ae f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 328.  1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  DUCANGE s.v. parlatorium.  1826 LÜDERS 24.  |  subst.  ► Langobardus, i m.  ¶ TAC.  ► Longobardus, i m.  ¶ DANTE Ep. 420.  1652 TURS. 142 et passim.  ► Lombardus, i m.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 336.  ► Insuber, bris  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 126.  |  adj.  ► Langobardicus, a, um  ► Longobardicus, a, um   ¶ 1652 TURS. 143.  ► Lombardus, a, um  ¶DANTE Vulg. El. 329.  ► Insuber, bris

//1 Italy regions: Marches  Marchia Anconitâna (DANTE Vulg. El. 328; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  |  adj.  Anconitânus, a, um (DANTE Vulg. El. 328)

//1 Italy regions: Molise

//1 Italy regions: Papal States  Pontificia Dicio (1652 TURS. 142 et passim)  ► Civitas Pontificia (EGGER R.A. 65: "cum alma Urbs adhuc esset caput Civitatis Pontificiae."  ► Patrimonium Ecclesiae (1652 TURS. 335: "ducatus Urbinas Urbano summo pontifici ... traditur, quâ onatione Patrimonium Ecclesiae valde et augetur et continuo tramite Mediterraneo ad Adriaticum mare continuatur."  ► Status Ecclesiasticus (1652 TURS. 385)

//1 Italy regions: Piedmont  (regions in Italy, southeast US)  ¶ Pedemontium, i n.  |  adj.  ► Pedemontânus, a, um  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Lombardiae III" map.  1652 TURS. 333, 360.  1752 STUMPF 27.  EGGER D.L. 47.

//1 Italy regions: Romagna  Romaniola, ae f. (DANTE Ep. 415)  ► Romandiola, ae f. (DANTE Vulg. El. 328; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Italia."  |  adj.  Romandialus, a, um (DANTE Vulg. El.328)

//1 Italy regions: Sardinia  Sardinia, ae f.;  adj.  Sardus, a, um

//1 Italy regions: Sicily  Sicilia, ae f. (CAES.; CIC.; PLIN.)  |  subst.  Siculus, i m. (CIC.; 1652 TURS. 258)  |  adj.  Siculus, a, um (VARR.; CIC.; LIV.; TAC.; 1652 TURS. 213)  ► Siciliensis, e (CIC.; SUET.)

//1 Italy regions: Sicily: King of the Two Sicilies  Utriusque Siciliae Regnum (cf. 1652 TURS. 235: "utriusque Siciliae rex")

//1 Italy regions: Tuscan  subst.  ► Tuscus, i m.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 328.  EGGER R.A. 73, 129.  ► Etruscus, i  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 126.  |  adj.  ► Tuscus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 144. ► Etruscus, a, um  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 38: "Hetruscam dicionem."  ► Tuscânus, a, um  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 331.

//1 Italy regions: Tuscany  ► Etruria, ae f.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 92 et passim.  1674 MILTON XIII. 48.  1652 TURS. 212 et passim.  EGGER R.A. 134.  ► Tuscia, ae f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg.El. 323.  1595 MERCATOR I, "Thuscia" map.  ► Toscania, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 342.

//1 Italy regions: Tyrol  Tirolis, is f., Comitatus Tirolensis (1652 TURS. 317)  |  adj.  Tirolensis, e (1652 TURS. 311)  ►► Posui genus femininum quia inveni in libri titulo (apud WC) "Germanicae Tyrolis."

//1 Italy regions: Umbria  Umbria, ae f.;  adj.  Umber, bra, brum

//1 Italy regions: Veneto  regio Veneta

//1 Italy regions: Venezia Giulia, Julian March  Marca Iulia 

//1 Italy rivers: Tiber  Tîberis, is m.;  adj.  Tîberînus, a, um

//1 Luxemburg  Lucemburgum, i n. (1652 TURS. 352)  |  adj.  Lucemburgensis, e (1652 TURS. 218)

//1 Malta  Melita, ae f. (CIC.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 250)  |  adj.  Melitensis, e (1652 TURS. 219)

//1 Netherlands cities: Amsterdam  ► Amstelodamum, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 393.  1843 TRAPPEN 27.  EGGER D.L. 25.  |  adj.  Amstelodamensis, i  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiii.  1843TRAPPEN 131.

//1 Netherlands cities: Arnhem  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Breda  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Dordrecht, Dort  Dordrâcum, i n. (1652 TURS. 313; 1843 TRAPPEN 27)

//1 Netherlands cities: Eindhoven  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Groningen  ►   |  adj.  ► Groningensis, e  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 27.

//1 Netherlands cities: Harlem, Haarlem  ► Harlemum, i n.  |  adj.  ► Harlemensis, e ¶ 1784 THUNBERG title page.  1843 TRAPPEN 83)

//1 Netherlands cities: Leiden  Lugdûnum Batavôrum (1595 MERCATOR I, "Belgii Inferioris Tabula"; 1843 TRAPPEN 61)  ► Leida, ae f. (1652 TURS. 294)  |  adj.  Leidensis, is (1652TURS. 293)  ► Lugdunobatavus, a, um (Boerhaave, title page)  ► Lugdunensis Batavus 1843 TRAPPEN 32)  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Maastricht  Traiectum ad Mosam

//1 Netherlands cities: Nijmegen  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Rotterdam  Roterodamum, i n. (1652 TURS. 395; 1843 TRAPPEN 27)

//1 Netherlands cities: The Hague  Haga Comitis (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hollandia"; 1652 TURS. 373; 1843 TRAPPEN 27)  ► Haga, ae f. (1652 TURS. 309)  |  adj.  Hagânus, a, um 1843TRAPPEN title page)

//1 Netherlands cities: Tilburg  ►

//1 Netherlands cities: Utrecht  Traiectum, i n. (1652 TURS. 263)  ► Traicectum ad Rhênum 1843 TRAPPEN 30)  |  adj.  Traiectensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Geldria."  ► Traiectinus, a, um 1843 TRAPPEN title page)

//1 Netherlands regions: Frisia, Friesland  Frisia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Frisia")

//1 Netherlands regions: Gelderland, Guelders  Geldria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Geldria")

//1 Netherlands regions: Holland  Hollandia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hollandia"; 1652 TURS. 260)

//1 Netherlands regions: Zeeland  Zelandia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Index Tabularum Belgii"; 1652 TURS. 260)  |  subst.  Zelandus, i m. (cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 42: Zeelandus)  |  adj. Zelandicus, a, um (cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 84: Zeelandicus)

//1 Netherlands, Holland  ► Batâvia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 436.  GESENIUS ix.  1784 THUNBERG xvii.  ► Hollandia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 389.  1698 HOFMANN s.v. zigeuni.  1843TRAPPEN 26.  ► Nederlandia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 25.  ► Belgium Septentrionale  ¶ Alexander Suerman, Specimen historico-medicum de cholerae Asiaticae itinere per Belgium septentrionale, annis 1832-1834 (Utrecht, 1835). 

//1 Netherlands: Dutch  adj.  ► Batâvicus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 324; 366.  ► Hollandicus, a, um  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiv.  1784 DUCRUE 265.  ► Batâvus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS.293.  1826 LÜDERS 27.  1843 TRAPPEN 46.  ► Nederlandicus, a, um  ¶ EGGER D.L. 24.  ► Neerlandicus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 38.

//1 Netherlands: Dutch (language)  ► lingua Batâvica  ¶  ► lingua Hollandica  ¶  ► lingua Belgica  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiv.  |  in Dutch  ► Batâvicê  ¶  ► Hollandicê  ¶  ►Belgicê

//1 Netherlands: Dutch Republic (1581-1794), United Provinces  ► Foederâtum Belgicum  ¶ Cf. 1652 TURS. 337: Confoederati Belgae, of the inhabitants of the United Provinces.  ►Provinciae Unîtae Belgii  ¶ 1652 TURS. 374.

//1 Netherlands: Dutchman  ► Batâvus, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 280 et passim.  1843 TRAPPEN 32 et passim.  ► Hollandus, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 281; 390.  1784 THUNBERG xvii.

//1 Poland  Polonia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia"; 1652 TURS. 227 et passim1811 PALLAS 3)

//1 Poland cities: Gdańsk, Danzig  ► Gedânum, i n.  ¶ EGGER N.L.   ► Dantiscum, i n.  |  adj.  ► Gedânensis, e  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 44.  PERUGINI, Concordata 34.  ►Dantiscânus, a, um

//1 Poland cities: Katowice  ► /

//1 Poland cities: Krakow, Cracow  Cracovia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia."  |  adj.  Cracoviensis, e (1652 TURS. 228)

//1 Poland cities: Łódź  ►  /

//1 Poland cities:  Poznań  Posnania, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia")

//1 Poland cities: Warsaw  Varsavia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 34)  ► Varsovia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 317)  |  adj.  Varsaviensis, e (1652 TURS. 354; EGGER S.L. 82)

//1 Poland cities: Wrocław, Breslau  ► Vratislavia, ae f.  ¶  |  adj.  ► Vratislaviensis, e  ¶ Ducange s.v. cifrae.

//1 Poland regions: Silesia  ► Silesia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia."  1652 TURS. 357.  PERUGINI, Concordata 43: "Alta Silesia."  |  subst.  ► Silesius, i m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF title page.  |  adj.  ► Silesius, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 312.

//1 Poland rivers: Oder  Odera, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Brandeburg")

//1 Poland rivers: Vistula  Vistula, ae f. (PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//1 Pole  subst.  ► Polonus, i m.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 124.  1674 MILTON XIII. 44.  1652 TURS. 276 et passim.  1811 PALLAS 49.  EGGER S.L. 57.

//1 Polish  adj.  Polonicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 227; PERUGINI, Concordata 31; EGGER S.L. 15)

//1 Portugal  ► Lûsitânia, ae f.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 18.  1652 TURS. 250.  1794 RUIZ ii.  EGGER S.L. 59.  ► Portugallia, ae f.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 22; 42; used interchangeably withLusitania.  1784 DUCRUE 258, 266.  ► Portugalia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 367.  ►► Lusitania is somewhat more common than Portugal(l)ia in printed books (WC).

//1 Portugal cities: Lisbon  ► Olisîpo, ônis m.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 8.  ► Olysippo, ônis m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 20.  1652 TURS. 194.  ► Ulyssipo, ônis m.  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 221.  |  adjOlisîpônensis, e  ¶ EGGER S.L. 10.

//1 Portugal cities: Porto

//1 Portugal regions: Algarve  Algarbia, ae f. (1698 Hofmann, "Nomenclator")

//1 Portuguese  subst.  ► Lûsitânus, i m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 32.  1652 TURS. 257.  1784 DUCRUE 220.  |  adj.  ► Lûsitânicus, a, um  ►  Lûsitânus, a, um  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 258: "duae cymbae Lusitanae."  EGGER S.L. 9.  ► Portugallicus, a, um /

//1 rivers: Danube  ► Hister, tri m. (of the lower part)  ► Dânuvius, ii m. (of the upper part)  ¶ Caes.  Ov.  Tac.  |  adj.  ► Dânuvînus, a, um  ¶ Cf. 1698 Hofmann s.v. zigeuni: "in circum-Danubianas regiones."

//1 rivers: Rhine  Rhênus, i.  |  adj.  Rhênânus, a, um (SID.)  ► Rhênensis (1540 VIVES Exer. 353: vinum Rhenense)

//1 Romania  ► Rômânia, ae f.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ v.  ► Dâcorômânia, ae f.

//1 Romania cities: Bucharest  adj.  Bucarestiensis, e (EGGER R.A. 100)

//1 Romania regions: Transylvania  Transilvania, ae f. (1652 TURS. 260 et passim)  |  subst.  Transilvânus, i m. (1652 TURS. 314, 399)

//1 Romania regions: Wallachia  Vallachia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Wallachia"; 1652 TURS. 236: "Dacia olim fuit")

//1 seas: Adriatic Sea  mare Hadriâticum (v. Hadriânum)  ► Hadria, ae m., sinus Adriâticus (1652 TURS. 344)

//1 seas: Mediterranean (adj.):  Mediterranean peoples  gentes Mare Internum accolentes (EGGER R.A. 92)  |  Mediterranean diet  victus Mare Internum accolentium proprius

//1 seas: Mediterranean Sea  Mare Internum (EGGER S.L. 105; EGGER R.A. 93)  ► Mare Mediterraneum (ISID. Orig. 13, 16; 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa"; 1652 TURS. 303 et passim)

//1 seas: Mediterranean: Aegean Sea  Aegaeum Mare (CIC.; LIV.; 1652 TURS. 203)

//1 seas: North Sea  Mare Germanicum (1595 MERCATOR I,  "Boulogne" map)

//1 Slav  subst.  Sclavo, onis m. (DANTE Vulg. El. 325)  ► Sclavus, i m.

//1 Slavic  adj.  Sclavicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 137)

//1 Slovakia  Slovacia, ae f. 

//1 Slovakia cities: Bratislava  Posonium, i n. (1652 TURS. 313)  |  adj.  Posoniensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hungaria")

//1 Spain  ► Hispânia, ae f.  ► Hispâniae, arum f. pl.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 14, in salutation of letter: "Philippo Quarto Hispaniarum regi."

//1 Spain cities: Aranjuez  |  palace of Aranjuez  ► villa regia Aranguesiâna  ¶ 1794 RUIZ iii. 

//1 Spain cities: Avila  Abula, ae f.

//1 Spain cities: Barcelona  Barcino, ônis f. (PLIN.; Aus.; 1652 TURS. 307)  ► Barcelona, ae f. (1652 TURS. 389)  |  adj.  ► Barcinônensis, e  ¶ Aus.  1652 TURS. 358.  1794 RUIZ ii. ►► Barcino is almost always used for the publication location of printed books (WC).

//1 Spain cities: Barcelona: Montserrat  ► Montiserratum, i n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ vii.

//1 Spain cities: Cádiz  ► Gâdes, ium f. pl.  ¶ CIC.  LIV.  PLIN.  1794 RUIZ iv.  |  adj.  ► Gâdîtânus, a, um  ¶ CIC. PLIN.  1652 TURS. 331.

//1 Spain cities: Cordoba  ► Corduba, ae f.  ¶ CAES.  1652 TURS. 330.  1794 RUIZ i.  |  adj.  ► Cordubensis, e  ¶ PLIN.

//1 Spain cities: El Escorial  ► Scôriâle, is n.  ► Escuriâle, is n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 270: "in monasterio Escuriali."  |  adj.  ► Escurialensis, e  ¶ 1794 RUIZ iv: "in bibliotheca Escurialensi."

//1 Spain cities: Girona, Gerona  Gerunda, ae (PRUD.)  ► Girona, ae f. (1652 TURS. 390)  |  adj.  Gerundensis, is (PLIN.)

//1 Spain cities: Granada  ► Granata, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 244.  |  adj.  ► Granatensis, e  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v.

//1 Spain cities: León  Legio, ônis f. (1652 TURS. 141)

//1 Spain cities: Lerida, Lleida  Ilerda, ae f. (CIC.; HOR.)  ► Lerida, ae f. (1652 TURS. 401)  |  adj.  Ilerdensis, e (PLIN.)

//1 Spain cities: Madrid  ► Matritum, i n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ ii.  Madritum, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 288, 331.  1784 DUCRUE 265.  |  adj.  ► Matritensis, e  ¶ 1794 RUIZ iv.  ►► Matritum is much more common than Madritum in published books (WC).

//1 Spain cities: Palma de Mallorca  Palma, ae f. (PLIN. 3, 77)

//1 Spain cities: Pamplona  Pompelôna, ae f. (1652 TURS. 153; 1698 Hofmann)  ► Pompelon, ônis (1698 Hofmann "Nomenclator"; cf. Strabo 3, 4, 10:  Πομπελων )  ► Pompeiopolis, is f. (1698 Hofmann "Nomenclator"; cf. Strabo 3, 4, 10:  Πομπηιοπολις )

//1 Spain cities: Salamanca  Salmantica, ae f. (1652 TURS. 335; DUCANGE s.v. Mosarabes)

//1 Spain cities: San Sebastian  Sebastianopolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 34)

//1 Spain cities: Segovia

//1 Spain cities: Seville  ► Hispalis, is f.  ¶ CAES.  PLIN.  1794 RUIZ iii.  |  adj.  ► Hispalensis, e  ¶ PLIN.  1652 TURS. 331.  1794 RUIZ ii.

//1 Spain cities: Toledo  Tolêtum, i n.  ¶ DUCANGE s.v. Mosarabes.  |  adj.  Tolêtânus, a, um (DUCANGE s.v. Mosarabes1652 TURS. 307)

//1 Spain cities: Valencia  ► Valentia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 349)  |  adj.  ► Valentînus, a, um  ¶ 1794 RUIZ ii.

//1 Spain cities: Valladolid  ► Valdolîtum, i n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ vii.

//1 Spain regions: Andalusia, Andalucía  ► Baetica, ae f.  ¶ PLIN.  TAC.  1652 TURS. 203; 335.  ► Andalicia, ae f.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 42.  |  subst.  ► Baeticus, i m.  ¶ PLIN. Ep.  |  adj.  ► Baeticus, a, um  ¶ TAC.  MART.

//1 Spain regions: Aragon  Aragonia, ae f. (DANTE Vulg. El. 326; 1652 TURS. 212, 395)  |  subst.  Arago, onis m. (DANTE Monarchia 363)  |  adj.  Aragonensis, e (1652 TURS. 215)

//1 Spain regions: Ballearic Islands  insulae Baliâres, Baliâres, um f. pl. (PLIN. 3, 76)  |  adj.  Baliaricus, a, um

//1 Spain regions: Ballearic: Ibiza  Ebusus, i f. (LIV.; PLIN.)  |  adj.  Ebusitânus, a, um (PLIN.)

//1 Spain regions: Ballearic: Mallorca, Majorca  Baliaris Maior (PLIN. 3, 77)  ► Maiorica, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa")

//1 Spain regions: Ballearic: Menorca, Minorca  Minorica, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa")

//1 Spain regions: Basque  subst.  Vasco, onis m. (PLIN.; JUV.; DANTE Ep. 434; 1652 TURS. 143, 339)  |  adj.  Vasconicus, a, um (PaulNol.; EGGER S.L. 29; EGGER S.L. 45)

//1 Spain regions: Basque country  Vasconia, ae f. (PaulNol.; 1652 TURS. 143, 322)

//1 Spain regions: Castile  Castella, ae f. (DANTE Monarchia 363; 1652 TURS. 178 et passim)  ► Castillia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 374)  |  adj.  Castellânus, a, um (DUCANGE s.v. Mosarabes) ► Castulonensis, e (1652 TURS. 230: "Ferdinandus Castulonensis rex," et passim)

//1 Spain regions: Catalonia  Catalonia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 362 et passim)  ► Catalaunia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 307, 368)  ► Catalania, ae f. (1652 TURS. 369)  |  subst.  Catalanus, i m. (1652TURS. 358, 369)  |  adj.  Catalonicus, a, um  (1652 TURS. 383)  ► Catalaunensis, e (1652 TURS. 400)

//1 Spain regions: Extramadura

//1 Spain regions: Galicia  ► Gallaecia, ae f.  ¶ Plin.  1674 MILTON XIII. 42.  |  subst.  ► Gallaecus, i m.  ¶ Plin.   |  adj.  ► Gallaecus, a, um  ¶ Plin. 

//1 Spain regions: Navarre  Navarra, ae f. (1652 TURS. 153)  |  subst.  Navarrus, i m. (1652 TURS. 238)

//1 Spain regions: Zaragoza, Saragossa   Caesaragusta, ae f.

//1 Spain rivers: Guadalquivir  Baetis, is m. (PLIN.; MART. ) 

//1 Spain rivers: Tagus, Tajo, Tejo  ► Tagus, i m.  ¶ Liv.  Plin.  1674 MILTON XIII. 22.

//1 Spain: Gilbraltar  Calpê, ês f. (PLIN.; SEN.)  |  adj.  Calpêtânus, a, um (Avien.)

//1 Spain: Gilbraltar: Straits of Gibraltar  ► fretum Gaditanum  ¶ PLIN.  1674 MILTON XIII. 22.  1652 TURS. 324.  ► fretum Herculeum  ¶ Sil.  1698 Hofmann s.v. Fezza.  ►► Cf.Columnae Herculis (PLIN.) or Herculeae (1652 TURS. 291) of the promontories flanking the straits. 

//1 Spanish  subst.  Hispânus, i m.;  adj.  Hispânus, a, um (LIV.; PLIN.; MART. )  ► Hispânicus, a, um (VITR.; SUET.)

//1 Spanish (language)  ► sermo Hispân(ic)us  ► lingua Hispân(ic)a  |  in Spanish  ► Hispanicê  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i: "liber ... Hispanice conversus."  |  speak Spanish  ► Hispânê loqui  ¶ Enn. An. 495, of the speech of ancient Spain.  ► Hispânicê loqui

//1 Swiss  subst.  Helvêtius, i m. (CAES.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia"; 1652 TURS. 238, 367)  |  adj.  Helvêtius, a, um (CAES.)  ► Helvêticus, a, um (CAES.)

//1 Switzerland  ► Helvetia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  1826 LÜDERS 26.  EGGER D.L. 50.

//1 Switzerland cities: Basel  Basilêa, ae f. (Amm.; 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia"; 1652 TURS. 240)  |  adj.  Basiliensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Burdungia"; 1652 TURS. 240, 347)

//1 Switzerland cities: Bern  ► Berna, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  |  adj.  ► Bernas, âtis  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  1652 TURS. 328.  ► Bernensis, e  ¶ 1826LÜDERS 26.

//1 Switzerland cities: Geneva  Genâva, ae f. (CAES.; EGGER S.L. 33)  ► Genêva, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  ► Aurêli(ân)a Allobrogum f. (WC publication locations)  |  adj. Genâvensis, e (Inscr.)

//1 Switzerland cities: Lausanne  Lausanna, ae f.;  adj.  Lausannensis, e (PERUGINI, Concordata 51)

//1 Switzerland cities: Luzern  Lucerna, ae f. (Graesse1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  |  adj.  Lucernas, âtis (1595 MERCATOR I, "Argow")

//1 Switzerland cities: Zurich  ► Turicum, i n.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 93.  EGGER N.L. citing Cod. Th.  ► Tigurum, i n.  |  adj.  ► Turicensis, e  ¶ Inscr.  1826 LÜDERS 26.  EGGER N.L.  ►Tigurînus, a, um  ¶ CAES.  1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."

//1 Switzerland regions: Graubünden, Grisons  Rhaetia, ae f. (TAC.; 1652 TURS. 309: "in Rhaetia quoque, sive apud Grisones," et passim)  ► Grisonum regio (1652 TURS. 309)  |  subst. Rhaetus, i m. (PLIN.; LIV.; 1652 TURS. 317, 324: "Rhaeti sive Grisones."  ► Griso, onis m. (1652 TURS. 309, 317)  |  adj.  Rhaeticus, a, um (PLIN.; TAC.)

//1 Switzerland regions: Valais  Valêsia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia."  |  adj.  Valêsiânus, a, um (1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia")

//11 /Scandinavia  Scandinavia, ae f. (PLIN.; DANTE Ep. 420; EGGER S.L. 19)

//11 /Scandinavia: Lappland  Lapponia, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 47)  ► Lappia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Polus Arcticus" map)

//11 Denmark  ► Dania, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  1652 TURS. 244.  1826 LÜDERS 13.  EGGER R.A. 73.

//11 Denmark cities: Copenhagen  ► Hafnia, ae f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 14.  ► Havnia, ae f.  ► Hauniae, ae f.  |  adj.  ► Hafnensis, e  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Islandia."  1826 LÜDERS15.

//11 Denmark: Dane  subst.  ► Danus, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 200 et passim.  1826 LÜDERS 13.  EGGER D.L. 39.

//11 Denmark: Danish  adj.  ► Danicus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 340.  1843 TRAPPEN 27.

//11 Finland  Finlandia, ae f., Fennia, ae f.;  subst.  Finlandus, i m., Fennus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 46)  ► Finnonius, i m. (1652 TURS. 272)

//11 Greenland  Groenlandia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europe"; EGGER D.L. 22)  ► Terra Viridis (EGGER D.L. 22)

//11 Iceland  Islandia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Islandia"; EGGER S.L. 19)

//11 Norway  Norvegia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa"; 1652 TURS. 244; EGGER S.L. 19)  |  subst.  Norvegus, i m.;  adj.  Norvegicus, a, um (1811 PALLAS 30)  ►► Norvegiensis (EGGER S.L. 19)

//11 Norway cities: Bergen  ► Bergae, arum f. pl.  ¶ Holberg.  ► Berga, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 19.

//11 Norway cities: Oslo  ► Osloa, ae f.  ¶ Henning Mørland, ed., Oribasius Latinus (Oslo: A. W. Brøgger, 1940), title page.  |  adj.  ► Osoloensis, e  ¶ Henning Mørland, ed., Oribasius Latinus (Oslo: A. W. Brøgger, 1940), title page: "Symbloae Osloenses")

//11 Swede  subst.  ► Suecus, i m./ 1674 MILTON XIII. 54.  1652 TURS. 337 et passim.  1843 TRAPPEN 26.  ► Suetus, i m.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 22.

//11 Sweden  ► Suecia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 226 et passim.  1794 RUIZ iv.  1843 TRAPPEN 26.  ► Suetia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 244.  EGGER D.L. 18.  ►► SuecusSuecia is the ordinary spelling; SuetusSuetia is much rarer (see WC titles).

//11 Sweden cities: Stockholm  ► Holmia, ae f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v.  EGGER D.L. 29.  ► Stockholmia, ae f.  ►► Holmia is much more common than Stockholmia in printed books (WC).

//11 Sweden cities: Upasala  ► Upsala, ae f.  ¶  |  adj.  ► Upsaliensis, e  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxi.

//11 Swedish  adj.  Suecicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 276; 1843 TRAPPEN 27)  ► Sueticus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 27 )

//12 /Balkan mountains  ► Haemus, i m.  ¶ Liv.  Hor.  Plin.  ► Balcânus, i m.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ ii: "Calida atque saxosa declivia Balcani, quae circa Kostinbrod et Bučina ad meridiem spectant, perlustravimus."

//12 /Balkan peninsula, Balkans  ► paeninsula Balcânica  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ i.  ► Balcania, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 65.

//12 /Baltic Sea  mare Balticum 1843 TRAPPEN 52; EGGER S.L. 30)  ► mare Suebicum (Tacitus, S.L. 30)  ► mare Balthicum (1811 PALLAS viii)

//12 Albania  Albânia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Graecia"; 1652 TURS. 240)  |  subst.  Albânus, i m. (1652 TURS. 137)  |  adj.  Albânicus, a, um

//12 Bosnia  Bosnia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Sclavonia"; EGGER S.L. 65)  ► Bosnea, ae f. (1652 TURS. 280)  ► Bosina (1652 TURS. 244)  ► Bossina, ae f. (1652 TURS. 243)  ► Boscina, ae f. (1652 TURS. 236)

//12 Bosnia cities: Sarajevo  Seraium, i n. (EGGER S.L. 65)

//12 Bulgaria  Bulgaria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Walachia"; EGGER S.L. 59)  |  subst.  Bulgarus, i m. (1652 TURS. 226; EGGER D.L. 13)  |  adj.  Bulgaricus, a, um (1652 TURS. 225)

//12 Bulgaria cities: Plovdiv, Philippopoli  ► Philippopolis, is f.  ¶ Liv.  Plin.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ iii.  ► Trimontium, i n.  ¶ Plin.  |  adj.  ► Philippopolensis, e  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝiii.

//12 Bulgaria cities: Sofia  ► Serdica, a f.  ¶ Cassiod.  ► Sophia, ae f.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ ii.  |  adj.  ► Serdicensis, e ¶ Cassiod.  ► Serdicênus, a, um ¶ Cassiod.

//12 Croatia  Croâtia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Sclavonia"; 1652 TURS. 266, 303)  |  subst.  Croâta, ae m. (EGGER R.A. 61)  |  adj.  Croâticus, a, um

//12 Croatia cities: Zagreb  adj.  Zagrabiensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Hungaria")

//12 Croatia regions: Dalmatia  Dalmatia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Sclavonia")

//12 Croatia regions: Istria  Histria, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Friuli" map)

//12 Estonia  Estonia, ae f. (PERUGINI, Concordata 57)  |  subst.  Esthus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 37)

//12 Latvia  Lettonia, ae f. (PERUGINI, Concordata 1; EGGER N.L.)  ► Latvia, ae f. (PERUGINI, Concordata 1)  |  subst.  Letto, onis m. (EGGER N.L.)  |  adj.  Lettonicus, a, um (EGGERN.L.)  |  in Latvian  Lettonicê

//12 Latvia: Riga  Riga, ae f. (1652 TURS. 288; PERUGINI, Concordata 1)  |  adj.  Rigensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Germaniae")

//12 Latvian  subst.  Lettus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 37)

//12 Lithuania  Lituânia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 227, 263; Bonon. Acad. I, 294; EGGER N.L.)  ► Lithuânia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia"; 1811 PALLAS 3; PERUGINI, Concordata 57)  | subst.  Lituânus, i m., Lithuânus, i m. (PERUGINI, Concordata 2)  |  adj.  Lituânus, a, um, Lithuânus, a, um, Lithuânicus, a, um (PERUGINI, Concordata 60)

//12 Lithuania: Vilnius  Vilna, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia."  |  adj.  Vilnensis, e (1595 MERCATOR I, "Polonia"; PERUGINI, Concordata 37)

//12 Macedonia  ► Macedonia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Graecia."  1891 VELENOVSKÝ i.

//12 Montenegro  Mons Niger, Nigrimontium, i n.;  adj.  Nigrimontânus, a, um 

//12 Montenegro  Nigrimontium, i n.;  adj.  Nigrimontânus, a, um

//12 Serbia  ► Servia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR I, "Walachia" map.  1652 TURS. 236.  ► Serbia, ae f.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ ii.  |  subst.  ► Servius, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 191.  |  adj.  ►Serbicus, a, um  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ iii.

//12 Serbia cities: Belgrade  ► Belgradum, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 241.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ iv.  ► Singidûnum, i n.  ¶ Anton.  |  adj.  ► Singidûnensis, e  ¶ Aur. Vict.

//12 Slovenia  Slovenia, ae f., Sclavonia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Sclavonia."  |  adj.  Slovenicus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 66)

//12 Yugoslavia  Iugoslavia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 65)

//13 Armenia  ► Armenia, ae f.  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 11 et passim.  |  subst.  ► Armenius, i m.  ¶ Ov.  MART.  1652 TURS. 239.  |  adj.  ► Armenius, a, um  ¶VARR.   ► Armeniacus, a, um  ¶ PLIN.

//13 Belarus, B(y)elorussia  Russia Alba (EGGER D.L. 50)  |  subst.  Russus Albus (PERUGINI, Concordata 44)

//13 Georgia (nation)  ► Geôrgia, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 312.  EGGER N.L.  |  subst.  ► Geôrgiânus, i m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 312 et passim.  1652 TURS. 132.  1811PALLAS 37.  EGGER N.L.   |  adj.  ► Geôrgiânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//13 Moldavia  Moldavia, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Walachia" map; 1652 TURS. 267)

//13 Russia  ► Russia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  1652 TURS. 227 et passim.  ► Rossia, ae f.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS vii.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ v. 

//13 Russia cities: Moscow  Mosqua, ae f. (1811 PALLAS iii, 38)  ► Moscua, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 25)

//13 Russia cities: Smolensk  Smolenskum, i n. (1652 TURS. 290)

//13 Russia cities: St. Petersburg, Leningrad  Petropolis, is f. (1811 PALLAS 16)  |  adj.  Petropolitanus, a, um 1843 TRAPPEN 25; GAUSS VI, 40; 1811 PALLAS iv)

//13 Russia cities: St. Petersburg: Winter Palace, Hermitage  Aula Petropolitâna 1843 TRAPPEN 25)

//13 Russia peoples: Samoyed  Samogedus, i m. (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  ► Samoiedus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 36)

//13 Russia regions: Siberia  Sibiria, ae f. (1811 PALLAS vi; EGGER S.L. 18, 49)  |  adj.  Sibiricus, a, um (1811 PALLAS vii)  ► Sibirianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 17, 49)

//13 Russia rivers: Dnieper  Borysthenes, is m. (PLIN.; Curt.; 1652 TURS. 337)  |  adj.  Borysthenius, a, um (Ov.)

//13 Russia rivers: Don  Tanais, is m. (HOR.; PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa"; 1652 TURS. 207)  |  adj.  Tanaîticus, a, um (SID.)

//13 Russia rivers: Volga  Rha (indecl.) (Amm.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  ► Volga, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 31)

//13 Russia: Muscovy (Russian state of 14th-17th centuries)  Moscovia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 264 et passim)  ► Moschovia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 302)  |  subst.  Moscus, i (1652 TURS.263, 347)  ► Moschus, i (1652 TURS. 270, 294)  ► Moscovîta, ae m. (1652 TURS. 284)  |  adj.  Muscovîticus, a, um (1652 TURS. 301)

//13 Russia: Ural Mountains  Uralense Iugum (1811 PALLAS viii)

//13 Russian  subst.  ► Russus, i m.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 38.  ► Rossus, i m.  ► Ruthênus, i m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 50: "Ruthenorum vero provincia maxima ad polum arcticum sita est." 1595 MERCATOR II "Europe."  1698 HOFMANN: "Ruteni etim Russi nonnumquam dici solent."  |  adj.  ► Russicus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 302.  EGGER D.L. 28.  ► Rossicus, a, um  ¶ 1811PALLAS v.  ► Ruthenicus, a, um  ¶ 1811 PALLAS xii. 

//13 Russian (language)  ► lingua Russica  ¶   |  in Russian  ► Russice  ¶  ► Rossice  ¶ PALLAS 15.

//13 Ukraine  Ucraina, ae f.;  adj.  Ucrainus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 79)

//13 Ukraine regions: Crimea  Chersonêsus (v. Cherronêsus) Taurica (Plin.; Pallas vii);  adj.  Tauricus, a, um (Turs. 301: "facta a chano Tartarorum Tauricorum irruptione in Russiam"), Crimensis, e Turs. 302: "Nogaiensi et Crimensi Tartarorum provinciis")

//13 Ukraine: Kiev Kiovia (de arte poetica 1705, paper at APA2014)

//2 /Asia  ► Asia, ae f.  ¶ PLIN.  OROS. 1, 2.  1595 MERCATOR II, "Orbis Terrae."  ► India Orientalis  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 151, of coconut palm: "Provenit haec arbor copiosa in Indiâ Orientali."  1826 LÜDERS 27.  ► Indiae Orientales (f. pl.)  ¶ 1652 TURS. 374.  ► India, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 435, introducing the section of his work encompassing Japan and the circle of lands around the Indian Ocean (Indonesia, the Philippines, South Asia, Yemen, and East Africa): "Modo computabo vobis, in hoc tertio libro huius operis, mirabilia quae sunt in Indiâ." 1843 TRAPPEN 38: "Batavi ... in plurimis Indiae regionibus stationes mercatorias habuerint."  ► Indiae, arum f. pl.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 326: "Franciscum ex eadem societate apostolum Indiarum," epithet of St. Francis Xavier.  Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 31: "Indiae Neerlandicae," of Dutch East Indies.  Cf. 1794 RUIZ iii: "arboribus stirpibusque ... ex vastissimis regionibus in utrâque Indiâ transmissis," where "utraque India" refers to America and Asia.  ►► India Orientalis, or India simply, when used in its larger sense, and in reference to the East (rather than the Americas), denotes most often that part of Asia east of Iran, including Indonesia and the Philippines.  (In the Middle Ages, as in antiquity, it could include Arabia and East Africa as well, the vital sea-ways of the India Ocean providing a natural defining principle for the geographical concept.)  On the polyvalence of the term in Latin, see discussion under the entry India.

//2 /Asian  ► Asiaticus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 20.  1811 PALLAS viii.  ► Indicus, a, um  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiii: "Cum cupidinem aliquando significassem Indicas hucusque parum cognitas adeundi terras, me ... summis nonnullis Amstelodami viris îdem professor commendavit, ut ... in Iaponiam navigare mihi liceret."

//2 /Far East  Oriens Extrêmus (PERUGINI, Concordata 51)  ► Oriens Ultimus (1652 TURS. 263; cf. 1652 TURS. 250: "decessit Emmanuel rex Lusitania ... ultimâ orientis orâ subactâ nobilis")

//2 Afghanistan  Afganistania, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 52)  |  Afghan  Afghanistanianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 29)

//2 Afghanistan cities: Kabul  Cabura, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 29)

//2 Bangladesh  ► Bangladêsa, ae f.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  ► Bengâla, ae f.  ¶  ► Bengâla Orientâlis  |  adj.  ► Bangladêsânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 41.  EGGER N.L.  ► Bengâlensis Orientâlis   ►► The name Bangladesh is simply a Bengali name for Bengal; but Bangladesh is actually the eastern portion of the region traditionally called "Bengal" (in Latin Bengala), the western part being a state within India (West Bengal).

//2 Bangladesh cities: Dacca  Dacca, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 7)

//2 Bengal (region now divided between India and Bangladesh)  ► Bengâla, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 410.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 45.  1571 MATTIOLI 320)  |  adj. ► Bengâlensis, e  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 68)

//2 Cambridge  Cantabrigia, ae f.;  adj.  Cantabrigiensis, e (EGGER D.L. 30)

//2 Ceylon, Sri Lanka  ► Tâprobanê, ês f.  ¶ Plin.  EGGER S.L. 25.  ► Seilânum, i n.  ¶ Cf. various names derived from Pali SihalamSihalan, Sīlan (sometimes combined with dwipa, "island"):  Amm. 22, 7, 10, using Serendivus of the island's inhabitants: "nationibus Indicis certatim cum donis optimates mittentibus ante tempus ab usque Divis et Serendivis."  Cosmas Indicopleustes 11, 13, noting that the Greeks call the island Taprobane, the Indians Sielediba: " Αύτη εστιν ή νησος ή μεγάλη εν τω Ωκεανωεν τω Ινδικω πελάγει κειμένηπαρα μεν Ινδοις καλουμένηΣιελεδίβαπαρα δε Έλλησι Ταπροβάνη."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 448: "Seilam."  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 22: "Seylam."  1571 MATTIOLI 323: "Zeilan."  EGGER D.L. 11: Ceilanum.  Cf. also Arabic Serendib.  For the derivation of these names, see Yule 2, 314, n. 2.  ► Srilanca, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 25.  |  adj.  ► Tâprobanius, a, um  ► Seilânus, a, um  ¶ Cf. EGGER D.L. 11: Ceilanianus.   ► Srilancânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 25.

//2 China  ► Sinae, arum m. pl.  ¶ 1726 Wolff: "Prisci Sinarum imperatores et reges iidem erant philosophi."  ► China, ae f. (with ch sounded as in English or Spanish)  ¶ 1726 Wolff 18.  ► Sêres, um m. pl.  ¶ Verg.  Hor.  Plin.  See Yule 1, 11-12, quoted below.  ► Cathai indecl. (in precise usage, referring to northern China, the south being called Mangi)  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLOA 482, on Kaidu, cousin and rival of Kublai Khan: "Caydu petebat magno Kaan quod volebat partem suam de conquaesto provinciae Cathay et de provinciâ de Mangi."  ►► For the identification of the ancient Seres with China, and an enlightening account of European names for that land, see Yule's edition of Marco Polo (1, 11-12): "The northern provinces of China had been detached from native rule and subject to foreign dynasties – first to the Khitan ... whose rule subsisted for 200 years, and originated the name of KhitaeKhata, or Cathay, by which for nearly 1000 years China has been known to the nations of inner Asia, and to those whose acquaintance with it was got by that channel. ... The Russians still call it Khitae.  The pair of names Khitae and Machin, or Cathay and China, is analagous to that other pair, Seres and Sinae.  Seres was the name of the great nation in the Far East as known by land, Sinae as known by sea; and they were often supposed to be diverse, just as Cathay and China were afterwards."  Elsewhere Yule notes that the 13th-century traveler William Rubruquis, who "with characteristic acumen had seen that they [the Chinese] were identical with the the Seres of classical fame" (16).

//2 China cities: Beijing, Peking  ► Pekînum, i n.  ► Pechînum, i n.  ►► EL: Pékin; Pekín; Pechino; Peking; Πεκίνο.  Pinyin Běijīng; Wade-Giles Pei-ching.

//2 China cities: Changchun

//2 China cities: Chengdu

//2 China cities: Guangzhou, Canton

//2 China cities: Hangzhou

//2 China cities: Harbin

//2 China cities: Hong Kong  ► Honcongum, i n.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 10.  |  adj.  ► Honcongensis, i   ¶ EGGER S.L. 84.  ►► EL: Χονγκ Κονγκ.  Pinyin Xiānggǎng; Wade-Giles Hsiang-kang.

//2 China cities: Shanghai // Siamhaevum, i n.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 37.

//2 China cities: Shenyang

//2 China cities: Tianjin

//2 China regions: Tibet  ► Tibetum, i n.  ► Tebet n. indecl.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 397.  |  adj.  ► Tibetânus, a, um  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 16.  EGGER D.L. 56.

//2 China rivers: Huang-He, Hwang-Ho, Yellow River  Flumen Croceum (Becmann 261: "ad ripas crocei seu lutei fluminis," in description of China)

//2 China rivers: Yangtze, Chang Jiang  ► Flumen Longum (Sinarum) 

//2 China: Great Wall of China  ►  Cf. 1726 Wolff 82: "Xi Hoam ti, muri illius stupendi adversus irruptiones Tartarorum conditor."

//2 China: Taiwan

//2 China: Taiwan cities: Taipei

//2 Chinese  adj.  ► Sinicus, a, um  ¶ 1726 Wolff 16: "En Confucium sapientiae Sinicae non auctorem, verum restauratorem."  1811 PALLAS viii.  ► Sinensis, e  ¶ EGGER D.L. 56.  ►Chinensis, e (ch sounded as in English or Spanish)  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiv.  1826 LÜDERS 29.  ► Sêricus, a, um  ¶ Plin.  Amm.

//2 Chinese: a Chinese man  ► Sinensis, is m.  ¶ 1726 Wolff 16.  ► Sina, ae m.  ¶ 1726 Wolff 24: "Nihil Sinae de actionibus hominum praeceperunt ... nisi quod menti humanae apprime convenire intelligerent"; et passim.

//2 Columbia (nation in South America)  Columbia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 34)

//2 Columbia cities: Bogota  Bogota, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 51)

//2 Guiana  Guiâna, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 34)  |  adj.  Guianensis, e (EGGER D.L. 41)

//2 India  ► India, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 41.  ► India Citerior  ► Indostania, ae f.  ► Hindostânum, i n.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 47.  Cf. 1595 MERCATOR (vol. 2, "Asia"), distinguishing the region that corresponds roughly to the modern nation as "Indostan, alias India intra Gangem."  ► Res Publica Indica  ► Civitates Foederatae Indiae  ¶ EGGER D.L. 32.  ►► India, without further specification, is in Latin a vague and polyvalent term: the ancients used it of Asia beyond Persia, including sometimes Arabia and even parts of Africa as well; since Columbus it has been extended to America (India Occidentalis).  |  Fraser 73, on use of the term "India" in 15th-c. Latin texts: "Notions of India and its geography were extremely vague at that time (as Columbus would show); the name was indeed sometimes used in reference to Ethiopia."  |  Yule 2, 425-26, n. 7: "The term India became very vague from an early date.  In fact, Alcuin divides the whole world into three parts, Europe, Africa, and India.  Hence it was necessary to discriminate different Indias, but there is very little agreement among different authors as to this discrimination ... Conti divides India into three: (1) From Persia to the Indus (i.e. Mekran and Sind); (2) From the Indus to the Ganges; (3) All that is beyond the Ganges (Indochina and China) ... Greater India was originally intended, I imagine, for the real India, what our maps call Hindustan.  And the threefold division, with its inclination to place one of the Indies in Africa, I think may have originated with the Arab HindSind, andZinj.  I may add that our vernacular expression the Indies is itself a vestige of the twofold or threefold division of which we have been speaking.  The partition of the Indies made by King Sebastian of Portugal in 1571, when he constituted his eastern possession into three governments, recalled the old division into Three Indias.  The first, India, extending from Cape Gardafui to Ceylon, stood in a general way for Polo's India Major; the second, Monomotapa, from Gardafui to Cape Corrientes (India Tertia of Jordanus); the third, Malacca, from Pegu to China (India Minor)."     || [["India citerior" est apud LS, at non invenio in fontibus (Plin., Mela) ibi laudatis.]]

//2 India cities: Bombay, Mumbai  ► Bombaia, ae f.  ¶ Egger N.L.  ► Bombâca, ae f.  ¶ Lyttelton 205.  |  adj.  ► Bombaiensis, e  ¶ Egger N.L.  ► Bombâcensis, e  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS27.

//2 India cities: Calcutta, Kolkata  Calcutta, ae f. (1846 GROSSE 7)

//2 India cities: Delhi  ► Delium, i n.  ¶ Egger N.L.  ► Dellia, ae f.  ¶ Lyttelton 205.  |  adj.  ► Deliensis, e  ¶ Egger N.L.

//2 India languages: Sanskrit  lingua Sanscrita;  adj.  Sanscritus, a, um (Gesenius x: radicae Sanscritae)  ►► The i of Sancritus is short (see Hessler, marking the word with a micron throughout).

//2 India regions: Kashmir  Casmiria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 83)

//2 India regions: Malabar, Malabar Coast (southwest coast of Indian subcontinent)  Malabaria, ae f.;  adj.  Malabaricus, a, um (1652 TURS. 300)

//2 India regions: Punjab  Puniabia, ae f.  ►► Regio Quinquefluminense (EGGER S.L. 82)

//2 India rivers: Ganges  Gangês, is m.;  adj.  Gangêticus, a, um

//2 India rivers: Indus  Indus, i m.

//2 India: Tamil  subst.  Tamil, Tamîlis m. (cf. Span. plural Tamiles)  |  adj.  Tamîlicus, a, um;  Tamil (language)  sermo Tamîlicus, lingua Tamîlica;  speak Tamil  Tamîlicê loqui

//2 Indian Ocean  ► mare Indicum  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 10, et passim.  ► mare Indiae  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 440 et passim.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 1 et passim.  ►oceanus Indicus  ¶ EGGER D.L. 48. 

//2 Indochina  Indosinae, arum m. pl.

//2 Indochina: Cambodia  Camboia, ae f. (1698 Hofmann, "Nomenclator."  ► Cambosia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 55)  |  adj.  Cambosianus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 55)

//2 Indochina: Laos

//2 Indochina: Vietnam  Vietnamia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 42)  |  adj.  Vietnamiensis, e (EGGER D.L. 43)

//2 Japan  ► Iaponia, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 255.  1784 THUNBERG xi.  EGGER D.L. 35.  | 

//2 Japan cities: Hiroshima

//2 Japan cities: Kyoto

//2 Japan cities: Nagasaki

//2 Japan cities: Tokyo

//2 Japanese  subst.  ► Iapo, onis m.  ► Iaponensis, is m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 337. |  adj.  ► Iaponicus, a, um  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xi.  ► Iaponensis, e  ¶ 1652 TURS. 299.  1784THUNBERG xv.  1811 PALLAS 58.  ► Niponicus, a, um  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxvi.

//2 Korea  Corêa, ae f. (Becmann 261; EGGER S.L. 56)  |  adj.  Coreânus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 13)

//2 Korea cities: Seoul  Seulum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 56)

//2 Malay (language)  lingua Malaica 1843 TRAPPEN 9)  |  in Malay  Malaice

//2 Malay (member of ethnic group inhabiting mainly Malay Peninsula and parts of Sumatra and Bornea)  Malaeus, i m. (Christen 51: "Malaii");  adj.  Malaicus, a, um 1843TRAPPEN 9)

//2 Malaysia  Malaesia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 43; cf. Mod. Gr.  Μαλαισ í α )

//2 Malaysia cities: Kuala Lumpur

//2 Malaysian  adj. Malaesianus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 43)

//2 Mongolia  Mongolia, ae f. (1811 PALLAS viii)  |  subst.  Mongolus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 15)

//2 mountains: Himalayas  Imaus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 37)  ► Imaus mons (EGGER D.L. 56)  ► iugum Imai (EGGER S.L. 83)

//2 mountains: Mount Everest  Everestius mons (EGGER D.L. 37, 53)

//2 Myanmar cities: Yangon, Rangoon  ► Rangûna, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 58. 

//2 Myanmar, Burma  ► Birmania, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 58.  ►► EL: Birmanie; Birmania; Birmania; Birma, Burma; Βιρμανία, Μπούρμα. 

//2 Nepal  Nepalia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 41)  |  adj.  Nepaliensis, e (EGGER D.L. 56)  ► Nipalensis, e (1846 GROSSE 6, 9)

//2 Pakistan  Pakistania, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 7)

//2 Pakistan cities: Islamabad  Islamabada, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 29)

//2 Pakistani  subst.  Pakistanus, i m., Pakistanianus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 54)  |  adj.  Pakistanicus, a, um, Pakistanianus, a, um

//2 Thailand  Siamia, ae f., Thailandia, ae f.

//21 Arab  subst.  ► Arabs, bis m. (acc. pl. usually Arabas)  ¶ Verg.  Vulg.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 15.  ► Sarracênus, i m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 132: "Mahometes genere Arabs seu Sarracenus"; et passim.  1698 HOFMANN s.v. calipha.  EGGER R.A. 137: "Copiae pontificiae in proelio navali anno 849 apud Ostiam commisso victoriam e Saracenis reportant."  ► Ismaêlîta, ae m.  ¶HIER. Vita Malachi 4, of an attack on a caravan by Bedouins: "Ecce subito equorum camelorumque sessores Ismaelitae irruunt."  ►► Sarracenus is often used for "Muslim" rather than "Arab," as a synomym for MahometanusMuslimus; but Arabs is always used of the race.

//21 Arabic  adj.  Arabicus, a, um (PLAUT.; PLIN.)  ► Arabius, a, um (PLAUT.; PLIN.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 347: "Arabius tibicen."  ► Sarracênus, a, um (1652 TURS. 132)  ► Saracênicus, a, um; 

//21 Arabic (language)  ► lingua Arabica  ► sermo Arabicus  |  in Arabic  ► Arabicê  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i: "liber Arabice exaratus."  |  speak Arabic  ► Arabicê loqui  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer.373.

//21 Asia Minor  Asia Minor (Oros. 1, 2, 25; 1843 TRAPPEN 14; 1846 GROSSE 8; Hase 3)  ► Asia, ae f. (CIC.; Verg.; SEN.)

//21 Bahrein  Baharina, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 46)

//21 Black Sea  Pontus Euxînus (CIC.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 297; EGGER S.L. 18)  ► Mare Euxînum (Ov.)  ► Mare Nigrum (1652 TURS. 356)

//21 Black Sea: Aegean Sea  ► mare Aegaeum  ¶  ► Aegaeopelagus, i m.  ¶ OED s.v. archipelago in etymological note, citing medieval sources.  ► Archipelagus, i m.  ¶ OED s.v.archipelago in etymological note, citing 13th c. treaty.  Bondelmontius 53: "mare Archipelagi."  Linné Species 2, 794: "Habitat ad Archipelagum."  Bentley 2, 603-04 (on Manil. 4, 617): "Propontis illud est mare quod Archipelagum inter et Pontum Euxinum iacet."  C. G. Heyne, Variae lectiones et observationes in Iliadem (Leipzig, 1802), v. 2, pt. 3, p.180, discussing  βορέης  in the Iliad: "Sub illud tempus per totum Archipelagum aquilones spirant."  1807 Sprengel 1, 377: "Per tres annos Graeciam, Archipelagum, Asian Minorem, Syriam et Aegyptum perquisivit."

//21 Black Sea: Bosporus, Bosphorus  ► Bosp(h)orus (Thracius)  ¶ Varr.  Hor.  Plin.

//21 Black Sea: Crimea  Chersonêsus (v. Cherronêsus) Taurica (PLIN.; 1811 PALLAS vii)  |  adj.  Tauricus, a, um (1652 TURS. 301: "facta a chano Tartarorum Tauricorum irruptione in Russiam."  ► Crimensis, e 1652 TURS. 302: "Nogaiensi et Crimensi Tartarorum provinciis")

//21 Black Sea: Dardanelles, Hellespont  ► Hellespontus, i m.  ¶ Cic.  Ov.  Plin.

//21 Black Sea: Gallipoli peninsula  ►

//21 Black Sea: Sea of Azov, Maeotis  ► palus Maeôtis  ¶ Plin.  ► lacus Maeôtis  ¶ Plin.  ► palus Maeôtica  ¶ Plin.

//21 Black Sea: Sea of Marmara, Propontis  ► Propontis, idis f.  ¶ Liv.  Plin.

//21 Black Sea: Strait of Kerch, Cimmerian Bosporus  ► Bosp(h)orus Cimmerius  ¶ Plin.  Curt.  Bentley 2, 604 (on Manil. 4, 618): "Maeotidos] Palus est Scythiae, quam ab Euxino Ponto discernit Bosphorus Cimmerius, et in quam Tanais fluvius recipitur."

//21 Cyprus  Cŷprus, i f. (CIC.; PLIN.)  |  subst.  Cŷprius, i m. (PLIN.)  |  adj.  Cŷprius, a, um (HOR.; PLIN.)  ► Cŷpriacus, a, um (ValMax.)

//21 Iran  ► Irania, ae f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 39.  ► Persia, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 318 et passim.  1811 PALLAS 8.  EGGER D.L. 39.  ► Persis, idis f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A299 et passim.  1652 TURS. 348.

//21 Iran cities: Tabriz  ► Thaurisium, i n.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 17.

//21 Iran cities: Teheran  Teherânum, i (EGGER D.L. 53)

//21 Iran: Persian, Farsi (language)  ► lingua Persica  |  in Persian, in Farsi  ► Persicê /

//21 Iran: Strait of Hormuz  ► Frêtum Hormuzânum

//21 Iranian  subst.  Persa, ae m. (EGGER D.L. 7, 59)  |  adj.  Persicus, a, um

//21 Iraq  ► Irâchum, i n.  ¶ Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 315: "Yrac."  ► Babylônia, ae f.  ¶ Plin.  Curt.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 305.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 6.  Ibid. 2, 17: "Habet etiam leones optimos et pulcherrimos maiores illis qui in Babyloniâ sunt."  See LS, equating the ancient Babylonia with Iraq.  ►► Iraquia (EGGER D.L. 46), Iraquianus (EGGER D.L. 59)

//21 Iraq cities: Baghdad  ► Bagdâdum, i n.  ¶ 1698 HOFMANN s.v. calipha.  ► Bagdâtum, i n.  ¶ 1688 DUCANGE Comn. 559.  EGGER D.L. 46.  ► Babylon Nova  ¶ Becmann 253: "ad nomen pertinent Babylonem dici 1. provinciam de qua hîc agimus, 2. urbem Babylonem Veterem ... 3. Babylonem Novam, quae hodierna Bagaded, 4. Babylonem Aegyptia quae Cairo."  ►Babylon, ônis f.  ¶ Byz. Gr.  1652 TURS. 209, describing the 13th-century Mongol sack of the city.  1652 TURS. 355, of a 17th-century Turkish military campaign.  |  adj.  ► Bagadadênus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 337.  ► Bagdâtensis, is  ¶ 1688 DUCANGE Comn. 559.  ► Babylônicus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 368. 

//21 Iraq cities: Basra  ► Basera, ae f.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 16.  Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 315: Bassara.  ► Basra, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 19.

//21 Iraq cities: Mosul  ► Mosul indecl.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 15.  |  adj.  ► Mosolînus, a, um  ¶ Letter of Pope Innocent IV, quoted in Yule I. 62.

//21 Iraq: Mesopotamia  Mesopotamia, ae f. (CIC.; PLIN.; 1652 TURS. 209, of 13th-century wars; 1652 TURS. 337, of a 17th-century siege of Baghdad)

//21 Iraqi  (subst.)  ► Irâchânus, i m.  |  (adj.)  ► Irâchânus, a, um 

//21 Jordan  Transiordania, ae f., Iordania, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 24)

//21 Kuwait  Cuvaitum, i n.;  adj.  Cuvaitensis, e (EGGER S.L. 14)

//21 Lebanon  Libania, ae f., ? Phoenicia, ae f.;  adj.  Libanensis, e (EGGER S.L. 13)  ►► Libanus, i m. (EGGER S.L. 12)  |  Libanus Latine nomen est montis; potestne et nationis esse nomen?

//21 Lebanon cities: Beirut  Bêrŷtus, i f. (PLIN.; TAC.; 1652 TURS. 144l EGGER S.L. 13)  |  adj.  Bêrŷtius, a, um (PLIN.)  ► Bêrŷtensis, e (DIG.)

//21 Near East, Middle East, Mideast, Levant  ► Oriens Medius  ¶ EGGER D.L. 32.   ► Oriens Propinquus  ¶ EGGER S.L. 12, 37.  ► Oriens Proximus  ¶ PERUGINI, Concordata51.  ► Levans, ntis+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 301, of Hulagu Khan, Mongol ruler of much of contemporary Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran: "Alauchaam, dominus Levantis"; et passim.   | adj.  ► Levanticus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 46: "coffea Levantica."  ► Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 2: "Orientis populi qui cis Indum habitant."

//21 Palestine cities: Acre  ► Ptolemâis, idis f.  ¶ Cic.  Plin.  Vulg.  ► Achon indecl.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 6. |  adj.  ► Ptolemensis, e  ¶ Vulg.  Dig.

//21 Palestine cities: Jericho  Hiericûs, cuntis f. (PLIN.)  ► Hiericho, ontis f. (1652 TURS. 11)

//21 Palestine cities: Jerusalem  Hierosolyma, orum n. pl. (CIC.; TAC.; EGGER D.L. 32)  ► Hierosolyma, ae f. (Vulg.; 1652 TURS. 209)  ► Ierûsalem n. indecl. (EGGER D.L. 47)  |  adj. Hierosolymitânus, a, um

//21 Palestine cities: Tel Aviv  Ioppê, ês f., urbs Tel Aviv  ►► Vernicollis (EGGER D.L. 32)

//21 Palestine regions: West Bank  Cisiordania, ae f.

//21 Palestine: Holy Land  Terra Sancta (1652 TURS. 305; Hase 3)

//21 Palestine: Israel  Civitas Israêliâna (EGGER D.L. 32)  ► Israêl, is m. (EGGER D.L. 35)  ► Iûdaea, ae f.;  Israeli  subst.  Israêliânus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 46)  |  adj.  Israêliânus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 46)

//21 Palestinian  subst.  Palaestînus, i m. (Ov.; Vulg.; HIER.)  |  adj.  Palaestînus, a, um, Palaestînensis, e  ►► Palaestinensis, is m. (EGGER D.L. 30)

//21 Palestinian state

//21 Persian Gulf  Persicus Sinus (PLIN. 12, 37; 1595 MERCATOR II "Africa"; EGGER D.L. 30)

//21 Qatar  Quataria, ae f.;  adj.  Quatarianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 46)

//21 rivers: Jordan  Iordânes, is m. (PLIN.; Vulg.; 1652 TURS. 11)

//21 Saudi Arabia  Arabia Saudiana (EGGER S.L. 63)  |  adj. Arabicus Saudianus (EGGER D.L. 19)

//21 Saudi Arabia cities: Mecca  Mecca, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 6; EGGER D.L. 19)

//21 Saudi Arabia cities: Medina  Medîna, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 11)

//21 seas: Red Sea  Sinus Arabicus (1595 MERCATOR II "Africa."  ► Mare Rubrum 1843 TRAPPEN 47; EGGER D.L. 19)  ►► Mare Rubrum is an ambiguous term; Pliny (12, 37) uses it of the Persian Gulf, 1595 MERCATOR (vol. 2, "Africa." of the Indian Ocean.

//21 Syria  Sŷria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 24)  |  adj.  Syriacus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 105)

//21 Syria cities: Damascus  Damascus, i f. (PLIN.; Vulg.; 1843 TRAPPEN 19)  |  adj.  Damascênus, a, um (PLIN.; 1843 TRAPPEN 26)

//21 Syria language: Syriac (dialect or variety of Aramaic)  \\ lingua Sŷriaca  |  adj.   \\ Sŷriacus, a, um  |  in Syriac  \\ Sŷriacê  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 88: "qui vero Syriace evangelium scripsit."

//21 Turk  subst.  ► Turca, ae m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 241 et passim.  1726 Wolff 18.  HASE 3.  1811 PALLAS 49.  EGGER S.L. 57.  ► Turcus, i m.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ i.  ►Turchimânus, i m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 311.

//21 Turkey  ► Turcia, ae f.  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 349.  1843 TRAPPEN 20 et passim.  EGGER D.L. 58.  ► Turchia, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 299 et passim.  1315 MARCO POLOB 1, 12 et passim.  ► Turcomannia, ae f.  ¶ 1771 WAY 3: "in Turcomanniâ Europaeâ inoculationem initium primum habuisse."  ► Turchimania, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 311 (for the identification, see Yule 1, 44 n.2).

//21 Turkey cities: Ankara  Ancyra, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 58; EGGER R.A. 144)

//21 Turkey cities: Bursa, Brusa  Prûsa, ae f. (PLIN.)  ► Bursa, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 20)  |  adj.  Prûsensis, e (PLIN.)

//21 Turkey cities: Edirna  Hadrianopolis, is f. (Amm.; 1843 TRAPPEN 19)

//21 Turkey cities: Istanbul, Constantinople  ► Constantînopolis, is f.  ¶ Amm.  Aus.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 300 et passim.  1652 TURS. 229, 370.  1843 TRAPPEN 11.  ►Byzantium, i n.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 199 et passim.  1771 WAY 3.  |  adj.  ► Constantînopolitânus, a, um  ¶ Cod. Just.  1652 TURS. 238.

//21 Turkey cities: Istanbul: Hagia Sophia  aedes Sophiâna (DUCANGE s.v. presbyterium)  ► aedes Sanctae Sophiae (1652 TURS. 145)

//21 Turkey cities: Izmir, Smyrna  Smyrna, ae f. (CIC.; LIV.)  |  adj.  Smyrnaeus, a, um (PLIN.)

//21 Turkey regions: Anatolia  ►

//21 Turkey regions: Anatolia, Asia Minor  Asia Minor (Oros. 1, 2; 1652 TURS. 297)

//21 Turkey regions: Rumelia  ►

//21 Turkey regions: Thrace  ► Thrâcia, ae f.

//21 Turkey: Bosphorus  Bosphorus, i m.

//21 Turkey: Gallipoli (pensinsula)  Chersonêsus (v. Cherronêsus) Thracia (CIC.; PLIN.)

//21 Turkish  adj.  Turcicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 225; EGGER S.L. 52)

//21 United Arab Emirates  Principatûs Arabici Foederâti  ►► Foederatae Phylarchiae Arabicae (EGGER S.L. 46)

//21 Yemen  ► Iemen n. indecl.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 24.  ► Arabia Fêlix  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 7 et passim.  Boerhaave 2, 217.  1843 TRAPPEN 16: "ex Yamen sive Arabiâ Feliciore."  ►Eudaemon, onis m./f.  ¶ Plin.  Mel.

//21 Yemen cities: Aden  ► Aden indecl.  ¶ Cf. 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 46, of the Sultanate of Yemen: "Aden provincia regem habet quem soldanus vocant."

//21 Yemen cities: Mocha  ► Mocca, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 5.

//22 /Central Asia, homeland of the Tatars or Mongols  ► Asia Media  ► Tartaria, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 299 et passim.  ► Tataria, ae f.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS v.  |  adj. ► Tataricus, a, um  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 42.

//22 /Central Asia: Tartar, Tatar, Mongol, member of Turco-Mongol hordes that overran part of Asia and Europe in 13th c., inhabitant of Central Asia  ► Tartarus, im. // c.1300 MARCO POLO A 300.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 1.  1652 TURS. 207: "Tartari, gens Scythica"; et passim.  1726 Wolff 82, of the Great Wall: "Xi Hoam Ti, muri illius stupendi adversus irruptiones Tartarorum conditor."  ► Tatarus, i m.  |  adj.  ► Tartaricus, a, um  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 302: "lingua Tartarica," of the language of Kublai Khan.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 2.

//22 /Central Asia: Turkestan, area of Central Asia inhabited chiefly by Turkic peoples  ► Magna Turchia  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 482: "Est Magna Turchia ultra flumen Gion [scil. Amu Darya], et durat versus tramontanam usque ad confines magni Kaan."  Cf. Marcello Ciccuto, ed., Marco Polo, Il Milione [Milan: Rizzoli, 1981], p. 106, n.6, in a note on the parallel passage in the old Florentine version (my trans.): "It is called Greater Turkey to distinguish it from the reigion Marco calls Turcomania, corresponding to the territory of contemporary Turkey."

//22 Caspian Sea  Mare Hircanium (PLIN.; 1595 MERCATOR II "Europa."  ► Mare Caspium (1595 MERCATOR II "Europa"; 1811 PALLAS 42; EGGER S.L. 18)  ► Lacus Caspius (1811PALLAS viii)

//22 rivers: Amu Darya  ► Oxus, i m.  ¶ Plin.  Curt.

//22 seas: Aral Sea  Araliensis Lacus (1811 PALLAS 16)

//22 Turkmenistan  ►► Turcomania est potius pars Armeniae Maioris (vide 1698 HOFMANN, cartas geographicas).

//22 Uzbekistan cities: Samarkand  ► Maracanda, ae f.  ¶ Curt.

//3 Australia  ► Australia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 35.  ► Terra Austrâlis  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Asia."  ► Nova Hollandia  ¶ 1810 BROWN v. |  adj.  ► Australianus, a, um  ¶ EGGERD.L. 9.

//3 Australia cities: Canberra

//3 Australia cities: Melbourne

//3 Australia cities: Sydney  Sydneium, i n. (EGGER D.L. 9)

//3 Australia states: Adelaide

//3 Australia states: Brisbane

//3 Australia states: New South Wales // Nova Cambria f.  ¶ 1810 BROWN vii.

//3 Australia states: Perth

//3 Australia states: Queensland

//3 Australia states: South Australia

//3 Australia states: Tasmania

//3 Australia states: Victoria

//3 Australia states: Western Australia

//3 Indonesia  Indonêsia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 10)

//3 Indonesia cities: Jakarta  Iacatra, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 38)  ► Iacartum, i n. (EGGER D.L. 10)

//3 Indonesia islands: Bali

//3 Indonesia islands: Banda Islands

//3 Indonesia islands: Borneo

//3 Indonesia islands: Celebes, Sulawesi

//3 Indonesia islands: Java  ► Iava, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 309; 441.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 10.  1595 MERCATOR II "Asia."  BOERHAAVE II. 217.  1784 THUNBERGxiv.  1843 TRAPPEN 31.  Pharm. Austr. 168.  |  adj.  ► Iavanensis, e  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 2, 51.

//3 Indonesia islands: Moluccas, Moluccan Islands, Maluku Islands  Moluccae Insulae f. pl. (1571 MATTIOLI 323)  ► Moluccae, arum f. pl. (1595 MERCATOR II "Asia"; 1571MATTIOLI 323; 1652 TURS. 324)

//3 Indonesia islands: Moluccas: Ambon  Amboina, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 36)  |  adj.  Amboinensis, e 1843 TRAPPEN 36)

//3 Indonesia islands: New Guinea  Nova Guinea (1595 MERCATOR II "Asia")

//3 Indonesia islands: New Guinea: Papua New Guinea

//3 Indonesia islands: Sumatra  Sumatra, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "Asia"; 1843 TRAPPEN 36; EGGER S.L. 49)  |  adj.  Sumatrensis, e 1843 TRAPPEN 2)

//3 Indonesia islands: Sunda Islands

//3 Indonesia islands: Timor

//3 Indonesia islands: Timor: East Timor

//3 New Guinea  Nova Guinea (EGGER D.L. 10)

//3 New Zealand  Nova Zelandia;  adj.  Novozelandicus, a, um, Neozelandiensis, e (EGGER S.L. 14)  ► Novozelandensis, e (EGGER D.L. 37)

//3 Oceania  Oceania, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 14)

//3 Philippines  ► Insulae Philippinae f. pl.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 8.  ► Insulae Philippicae f. pl.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v et passim.  ► Terra Philippina (EGGER D.L. 7)  |  adj.  ► Philippînus, a, um  ¶1784 DUCRUE 264.

//3 Philippines cities: Manila  ► Manîla, ae f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v.  EGGER D.L. 8.  |  adj.  ► Manilensis, e  ¶ EGGER D.L. 7.

//3 Philippines islands: Luzon

//3 Philippines islands: Mindanao

//3 Samoa  Insulae Samoanae (EGGER D.L. 8)

//4 /Africa  ► Africa, ae f.  ¶ Mel.  Oros. 1, 2.  1595 MERCATOR II "Orbis Terrae."  |  adj.  ► Africânus, a, um /

//4 /Africa: langauges: Swahili  Svahilius, i m.;  adj.  Svahilicus, a, um.;  (language)  lingua Svahilica;  in Swahili  svahilicê  ►► lingua svahiliana (EGGER S.L. 102).  Non quadrat inclinamentum -anus, cum vox de loci nomine non derivetur.

//4 /Africa: sub-Saharan Africa, black Africa  ► Africa Transaharâna  ► Aethiopia, ae f.  ¶ Plin. 6, 8; 6, 35.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 477, after descriptions of Madagascar, Zanzibar, and Abysinnia: "Terminatis iis quae de Indiâ et quibusdam Aethiopiae regionibus narrare disposui, nunc ... ad regiones quasdam optimas quae sunt in extremis partibus aquilonis ... redeamus." Aethiopia is the land of black people, Aethiopes.

//4 Benin  Beninum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 39)

//4 Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta)  Burkina, ae f.  ►► Official name is Republic of Burkina; Faso means "land."  Volta Superior (EGGER S.L. 30).  EL: Μπουρκίνα Φάσο

//4 Cameroun  Cammarunia, ae f.;  adj.  Cammarunianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 14)

//4 Cape Verde  ► Promontôrium Viride  ¶ 1776 MORELLI 7.

//4 Chad  ? Tzadia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 56)

//4 Congo  adj. Congensis, e (EGGER D.L. 23) )

//4 Côte d'Ivoire, Ivory Coast   ►► EL: Ακτή Ελεφαντοστού

//4 Ethiopia  ► Abyssinia, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 47.  ► Abascia, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 473.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 43.  Cf. Arabic  حباش habasha (ultimate source also ofAbysinnia).  For the identification of Marco's Abascia as Abysinnia, see Yule 2, 431.  ► Aethiopia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 87.  1843 TRAPPEN 70, using Aethiopia and Abysinniainterchangeably.  |  adj.  ► Abyssinus, a, um  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Africa": "Abissini."  ►► Abysinnia is a much clearer term for the modern nation, as Aethiopia has been since antiquity much more general in reference, referring to all or large parts of sub-Saharan Africa (Plin. 5, 43), and sometimes, apparently, roughly equivalent to the equally polyvalent India.  Serv. G. 2, 116: "Indiam omnem plagam Aethiopiae accipimus."  Yule 2, 432: "Wadding gives a letter from the Pope (Alexander II) under date 3rd Sept. 1329, addressed to the Emperor of Ethiopia, to inform him of the appointment of a bishop of Diagorgan [in Persia]."  Note also that Aethiops since the end of the Middle Ages has been frequent as a synonym of nigrita, for any member of the black race.

//4 Ethiopia: Addis Ababa

//4 Ethiopia: Djibouti  ►► EL: Gibuti; Yibuti; Τζιμπουτί; Dschibuti; Arabic Jībūtī; Somali Jabuuti

//4 Ethiopia: Eritrea  Erythraea, ae f.  ►► EL: Ερυθραία

//4 Ethiopian  subst.  ► Abysinnus, i m.  ¶  ► Aethiopiânus, i m.  ¶  |  adj.  ► Abysinnicus, a, um  ¶   ► Aethiopicus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 87. 

//4 Ghana  Gana, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 40)  |  adj.  Ganensis, e (EGGER S.L. 39)  ►► EL: Γκάνα

//4 Guinea  ►► EL: Γουινέα

//4 Kenya  Kenia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 78)  |  adj.  Kenianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 21)

//4 Kenya cities: Nairobi  Nairobia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 21)

//4 Mali  ►► EL: το Μαλί

//4 Mauritania  Maurîtania (Ulterior)

//4 Mauritius (island in Indian Ocean)  Insula Mauritiâna (v. Mauritii)  ► Mauritiâna, ae f.;  adj.  Mauritiânus, a, um 1843 TRAPPEN 2)

//4 Mauritius: Republic of Mauritius  Res Publica Mauritiâna

//4 Mauritius: Reunion (island in Indian Ocean)  ►► Historical names: Santa Apolonia, Mascareignes (with Maurice and Rodrigue, after explorer Pedro de Mascarenhas)  ► île Bourbon.

//4 mountains: Atlas Mountains  Atlâs, antis m. (PLIN.; Verg.)  ► montes Atlantici (1798 DESFONTAINES ii: "Atlantici montes in duos tractûs praecipuos dividuntur."  |  adj.  Atlanticus, a, um (MART. )

//4 Mozambique  Mozambîcum, i n. (EGGER D.L. 24; EGGER S.L. 70)  ►► "denique in ipso Mosanbicho hyberna agere" (p. 2, ORATIO HABITA A FARA D. MARTINO Iaponio, 1587) (misit locum Iustinus).  EL: Μοζαμβίκη

//4 Nigeria  Nigeria, ae f.;  adj.  Nigeriânus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 74)

//4 Nigeria cities: Lagos  Lacupolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 75)

//4 rivers: Congo  Congus, i m.

//4 rivers: Niger  Nigris, is m.

//4 rivers: Nile  Nîlus, i m.;  adj.  Nîliacus, a, um, Nîlôticus, a, um

//4 Senegal  Senegalia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 61)  |  adj.  Senegaliensis, e (EGGER S.L. 61)  ►► EL: Σενεγάλη

//4 Somalia  ► Somalia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 31.

//4 Somalia: Mogadishu  ►

//4 South Africa  ► Africa Austrâlis  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiv: Africê Australis.  EGGER D.L. 48.

//4 South Africa: Cape of Good Hope  ► Caput Bonae Spei  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Africa."  ► Promontôrium Bonae Spei  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xiv.  1843 TRAPPEN 38.

//4 Sudan  Sudania, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 46)  |  adj.  Sudaniensis, e (EGGER S.L. 50)  ►► EL: Σουδάν

//4 Tanzania  Tanzania, ae f. (EGGER N.L.)

//4 Tanzania: Zanzibar  ► Zingium, i n.  ¶ Cf. Cosmas.  ► Zanzibaria, ae f.  ¶ EGGER N.L. s.v. Tanzania.  Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 469: "in insulâ quae dicitur Zanzibar."  |  adj.  ►Zanguebaricus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 68.   ►► EL: Ζανζιβάρη.  ||  Hobson-Jobson: "The Persian Zangi-bar, 'Region of the Blacks,' was known to the ancients in the form Zingis (Ptolemy, i. 17, 9; iv. 7, 11) and Zingium. The Arab softening of the g made the name into Zanjibar, and this the Portuguese made into Zanzibar ... 'And those who navigate the Indian Sea are aware that Zingium, as it is called, lies beyond the country where the incense grows, which is called Barbary.'  Cosmas, in Cathay, etc., clxvii."  |  Robert F. Burton, The Lakes Regions of Central Africa (New York, 1860), 38: "Zanzibar, signifying Nigritia, or Blackland, is clearly derived from the [Persian] zang, in Arabic zanj, a negro, and bar, a region ... Traces of the word may be found in the earliest geographers.  Ptolemy records a Zingis, or Zingisa ... According to Cosmas Indicopleustes, the Indian Ocean beyond Barbaria is called Zingium."

//4 Togo  Togum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 39)  ►► EL: Το Τόγκο

//4 Zimbabwe  Zimbabua, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 48)  |  adj.  Zimbabuanus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 48)

//41 Algeria  Algeria, ae f. (titles of 19th c. botanical works; EGGER S.L. 51)  ► Algerium, i n. (1652 TURS. 253)  |  adj.  Algeriânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 254)  ► Algeriensis, e (EGGER S.L. 51)  ►► Regnum Algeriense (1798 DESFONTAINES i)  ► ager Algeriensis (1798 DESFONTAINES title page).  1698 Hofmann s.v. Algeria: "urbs Africae ... ab ea regio adiacens dicitur regnum Algerii ... Ita regno Algeriae potiti piratae ..."  1698 Hofmann s.v. Barbaria: "Barbaria ... nunc continet regna Marrocanum, Fezzanum, Algerianum, Tunetanum et Tripoliltanum, cum Barcana regione."

//41 Algeria cities: Algiers  Algeria, ae f. (1698 Hofmann; 1652 TURS. 324)  ► Algerium, i n. (1698 Hofmann s.v. Algeria1784 DUCRUE 258)  ► Icosium, i n. (PLIN. 5, 20; Amm. 29, 5)  | adj.  Algeriânus, a, um (1698 Hofmann s.v. Barbaria)  ► Algeriensis, e (EGGER N.L.: "ex usu Curiae Romanae"; 1798 DESFONTAINES i)  ► Icositânus, a, um (PLIN. 3, 19)

//41 Algeria mountains: Altaic Mountains  Montes Altaici (1811 PALLAS 16)

//41 Barbary Coast, Barbary  Barbaria, ae f. (1698 Hofmann s.v. Fezzanum)

//41 Egypt  Aegyptus, i f.

//41 Egypt cities: Alexandria  Alexandrîa (or êa)  ► ae f.;  adj.  Alexandrînus, a, um

//41 Egypt cities: Cairo  Cairum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 104; cf. 1652 TURS. 141, Cayrum; 1652 TURS. 206, Chayrum)  ► Caeres, is (1652 TURS. 141: "Abathaminus calphya ... Caerem urbem regiam – Cayrum vocamus – ubi olim Memphis fuerat, condidit."  ► Kahira, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 11, 13)  ► Babylon Aegyptia (Becmann 253)  ► Memphis, is f. 1843 TRAPPEN 17)  ►► The site of ancient Memphis is about twelve miles south of the center of Cairo; Greek and Latin writers since the Middle Ages have often applied the names of ancient cities to new cities built nearby (see Baghdad).

//41 Egypt regions: Nubia  ► Nûbia, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "Africa."

//41 Egypt regions: Nubian  subst.  ► Nûba, ae m.  ¶ Sil. 3, 269.  ► Nûbeus, i m.  ¶ Plin. 6, 192.  ► Nûbiânus, i m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 43, of the Abyssinians: "Continua bella habent cum soldano de Aden et cum Nubianis."  |  adj.  ► Nûbiânus, a, um /

//41 Egypt regions: Sinai desert  solitûdo Sinai (Vulg. Exod. 19, 1)  ► desertum Sinae (Vulg. Exod. 19, 2)

//41 Egypt regions: Sinai: Mount Sinai  mons Sinai (Vulg. Exod. 19, 11)  ► mons Sina (gen. montis Sinae) (1652 TURS.)

//41 Egypt: Suez Canal  Euripus Suesiensis (EGGER S.L. 78)

//41 Libya  Libya, ae f.;  adj.  Libycus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 41)

//41 Libya cities: Tripoli  Oea, ae (EGGER S.L. 41)  ► Tripolis, is f. (1698 Hofmann s.v. Marocanum1652 TURS. 258: "classis instructissima Philippi [II Hispaniae] regis Tripolim Africae urbem Siculis infestam bello petebat"; 1784 DUCRUE 258)  |  adj.  Tripolitânus, a, um (Eutr.; 1798 DESFONTAINES i: "regnum Tripolitanum")

//41 Maghreb, North Africa (excluding Egypt)  Barbaria, ae f. (1698 Hofmann; 1798 DESFONTAINES i: "oras Africae Septentrionalis quae nunc Barbaria dici solent"; 1843 TRAPPEN47)  ►► 1698 Hofmann s.v. Barbaria ostendit variis exemplis regionem Africanam  Βαρβαριαν  iam ante Arabum adventum audiisse.

//41 Maghreb: Berber 

//41 Maghrebi, North African (excluding Egypt)  subst.  Maurus, i m. (1784 DUCRUE 258: "hae [cymbae piscatoriae] enim dum piscando panem suum quaerunt, saepissime in Maurorum reti incidunt, quas vel Tripolim vel Algerium abducunt, et in servitutem redigunt"; 1798 DESFONTAINES iii)

//41 Moor  Maurus, i m. (PLIN.; LIV.; 1652 TURS. 245: "Ferdinandus et Elizabetha Hispaniarum reges, Granatâ urbe per vim potiti, Maurorum in Hispania regnum excîderunt")

//41 Morocco  Maroc(h)ânum, i n. (1698 Hofmann)  ► Marochum, i n. (1698 Hofmann)  ► Marrochum, i n. (1652 TURS. 263)  ► Marrocum, i n. (1652 TURS. 291)  ► Marocum , i n. (1652TURS. 324)  ► Marochium, i n. (EGGER S.L. 42)  ► Marochii regnum (1698 Hofmann s.v. Fezzanum)  ► Mauritânia Tingitâna (1698 Hofmann, "Nomenclator," s.v. Marocco)  |  adj. Maroc(h)anus, a, um (1698 Hofmann s.v. Marocanum)  ► Marocanus, a, um (1798 DESFONTAINES i)  ►► Marokiensis (EGGER N.L. s.v. Rabat)

//41 Morocco cities: Agadir  Agades (1698 Hofmann s.v. Marocanum)

//41 Morocco cities: Casablanca

//41 Morocco cities: Fez  Fezza, ae f. (1698 Hofmann)  ► Fessa, ae f. (1698 Hofmann s.v. Marocanum)  |  adj.  Fezzânus, um, a (1698 Hofmann s.v. Fezzanum)  ► Fessânus, a, um (1698Hofmann s.v. Fezzanum)

//41 Morocco cities: Marrakech  Marochium, i n. (1698 Hofmann)  ► Marochopolis, is f.

//41 Morocco cities: Rabat  Sala, ae f. (PLIN. 5, 5; for identification, see EGGER N.L.)  ► Rabatum, i n. (EGGER N.L.)  |  adj.  Rabatensis, e (EGGER N.L.)

//41 Morocco cities: Tangiers  Tingi, is f. (PLIN.; EGGER N.L.)  |  adj.  Tingitânus, a, um (PLIN.; EGGER N.L.)  ► Tingensis (Corrip.; EGGER N.L.)

//41 Sahara desert  plaga arida Saheliana (EGGER S.L. 30)  ► deserta loca Sahariana (n. pl.) (EGGER S.L. 51)  ►► desertum Sahara dictum (1798 DESFONTAINES i)

//41 Saharan  adj.  Sahelianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 30)  ► Saharianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 51)  ► Garmanticus, a, um (PLIN., of an ancient people living in the Sahara)

//41 Tunis  Tûnês, êtis m. (1698 Hofmann; EGGER S.L. 51)  ► Tŷnês, êtis m. (LIV. 30, 9, 10)  ► Tûnêtum, i n. (1652 TURS. 211 et passim1798 DESFONTAINES i: "Tuneti et antiquae Carthaginis litora salutavimus."  |  adj.  Tûnêtânus, a, um (1698 Hofmann s.vv. Tunes, Fezzanum1652 TURS. 211, 253)  ► Tûniseus, a, um (SID.)

//41 Tunisia  Tûnêsia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 51)  |  adj.  Tûnêsiensis, e (EGGER S.L. 51)  ►► Tûnêtânum regnum (1698 Hofmann; 1652 TURS. 253; 1798 DESFONTAINES i)  ► ager Tunetanus (1798 DESFONTAINES title page)

//5 /America (North and South), New World, western hemisphere  ► America, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "America" map.  1652 TURS. 245.  ► Americê, ês f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xv et passim.  ► utraque America  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 217.  ► utraque Americê  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xvi.  ► India Occidentalis  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 33: "in India Occidentali vero, in colonia Surinamensi."  ► Indiae Occidentales (f. pl.)  ¶ 1652 TURS. 374.  ► India Nova  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "America" map.  ► orbis novus  ¶ 1652 TURS. 245.  1794 RUIZ xvi.  1811PALLAS 10.

//5 /America: North America  ► America Boreâlis  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xi.  1811 PALLAS 8.  ► America Septentriônâlis  ¶ GESENIUS ix.  1794 RUIZ vi.  1826 LÜDERS 29.  |  adj. ► Americânus Boreâlis  ► Boreamericânus, a, um

//5 /America: South America  ► America Australis  ► America Meridiâna  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 45.  EGGER S.L. 15.  ► America Meridiônâlis  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 29.

//5 /American Indians: Algonquin  Algonquinius, i m. (1698 Hofmann, "Nomenclator")

//5 / American Indians: Iroquois Iroquensis -is (Breviarium Monsasticum 1940, Fetum Ss. Jogues et al.)

//5 / American Indians: Huron Hurō -onis m. (Breviarium Monsasticum 1940, Fetum Ss. Jogues et al.: “Joannes de Brebeuf, Huronum apostolus merito nuncupatus”), ;  adj.  Hurōnicus, a, um (cf. Saxōnicus)

//5 /American, concerning the Americas (adj.)  ► Americânus, a, um  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 48 et passim.  ►► Indiae without specification (like "") refer to both "Indies" – Asia and the Americas.  1784 DUCRUE 259: "quotquot naves ex Indiis redeunt."  1652 TURS. 327: "Hispaniarum et Indiarum rex Catholicus."  Cf. the expression utraque India1794 RUIZ iii: "arboribus stirpibusque ... ex vastissimis regionibus in utrâque Indiâ transmissis."  1794 RUIZ viii: "rarioribus ex utrâque Indiâ plantis instruendi negotiuim."

//5 /American, inhabitant of the Americas (noun)  ► Americânus, i m.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xvii.

//5 /Latin America  America Latina (EGGER D.L. 43)

//5 Argentina  Argentîna, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 8)  |  adj.  Argentînus, a, um. (EGGER S.L. 7)

//5 Argentina cities:  Bonae Aurae f. pl. (José Cardiel, Declaración de la verdad, Buenos Aires, 1900, imprimatur page)  ► Urbs Boni Aëris (Dobr.)  ► Bonus Aêr (Dobr.)  ► ? Bonaëropolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 11)  ►► Bonis Auris is the place indication used in Latin books published in Buenos Aires (since the mid-19th century) (WC).  Academia Literaria del Plata, Estudios, 1967, p. 294: "dicunt ferme urbem Boni Aeris: malo Bonas Auras dicere.  Id conformius est antiquis illis formis 'Aquas Sextias,' 'Fossam Clodiam,' aliis")

//5 Bolivia  ► Bolivia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 34.

//5 Brazil  Brasilia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 245; EGGER D.L. 34)  |  adj.  Brasilicus, a, um (1652 TURS. 297)  ► Brasiliensis, e (EGGER S.L. 15)

//5 Brazil cities: Brasilia  Brasiliopolis, is f.

//5 Brazil cities: Porto Alegre  Alacer Portus (Graesse, of town in Portugal)

//5 Brazil cities: Rio de Janeiro  Flumen Ianuârium, Sanctus Sebastiânus 1843 TRAPPEN 2)  ► Sebastiânopolis, is f.

//5 Brazil cities: Sao Paulo  Sanctus Paulus, Paulopolis, is f.

//5 Brazil rivers: Amazon  Amâzonum flûmen(Humboldt)  ► amnis Amazonius (EGGER D.L. 34)

//5 Brazil rivers: Amazon region  Amazonia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 34)

//5 Chile  ► Chilia, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 81.  |  adj.  ► Chilensis, e  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i.  ► Chiliensis, e  ¶ EGGER D.L. 13.  ►► 1794 RUIZ xii: Regnum Chilense.  Chiloensis, e (1784DUCRUE 263: "in Provincia Chiloensi sive Insulis Chiloensibus")

//5 Chile cities: Concepción  ► Conceptionis Urbs  ¶ Cf. 1794 RUIZ xii: Conceptionis provincia.

//5 Chile cities: Santiago

//5 Chile cities: Valparaiso

//5 Colombia  ► Columbia, ae f.

//5 Colombia cities: Bogotá

//5 Colombia cities: Cali

//5 Ecuador  ► Aequatoria, ae  ¶ EGGER S.L. 40.

//5 Ecuador cities: Quito  Quitum, i n. (BauhinHist. 622; EGGER S.L. 40)

//5 Falkland Islands, Malvinas  ►

//5 Mexican  adj.  Mexicânus, a, um (1784 DUCRUE 230; EGGER D.L. 43)

//5 Mexico  ► Mexicum, i n.  ¶ Pharm. Austr. 185.  EGGER D.L. 43.  ► Mexica, ae f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 333.  |  adj.  ► Mexicânus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 253.  1794 RUIZ iii.  ►Mexicensis, e  ¶ 1794 RUIZ vi.

//5 Mexico cities: Acapulco  Acapulcum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 102)  |  adj.  Acapulquensis (1784 DUCRUE 241)

//5 Mexico cities: City  Mexicum, i n. (1784 DUCRUE 245)  ► Mexicopolis, is f. (EGGER D.L. 43)

//5 Mexico cities: Guadalajara  Guadalaxâra, ae f. (1784 DUCRUE 245)  |  adj.  Guadalâxariensis, e (1784 DUCRUE 244)

//5 Mexico cities: Jerez   urbs Xeresana (1784 DUCRUE 245)

//5 Mexico cities: Monterrey  Regimontium, i n., Mons Regalis (EGGER D.L. 44)

//5 Mexico: cities: Veracruz  Civitas a Vera Cruce dicta (1784 DUCRUE 247)  ► Portus Verae Crucis (1784 DUCRUE 256, of Cuban city)

//5 Mexico: Nahua (member of ethnic group)  \\ Navatlaca, ae m. \ Hoffman 155, s.v. Mexicani

//5 Mexico: Nahuatl (language)  \\ lingua Mexicana \ 1784 DUCRUE 246.

//5 mountains: Andes  ► Andes, ium f. pl.  ¶ 1602 ACOSTA 119.  1794 RUIZ xii: "Andiumque partem lustravimu."  Humboldt.  |  adj.  ► Andînus, a, um  ¶  ►► Andae, arum f. pl. (EGGERD.L. 55; cf. Italian "le Ande").

//5 Paraguay  ► Paraquaria, ae f.  |  adj.  ► Paraquariensis, e  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 221.

//5 Peru  ► Peruvia, ae f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v et passim.  EGGER D.L. 34.  ► Perua, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 67.  |  adj.  ► Peruviânus, a, um  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i.  ► Peruânus, a, um  ¶ 1602ACOSTA 118.  1652 TURS. 300.  1794 RUIZ xvi.

//5 Peru cities: Callao  ► Callâum, i n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ x.

//5 Peru cities: Lima  ► Lima, ae f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ x.

//5 Peruvian  adj.  Peruvianus, a, um (Pharm. Helv. [1907] 60; EGGER S.L. 14)  ► Peruânus, a, um (1652 TURS. 253; BauhinHist. 622)

//5 seas: Magellan: Strait of Magellan  Frêtum Magellanicum (1595 MERCATOR II "America" map)

//5 Surinam  Surinamum, i n. 1843 TRAPPEN 33)  ► Surinamia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 34)  |  adj.  Surinamensis, e 1843 TRAPPEN 2 et passim)

//5 Surinam: French Guiana  ► Guiana Gallica  |  adj.  ► Guianensis Gallicus  ► Guianogallicus, a, um

//5 Surinam: French Guiana: Cayenne  Caienna, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 33; EGGER N.L.)  |  adj.  Caiennensis, e (EGGER N.L.; cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 2: Cayenensis)

//5 Surinam: Guyana  Guiana, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 42; EGGER N.L.)  |  adj.  Guianensis, e 1843 TRAPPEN 68; EGGER N.L.)

//5 Uruguay  ►

//5 Uruguay cities: Montevideo  ►

//5 Venezuela  ► Venetiola, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 33.  |  adj.  ► Venetiolânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 33.

//5 Venezuela cities: Caracas  ► Caracae, arum f. pl.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 33.  |  adj.  ► Caracensis, e  ¶ EGGER S.L. 33.  ► Caracasensis, e  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 29.

//51 /Caribbean  adj.  Antillensis, e, Caribicus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 60)

//51 /Caribbean islands, Antilles  ► Antillae, arum f. pl.  ¶ 1776 MORELLI 7: "Plerasque omnes ex parvis Antillis Colonus invenit."  1843 TRAPPEN 34: "in Martinicam et ceteras Antillas." EGGER D.L. 40.  EGGER S.L. 58.

//51 /Caribbean Sea  Mare Antillense, Mare Caribicum (EGGER D.L. 40; EGGER S.L. 58)

//51 Antigua  ► Antîqua, ae f.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Antîquensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Aruba  ► Arûba, ae f.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Arûbensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Bahamas  ► Insulae Bahamenses (f. pl.)  ¶ EGGER D.L. 21.  EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Bahamensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L. citing 18th-century source.

//51 Bahamas cities: Nassau  ► Nassova, ae f.  ¶ Graesse, of German town that lent its name to the Dutch royal family, after which in turn the Bahamian city was named.

//51 Barbados  ► Insula Barbâtiâna  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Barbâtiânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Bermuda  ► Bermûdae, arum f. pl.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Bermûdensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Cayman Islands  ► Insulae Caimanenses (f. pl.)  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Caimanensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Cuba  ► Cuba, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "America" map.  1776 MORELLI  7.  1843 TRAPPEN 2.  |  adj.  ► Cubânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 60.

//51 Cuba cities: Guantánamo  ► Guantanamum, i n.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Guantanamensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Cuba cities: Guantánamo Bay  ► Sinus Guantanamensis

//51 Cuba cities: Havana  Havâna, ae f. (1784 DUCRUE 249 et passim; cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 2: Havanna)  |  adj.  Havanensis, e (1784 DUCRUE 254)  ►► Habanensis, e (EGGER S.L. 60)

//51 Curaçao  ► Curacâum, i n.  ¶ EGGER N.L. |  adj.  ► Curacaitânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Grenada (Caribbean island)  ► Granâta, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 60.  EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Granâtensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Guadéloupe  ► Guadalûpa, ae f.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Guadalûpensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Hispaniola  ► Hispâniola, ae f.  ¶ 1595 MERCATOR II "America" map.  EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Hispâniolânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Hispaniola: Dominican cities: Santo Domingo  Dominicopolis, is f. (EGGER D.L. 43)

//51 Hispaniola: Dominican Republic  ► Res Publica Dominicâna  ¶ EGGER D.L. 43.  |  adj.  ► Dominicânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER D.L. 43.  ►► EGGER N.L.: Res Publica Dominiciana.

//51 Hispaniola: Haiti  ► Haitia, ae f.  ► Civitas Haitiâna  ¶ EGGER N.L. s.v. Hispaniola. |  adj.  ► Haitiânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 43.

//51 Jamaica  ► Iamaica, ae f.  ¶ 1698 HOFMANN, "Nomenclator."  1776 MORELLI 7.  1843 TRAPPEN 35.  EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Iamaicensis, e   ¶ Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 2: Jamaquensis.  ► Iamaicânus, a, um  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Martinique  ► Martinîca, ae f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 34.  EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Martinîcensis, e  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 2.  EGGER N.L.

//51 Puerto Rico  ► Portoricus, i m.  ¶ Milton.  1776 MORELLI 15.  ► Portus Dives  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Portoricensis, e  ► Portudivitensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Saint Barts, Saint Barthélemy  ►   ¶   |  adj.  ►   ¶

//51 Tobago  ► Tobâgum, i n.  ¶ EGGER N.L.  |  adj.  ► Tobâgensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Trinidad  ► Trinitâtis Insula  |  adj.  ► Trinitâtensis, e  ¶ EGGER N.L.

//51 Virgin Islands  ► Insulae Virginâriae (f. pl.)  |  adj.  ► Virginârius, a, um

//52 /Central America  America Media (EGGER S.L. 43)

//52 Belize  Belîza, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 43)

//52 Costa Rica  Ora Dives (EGGER D.L. 44)  |  adj.  Orodivitensis, e (EGGER S.L. 43)

//52 El Salvador  Salvatoria, ae f., Civitas Salvatoriana (EGGER S.L. 43, Res Publica Salvatoriana (EGGER D.L. 44)

//52 Guatemala  Guatimalia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 44; EGGER S.L. 43)

//52 Honduras  Honduria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 43)  |  adj.  Hondurianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 14)

//52 Nicaragua  Nicaragua, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 44; EGGER S.L. 43)

//52 Panama  Panama, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 43)  |  adj.  Panamensis, e (EGGER S.L. 18)

//6 /United States of America  Foederatae Civitates Americae, America Foederata (19th- and 20th-century ecclesiastical documents)  ►► Foederatae Americae Septentrionalis Civitates (EGGER D.L. 8-9): the nation's name is not "United States of North America."

//6 /United States of American: American (subst.), citizen of the US  ► Americânus, i m.  ¶ 1771 WAY 4, of inhabitants of the English colonies in North America.  ► Americânus Foederâtus  ¶ Cf. 1652 TURS. 337: Confoederati Belgae, of the inhabitants of the Dutch United Provinces.

//6 Alaska  Alsaca, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 22)  |  adj.  Alascanus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 28)

//6 Alaska cities: Anchorage  Ancoraria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 56)

//6 Alaska: Aleutian  (member of tribe)  Aleutus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 37)

//6 Alaska: Aleutian Islands  insulae Aleuticae (1811 PALLAS 52)

//6 Alaska: Bering Strait  Fretum Beringanum (EGGER S.L. 86)  ► Fretum Beringii (cf. insula Beringii, 1811 PALLAS 52)

//6 Arizona: Tuscon  Tusconia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 78)

//6 California  California, ae f. (1784 DUCRUE 220; EGGER D.L. 41)

//6 California: Los Angelos  Angelopolis, is f.; Urbs Angelorum (from WC: Constitutiones latae et promulgatae ab Illmo. ac Revmo. D.D. Francisco Mora, episcopo Montereyensi et Angelorum, in synodo quarta diocesana, habita in ... civitate Angelorum diebus 30 et 31 mensis Julii, A.D. 1889, Los Angeles, 1889)

//6 California: San Diego  Didacoplis, is f., Sancti Didaci Urbs, Sanctus Didacus;  adj.  Didacopolitânus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 79)

//6 California:San Francisco  Franciscopolis, is f. (EGGER D.L. 41)  ► Sancti Francisci Urbs, Sanctus Franciscus;  adj.  Franciscopolitânus, a, um

//6 California:San José  Iosephopolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 43)

//6 Californian  subst.  Californius, i m. (1784 DUCRUE 222 et passim, of native inhabitants)  |  adj.  Californicus, a, um (1784 DUCRUE 228)  ► Californiânus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 77)

//6 Colorado  Rubrifluvium, i n. (cf. "Flumen Rubrum" of Colorado River, 1784 DUCRUE)  ► Coloratum (Eg., Nom. Loc.)  |  adj.  Rubrifluvânus, a, um, Coloratensis, e (EGGER D.L. 49)  ►► For the formation of Rubrifluvium, cf. quadrifluvium.

//6 Connecticut: New Haven  Neoportus, ûs m. (1652 TURS. 274, of Flemish town)  ► Novoportus, ûs m. (1652 TURS. 416, of Flemish town)

//6 Florida   Florida, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "America" map; 18 c. titles in WC; EGGER D.L. 21)

//6 Florida: Cape Canaveral  Prômunturium Canaveralense (EGGER S.L. 13, 51)

//6 Florida: Miami  Miamia, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 21)

//6 Florida: Palm Beach  Ora Palmaria (EGGER D.L. 33)

//6 Georgia (state)  Georgia, ae f.;  adj.  Georgiânus, a, um

//6 Illinois: Chicago  Sicâgum, i n. (EGGER S.L. 55)  |  adj.  Sicagensis, e (EGGER S.L. 54)

//6 Kentucky  Kentukia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 80)

//6 Kentucky: Louisville  Ludovicopolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 80)

//6 Louisiana  Ludoviciana, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 53)

//6 Louisiana: Cajun, creole

//6 Lousiana: New Orleans  Nova Aurêliâna, Nova Aurêlia;  adj.  Novoaurêliânus, a, um, Novus Aurêliânus (cf. Jord. 37, 194: civitas Aureliana, of Orleans, France)  ►► Neo-Aurelia (Synodus Dioecesana Neo-Aurelianensis Secunda, Neo-Aureliae, 1844; Concilium Neo-Aurelianense provinciale tertium, Neo-Aureliae, 1875)

//6 Maine  Cenomannica, ae (EGGER S.L. 20)

//6 Minnesota  Minnesôta, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 19)

//6 Missouri: St. Louis (city)  Ludovicopolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 53)  ► urbs Sancti Ludovici

//6 Nevada  Nivimontium, i n.;  adj.  Nivimontânus, a, um  ►► Nivata (EGGER N.L.).  For the formation of Nivimontium (from "Sierra Nevada."  ► cf. the ancient place names Caelimontium (Caelimontanus)  ► Trimontium, and Septimontium, and the later Regi(o)montium for Königsberg.

//6 Nevada: Las Vegas  Vegae, arum f. pl.  ►► Campi (Eg.)

//6 Nevada: Sierra Nevada  Mons Nivôsus

//6 New Hampshire  ¶ Nova Hampia

//6 New Jersey  Nova Caesarea (title from WC: Viro perhonorifico, artibus ingenuis limato ... Collegii Novae-Cæsareae .. hæc philosophemata ... Habita publicis comitiis in Aula-Nassovica, apud Princeton, Novae-Cæsareae [i.e. Woodbridge, N.J.], 1762)

//6 New Jersey: Princeton  Princetonia, ae f., Principitonia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 76)

//6 New York City  Novum Eborâcum n. (EGGER S.L. 19)  |  adj.  Novus Eboracensis, Neo-Eboracensis (cited in ecclesial documents and deeds of 1697, used by Glass, New York University, and Bertuch's 1808 Novus Orbis Pictus), Novoëboracensis (EGGER D.L. 28; WC).

//6 New York City: Brooklyn  Bruclînum, i n.;  adj.  Bruclinensis, e (EGGER S.L. 50)

//6 New York City: Long Island  Longa Insula (EGGER S.L. 50)

//6 New York City: Manhattan  adj.  Manhattensis, e (EGGER S.L. 48)

//6 New York: Buffalo  Buffalum, i n. (EGGER D.L. 21)

//6 New York: Niagara falls  cataracta Niagarae, cadentes aquae Niagarenses (EGGER S.L. 101)

//6 New York: World Trade Center, Twin Towers  turres geminae (Novae Eboracenses v. Novoëboracenses) 

//6 North Carolina  Carolîna Septentriônâlis (Carolina in 18 c. titles in WC)

//6 North Carolina: Charlotte  Carolinopolis, is f. (EGGER S.L. 106)  ►► Fortasse "Carlotta" vel simile aptius, ne confundatur cum "Carolopoli" (Charleston).

//6 North Dakota: Fargo Fargum, i n.; adj. Fargensis, e (Muench, 1941)

//6 Ohio: Cincinnati  Cincinnātī -ōrum m.pl. (see History of Cincinnati) < Cincinnāta -ae (EGGER N.L.), Cincinnatus (Circoscrizioni), Cincinnâtiâna, ae f., Cincinnâtopolis, is f.

//6 Ohio: Columbus (city)  Columbopolis, is f. (EGGER D.L. 11)

//6 Oregon  Oregonia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 106)

//6 Pennsylvania: Philadelphia  ► Philadelphîa, ae f.  ¶ 1771 WAY title page   |  adj.  ► Philadelphênus, a, um  ¶ EGGER S.L. 34.

//6 Pennsylvania: Pittsburg  Pittisburgum, i n.;  adj.  Pittisburgensis, e (EGGER S.L. 88)

//6 regions: Great Plains  patentes campi (civitatum mediarum)

//6 regions: Midwest  civitates (occidentales) mediae

//6 rivers: Colorada River  Fluvius Ruber (1784 DUCRUE 233)

//6 rivers: Colorado  Flûmen Coloratum

//6 rivers: Mississipi  Mississipius, i m.

//6 rivers: Missouri  Missurius, i m. (EGGER N.L.)

//6 rivers: Rio Grande

//6 South Carolina: Charleston  Carolopolis, is f.

//6 Texas  Texia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 69)

//6 Texas: Laredo  Laurêtum, i n.

//6 Texas: Laredo  Lauretum, i n. (1784 DUCRUE 223)  |  adj.  Lauretanus, a, um (1784 DUCRUE 231)

//6 Utah: Salt Lake City  Lacûs Salsi Urbs (EGGER S.L. 32)

//6 Vermont  Viridimontium, i n.:  adj.  Viridimontânus, a, um  ►► For formation of Virimontium, cf. Trimontium (Plin.), Regi(o)montium,

//6 Vermont: Montpelier  Mons Pessulânus (Latin name of Montepellier, French city)

//6 Virginia  Virginia, ae f. (1652 TURS. 288)

//6 Virginia  Virginia, ae f.;  adj.  Virginiânus, a, um (1811 PALLAS 9)

//6 White House  Aedes Albae f. pl. (EGGER D.L. 46)

//6 Wyoming < (cf. the scientific name Echmatemys wyomingensis)

//6 Wyoming: Cheyenne Cheyennum n. (Circoscrizioni)

//6 Wyoming: Lander Landērium n.

//6 Wyoming: Casper Casparium n.

//6 Wyoming: Riverton Rīvertōnia f.

//61 /Canada  Canada, ae f. (1595 MERCATOR II "America" map; 1652 TURS. 281; EGGER D.L. 35)  |  adj.  Canadensis, e (1595 MERCATOR II "Polus Arcticus" map; 1652 TURS. 298)

//61 /Northwest Passage  navigatio ad Asian per plagam Arcticam cf. (1652 TURS. 296: "temptatur a Batavis infeliciter navigatio ad Sinas per borealem poli Arctici plagam")

//61 Alberta: Calgary  Calgaria, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 67)

//61 Eskimo, Inuit  Escimaeus, i n., Inuîta, ae m.;  adj.  Escimaicus, a, um, Inuîticus, a, um

//61 Labrador  Terra Laboratoria (EGGER S.L. 20)

//61 Nova Scotia  Nova Scotia (EGGER S.L. 20)

//61 Quebec  Quebêcum, i n., Urbs Quebecensis (Breviarium Monasticum)   adj.  Quebêcânus, a, um (1811 PALLAS 9) Quebecensis -e

//61 Quebec: Montreal  Marianopolis, is f., Regimontium, i n., Mons Regalis (EGGER S.L. 98)

//61 rivers: Saint Lawrence  Flûmen Sancti Laurentii

/1

/1    PLANTS

/1 aloe (genus Aloe L., esp. Aloe vera)  ► aloê, ês f.  ¶ Plin.  Vulg.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 70: "de ligno aloes" (where Christopher Columbus writes in the margin of his copy "lignum aloes").  

/1 bamboo (tribe Bambuseae)  ► harundo Indica  ¶ VARR.  PLIN.  For the identification, see AndréBotanique.  Cf. 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 66, of Kublai Khan's retreat at Xanadu: "In medio nemoris habet rex magnus domum unam pulcherrimam de arundinibus compositam."

/1 clover  trifolium, i n.

/1 evergreen  ► semper virens  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxx: "arbores sempervirentes."  ► perpetuo virens  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 55.  ► foliis continuo vestitus  ¶ 1794 RUIZ x: "arbores et frutices... foliis continuo vestitae."  |  be evergreen  ► foliis perpetuis virescere  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 127.  ► perpetuâ fronde virêre  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 128.  ► folio perpetuum esse  ¶1571 MATTIOLI 161.

/1 evergreen: deciduous

/1 flowers: begonia (genus Begonia L.)  ► begonia, ae* f.  ¶ Linn. as genus name.  1794 RUIZ x.

/1 flowers: foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)  digitâlis purpurea (1846 GROSSE 21)

/1 flowers: orchid (family Orchidaceae, esp. genus Orchis L.)  ► orchis, is f.  ¶ PLIN.  Linn., as name of the type genus.  ► orchidea, ae* f.  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xix.  1794 RUIZxi.

/1 flowers: tulip  tulipa, ae* (Noël)

/1 lichen  lîchên, ênis m. (PLIN.)

/1 linoleum  tegmentum linoleâre*, linoleâre, is* n.

/1 linseed  lini semen (PLIN. 20, 249 et passim; (Pharm. Bat. III. 147; Pharm. Austr. 338)

/1 linseed oil  lini oleum (Pharm. Austr. 268)

/1 pamper oneself  cutîculam cûrare (HOR. Ep. 1, 2, 29)  ► pelliculam cûrare (HOR. S. 2, 5, 38)

/1 plant  ► planta, ae f.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS vii et passim.  ► stirps, is f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ ii, using stirps and planta interchangeably.  EGGER D.L. 34.  ► vegetâbile, is+ n.  ¶ 1784 THUNBERGxiii: "semina vegetabilium in genere, imprimis vero arborum et fruticum."  1794 RUIZ iv: "adolescentibus vegetabilia cognoscendi et delineandi apprime peritis."  ► vegetâle, is n. /

/1 plant adj.: early  praecox, praecoquus

/1 plant adj.: wild (plant or animal)  ► silvestris, e (plants or animals)  ¶ Hor.  Ov.  PLIN.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 356: "Sunt ibi boves silvestres qui sunt magni sicut elephantes."  Ibid.376, of Kublai Khan's feasts: "Habet fercula ... diversarum carnium, bestiarum et avium silvestrium et domesticarum."  1571 MATTIOLI 117.  ► erraticus, a, um (plants)  ¶ Vitr.  Plin.  ►agrestis, e  ¶ 

/1 plant kingdom  regnum vegetabile+  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 65.  Pharm. Austr. xvi.  Cf. 1794 RUIZ xvi: "quoniam utriusque Americes Insularumque Philippicarum provinciae ... tot opes e tribus naturae regnis suppeditabant ad botanices et historiae naturalis scientiam amplificandum."

/1 plant: flowering plants  ► vegetâbilia flôrentia (n. pl.)  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xvi.

/1 sea-weed  alga, ae f.

 /1 trees: fine wood: ebony (Tectona grandis L.)  ► hebenus, i f.  ¶ Verg.  Plin.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 441: "Et habent multum de ligno unde fiunt calamaria, id est de bonusso, quod in Latino dicitur ebenus."

/1 trees: fine wood: either of two related red-dye-producing trees: (1) brazilwood, pau-brasil, pernambuco (Caesalpina echinata), or (2) sappanwood, sapanwood, sappan (Caesalpina sappan)  ► brasile, is+ n.  ¶ Ducange: "BRASILE, BRASILIUM, BRESILLUM, Brasilicum lignum, vel coccum infectorium, color ruber ... Non ergo a Brasiliâ, vastissimâ regione huius appellationis, quae ab anno 1500 tantummodo cognita est, brasilis nomen habemus, quod illi potius inditum videtur quod eiusmodi ligno rubro abundaret" (quoting 12th and 14th c. sources)."  ► brasilium, i+ n.  ¶ Ducange, quoted above.  ► lignum Brasilicum  ¶ Ducange s.v. brasile in definition, quoted above.    ►► When it is necessary to distinguish the two trees, brazilwood may be called brasile Americânum, and sappanwood brasile Asiaticum (v. Malaicum v. orientâle).  |  OED s.v. brazil: "1. Originally, the name of the hard brownish-red wood of an East Indian tree, known as Sappan (Cæsalpinia Sappan), from which dyers obtain a red colour. After the discovery of the New World, the name was extended and gradually transferred to the similar wood of a South American species (C. echinata), which has given its name to the land of Brazil, and to other species, natives of the West Indies and Central America."

/1 trees: fine wood: sandalwood (genus Santalum L., esp. Santalum album L.)  ► santalum, i*  ¶ Matthiolus Epist. 142.  F. Bacon (ed. Spedding) 2, 156.  Latham quoting 17 c. sources.  Linn. as genus name.  Cf. adj. santalinum, in Periplus, quoted below.  ► sandalus, i+ m.  ¶ Latham.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 447: "Omnes eorum arbores sunt magni valoris, eo quod sunt sandali, nuces de Indiâ, et garofoli."  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 70, on Chinese exports: "de ligno aloes et de sandalis" (where Christopher Columbus writes in the margin of his copy "sandalus").  Ibid. 3, 20, in a passage parallel to the preceding one: "Nemore sunt ibi arborum sandalorum rubeorum, nucum Indiae, et gariofolarum."  1750 GEORG RUMPH, Herbarium Amboinense (Amsterdam, 1741-50), quoted in Memoirs of the Wernerian Natural History Society (Edinburg, 1832), 6, 280.  Cf. Anc. Gr.  σάνδανον .  ► lignum santalinum  ¶ Periplus maris Erythraei 36 (Latin trans. by Karl Müller in Geographi Graeci minores 1, 285) (in Greek text  σανταλίνων , a generally accepted emendation of Salmusius for  σαγαλίνων  of MSS).  |  adj.  ►santalinus, a, um  ¶ Periplus, quoted above.  ►► Periplus maris rubri ch. 36 (trans. Schoff): "To both of these market-towns large vessels are regularly sent from Barygaza, loaded with copper and sandalwood and timbers of teakwood and logs of blackwood and ebony."   Schoff 152 (on that passage): "Sandalwood has been known in India from the most ancient times, the Sanskrit authors distinguishing various woods according to color.  Chandana is the name for the series ... This mention in the Periplus seems to be the earliest Roman reference to sandalwood.  It is mentioned by Cosmas Indicopleustes (6th century) under the name tzandána."

/1 trees: fine wood: teak (Tectona grandis L.)  ►   ►► EL: teck; teak, teck; teca; Teak; Port. teca, Malayalam tekka.

/1 trees: maple: sugar maple (Acer saccharum)  ► acer saccharinum  ¶ Linn., as scientific name.

/12    

/12    PLANT PARTS

/12 anther  anthêra, ae (*) f. 1843 TRAPPEN 66)

/12 cluster (fruits, berries, flowers)  racêmus, i m.;  in clusters  racêmatim* (adv.) (1571 MATTIOLI 126, of apricot: "floribus ... racematim prodeuntibus"; 1571 MATTIOLI 108: "baccae racematim prodeunt"; 1571 MATTIOLI 334: "fructus racematim enascitur."  |  clustered, clustering  racêmôsus, a, um (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 675)

/12 filament (thin fiber or strand, esp. of plants)  capillamentum, i n. (SEN.; PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 112)

/12 fuzz (as on surface of peaches)  lânûgo, inis f. (Verg.; PLIN.)

/12 fuzzy, covered with fuzz  lânûginôsus, a, um (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 155: "nascitur haec nux lanuginoso, seu potius capillaceo involucro inclusa")

/12 head (lettuce, cabbage)  caput, orbis (André)

/12 peduncle, pedicel (flower stalk)  pediculus, i m. (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 323)

/12 petal  petalum, i* n. (of sheet or plaque of metal: ISID.; LATHAM; DUCANGE; of flower petal: OED citing 17th c. source)

/12 petal: calyx (of flower: sepals collectively)  ► calyx, cis m.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 324, of calyx of clove tree.  1810 BROWN vi.

/12 petal: corolla (of flower: petals collectively)  calathus, i m. (Col.; Aus.)  ► calyx, cis m. (PLIN.)  ► calyculus, i m. (PLIN.; APUL.; for meaning of all three terms in ancient authors, seeAndréBotanique)  ►► Vide OED s.v. sepal: Necker non agnovit discrimen corollae ac calycis.  OED s.v. calyx: "1671 MALPIGHI Anat. Plant., Calyx..floris basis est.  1686 RAY Hist. Plant. I. A2 Calyx, folliculus sive, involucrum floris.. the cup enclosing or containing the flower" (hoc videtur ad "calyx" ut nunc dicitur spectare).

/12 petal: sepal

/12 pine-cone  pînea, ae f. (Col.)  ► nux pînea (Marc. Med.)

/12 pistil  pistillum, i (*) n. 1843 TRAPPEN 65)

/12 pit, stone (as of peach, cherry)  ► nucleus, i m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 16.  ► os, ossis n.  ► ossiculum, i n.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 142.  Bauhin I. 421.

/12 pitless, seedless  spado, spadonius (André)f

/12 pod  (beans, peas)  siliqua, ae f. (Verg.; PLIN.)  ► corniculum, i n. (1571 MATTIOLI 322, of hot peppers; 1571 MATTIOLI 189, of beans)  ► capsula, ae f. (Rolander, of okra)

/12 pulp, flesh (soft, pulpy portion of fruit or vegetable)  caro, carnis f. (1571 MATTIOLI 127: of citron)  ► pulpa, ae f. (1571 MATTIOLI 128: "aqua distillata e limonum acidâ pulpâ"; (1571 MATTIOLI 124: "alia [mala persica] duracina vocantur, quod duriore sint pulpâ")

/12 skin, peel (of fruit)  cutîcula, ae f. (1571 MATTIOLI 142)  ► pellicula, ae f.

/12 stamen  stâmen, inis n. (PLIN. 21, 23; 1843 TRAPPEN 65)

/12 tendril  clâvicula, ae f. (CIC.; PLIN.)  ► capreolus, i m. (of grape vines) (Col.; PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 921)

/2 

/2    ANIMAL NAMES

/2 antilope  antilopê, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 3, 5)

/2 baboon  cynocephalus, i m. (CIC.; PLIN.; EGGER S.L. 80)

/2 badger  mêlês, is f. (1811 PALLAS 9)  |  taxus, i m., taxo, ônis m.

/2 bear: polar bear  ursus albus (EGGER S.L. 44; cf. EGGER L.D.I. 109: "ursi albo pilo, qui regiones incolunt glaciales")

/2 beaver  castor, oris m., fiber, bri m.

/2 bird: flamingo  phoenîcopterus, i m.

/2 bird: hawk:  falcon (genus Falco L.)  ► falco, ônis m.  ¶ Serv.  Isid.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 21.  1652 TURS. 398.  Linn. as genus name.

/2 bird: hawk:  falcon: gyrfalcon, gerfalcon (Falco rusticolus L.)  ► gyrofalco, ônis+ m.  ¶ Ducange citing Albertus Magnus and Frederic II.  ► gyrfalchus, i+ m.  ¶ 1315   B 1, 65: "Ipse autem rex cum gyrfalchis et herodiis seu falconibus suis in capturâ avium delectabiliter recreatur."  ► gyrfalcus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange.  ► hierofalco, ônis* m.  ¶ OED s.v. gyrfalcon in etymological note, citing Gesner and Aldrovandus. 

/2 bird: hawk:  falcon: peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus)  ► falco peregrînus  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 19.

/2 bird: hawk:  goshawk (Accipter gentilis L.)  ► astur, uris m.  ¶ Firm. Math.; for the identification, see André Oiseaux.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 382: "et portant multos astores"; et passim.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 14; for the identification, see Yule 1, 57, note 5, on this passage. 

/2 bird: heron (a number of genera of the family Ardeidae, esp. Ardea and Egretta)  ► ardea, ae f.  ¶ Verg.  ► ardeola, ae f.  ¶ Plin.  ► herôdius, i m.  ¶ Anc. Gr.  Vulg.  1315MARCO POLO B 1, 65.

/2 bird: ostrich  ► strûthiocamêlus, i m./f.  ¶ Plin.  Petr.  ► strûthio, ônis m.  ¶ Isid.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 474, of Ethiopia: "Ibi sunt struthiones grandes ut asini."

/2 bird: parrot (order Psittaciformes)  ► psittacus, i m. /

/2 bird: parrot: bird of paradise (family Paradiseaidae)  ►   ¶  ►► Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 474, of Abyssinia: "Ibi sunt papagalli sive epimachi multi et pulchri."  Epimachus is the name of a genus of birds of paradise.

/2 bird: penguin  pinguînus, i* m., spheniscus, i* m.  ►► aptenodytes (EGGER D.L. 25).  Pinguinus was the scientific name of a similar actic bird, extinct since the early 1800s; its vernacular names (penguin, pinguino, pigouin, etc.) were transfered to the antarctic bird. 

/2 bird: pheasant  ► phâsiânus, i m.  ¶ Suet. 

/2 bird: pheasant: francolin (genus Francolinus, esp. Francolinus francolinus, formerly Tetrao francolinus L.)  ► francolînus, i m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 22, describing a region of Persia: "Ibi sunt francolini coloris permixit albi et nigri; rubei autem coloris habent pedes et rostra."  (See Yule 1, 99, identifying the bird described here as Linné's Tetrao francolinus.)

/2 bird: pheasant: partridge  ► perdix, îcis m./f. /

/2 bird: pheasant: quail (imprecise term, encompassing Coturnix, Perdicula, and various related genera)  ► côturnix, îcis f.  ¶ Plaut.  Plin.  ► qualia, ae+ f.  ¶ Ducange. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 456.

/2 bird: waterfowl  aves aquatiles f. pl. (1811 PALLAS xi)

/2 bird-watcher  ornithoscopus, i* m. (Anc. Gr. of augur)

/2 bovine: aurochs, urus (Bos primigenius)  ► ûrus, i m.  ¶ Caes.

/2 bovine: buffalo (U.S.), bison (Bison bison L.)  ► bisôn, ontis m.  ¶ PLIN.  1811 PALLAS 10.  ►► Bison bison is the American bison; the wisent, or European bison, is Bison bonasus L.

/2 bovine: water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis L.)  ► bûbalus, i m.  ¶ MART.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 411.  |  adj.  ► bûbalînus, a, um  ¶ Hist. Aug.  Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 404: "Coracias [scil. loricas] habent de corio bufalino."

/2 cetaceans, marine mammals  lactantia marina n. pl. (1811 PALLAS 4)  ► cetacea, orum n. pl. (1811 PALLAS 53)

/2 cetaceans: whale  ► balêna, ae f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 472, in a description of Zanzibar: "Habent satis de ambrâ [ambergris], quia capiunt multas balenas."  Marco Polo A uses balenaand cetus interchangeably of whales.  ► cêtus, i m. (pl. cêtê)  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 468: "Hic est copia de ambrâ pulchra et bonâ, quia in illo mari sunt cete grandia."  Cetus is also used generally of any large sea animal.

/2 cetaceans: whale: blubber  balênârum pinguêdo (1595 MERCATOR II "Islandia")

/2 chipmunk  sciûrus (v. sciûriscus) striatus (v. virgatus)

/2 coral  coralium, i n. (Ov.; PLIN.)

/2 deer (members of family Cervidae)  ►

/2 deer: elk (U.S.), wapiti (Cervus canadensis)  ► cervus Canadensis

/2 deer: fallow deer (Dama dama L.)  ► dama, ae f.  ¶   Cf. 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 66, in description of Kublai Khan's hunting-grounds at Xanada, perhaps of a sort of antelope: "Ibi sunt cervi, dammulae, capreoli."   ►► EL: daim; daino, damma; gamo; Damhirsch

/2 deer: moose (U.S.), elk (Br.) (Alces alces L.)  ► alces, is f.  ¶ Caes.  Plin.

/2 deer: red deer (Cervus elaphus L.)  ► cervus, i m.  ¶ B 1, 66, in description of Kublai Khan's hunting-grounds at Xanada, probably of either the Central Asian red deer or the Sika deer: "Ibi sunt cervi, dammulae, capreoli."   ►► Cervus may be extended to include Asian and New World deer (such as the white-tailed or Virginia deer) similar to the red deer or Europe.  || EL: cerf élaphe; cervo nobile, cervo europeo; ciervo común, ciervo rojo, venado; Rothirsch.

/2 deer: reindeer, caribou (Rangifer tarandus L.)  ► tarandrus, i m.  ¶ Plin. ►► Members of the species Rangifer tarandus living in North American are generally called "caribou"; reinder and caribou are not distinct animals.

/2 deer: roe, roe-deer, roebuck (Capreolus capreolus L.)  ► capreolus, i m.  ¶ Verg.  Col.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 66, in description of Kublai Khan's hunting-grounds at Xanada, probably of the Siberian roe-deer: "Ibi sunt cervi, dammulae, capreoli."  ►► EL: chevreuil; capriolo; corzo; Reh.

/2 dog breeder  ► cynotrophus, i* m.  ¶ Anc. Gr.

/2 dog breeding  ► cynotrophia, ae* f.

/2 dog: ? canis fricâtor (1811 PALLAS 62)

/2 dog: bloodhoud  canis indagâtor (Ducange s.v. bracco in def.)  ► canis sagax (Ducange s.v. bracco in def.)  ► bracco, ôni+ m. (Duncage)

/2 dog: chihuahua  canis pumilus Mexicânus (cf. canis pumilus, 1811 PALLAS 58)

/2 dog: greyhound  vertragus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 60)

/2 dog: guard-dog  canis vigilax (EGGER S.L. 61)

/2 dog: lap dog, little dog  canis Melitaeus

/2 dog: mastiff  ► mastînus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 381: "Et ipsi vocantur cynuchi, id est illi qui tenent canes mastinos."

/2 dog: Molosser (group including several breeds of large, strongly-built dogs, including bulldogs, mastiffs, boxers, Great Danes, Newfoundlands, rottweilers, etc.)  ► Molossus, i m.

/2 dog: Pomeranian  canis Pomerânus (1811 PALLAS 62)

/2 dog: poodle  canis aquaticus (Linn.; 1811 PALLAS 62)

/2 dog: Samoyed  canis Samoiedicus

/2 dog: sled-dog  ► canis trahârius  ¶ LRL.  Cf. 1811 PALLAS 59: "Camtschatici canes a primâ iuventute ad trahendas trahas docti."  Cf. also 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 48, describing the use of sled-dogs in the fur-trade (in a northern region, probably modern Russia): "In quolibet vico servantur canes magni ut asini circa quadraginta. Hi canes assueti et docti sunt trahere trahas ... Ad unam autem traham sex canes ligant ordine congruo."

/2 dog: spaniel  ► canis avicularius  ¶ Linn.  1811 PALLAS 60.

/2 donkey: onager, Asian wild ass (Equus hemionus)  ► onâgrus, i m.  ¶ Verg.  Plin.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 17.  ► asinus silvestris  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 381.

/2 elephant: mammoth   mammûthus, i* (scientific name)  ► elephantus primigenius (scientific name; EGGER D.L. 50)

/2 feline: cat (Felis catus L.)  ► catta, ae f.  ¶ Mart. 13, 29, 1.  DUCANGE: "CATTA, CATTUS, CATUS, GATTUS, Felis, nostris chat."  9th c. Joannes Diaconus, Vita sancti Gregorii papae 2, 60 (PL 75, 24): "quidam eremitarum, vir magnae virtutis, qui nihil in mundo possidebat praeter unam cattam, quam blandiens crebro quasi cohabitatricem in suis gremiis refovebat."  ►cat(t)us, i m.  ¶ Pallad. 4, 9, 4.  Ducange.  1811 PALLAS 28.  ► gatta, ae+ f.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 63.  ► gattus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange.  ► mûrilegus, i m.  ¶ Ducange.  Ducange s.v.cattus, quoting Ugutio: "Catus dicitur veluti cautus, unde hic catus, quodam animal ingeniosum, sicut murilegus, quam alii dicunt gatus, per g scilicet corrupte."  ► mûriceps, cipis m.  ¶ Ducange.

/2 feline: cheetah, hunting leopard (Acinonyx jubata)  ► panthêra vênâtôria  ¶ Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 380: "leopardos ad venationem aptos."  Cf. 1811 PALLAS 20: felis venatoria.  ||  Cheetahs have since antiquity been domesticated and trained for hunting (especially in the Mideast and India); thus the name "hunting leopard" in several languages.  See these passages referring to Kublai Khan's "tame leopards," undoubtedly cheetahs:  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 380: "Habet autem leopardos ad venationem aptos satis."  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 66: "Saepe autem venatur ibi rex, et super equum suum in quo sedet post se defert domesticum leopardum quem ad cervum vel ad dammulam provocat."  Ibid. 2, 17: "Habet magnus Kaam pro suo solacio ... leoperdos multos domesticos qui ad venationes cum hominibus assueti sunt."  ► panthêra iubâta  ¶ Cf. Linn.: felis iubata.  Cf. 1811 PALLAS 20: felis iubata.  ► ? gatopardus, i* m.  ¶ Mod. Gr.   ►► EL: guépard; ghepardo; Gepard, Jagdleopard; γατόπαρδος, τσίτα; Dutch jachtluipaard, gepard; Port. chita, guepardo, leopardo-caçador; Pol. gepard; Russ. Гепард; Hind. chītā (from Sanskrit chitraka, speckled). 

/2 feline: cougar (Puma concolor L.)  ► puma, ae* f.  ¶

/2 feline: jaguar (Panthera onca L.)  ► iaguâra, ae* f. /

/2 feline: leopard (Panthera pardus)  ► leopardus, i m.  ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 109.

/2 feline: lion (Panthera leo)  ► leo, leônis m.  ¶

/2 feline: lynx (genus Lynx; formerly Felix lynx L.)  ► lynx, lyncis m./f.  ¶ Verg.  Hor.

/2 feline: panther  ► panthêra, ae f.  ¶ CIC.  1811 PALLAS 3.

/2 feline: snow leopard, ounce (Uncia uncia)  ► ? onca, ae f.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 3.

/2 feline: tiger (Panthera tigris)  ► tigris, is (or -idis) f.  ¶

/2 furs: ermine coat or stole  ► vellus Armêniacum  ¶ Ducange s.v. ermena in definition.

/2 furs: ermine, stoat (Mustela erminea L.)  ► mus Ponticus  ¶ Plin.  Ducange s. vv. armelinusermena, and hermellina in definition.  ► mus Armênius  ► erminea, ae+ f.  ¶ Ducange. Linn. in species name.  ► erminea, ae+ f.  ¶ Ducange s.v. hermellina, subheading Hermeniae pelles.  ► ermineum, i* n.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 11.  ► ermîna, ae+ f.  ¶ Ducange s. vv. ermineaand erminus.  ► ermellînus, i+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 372, in description of Kublai Khan's game park.  ► ermelînus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange s.v. hermellina, quoting Petrus Damianus (Epist. 2, 2): "Ovium itaque simul et agnorum descipiuntur exuviae; ermelini, gebellini, martores exquiruntur et vulpes."  ► hermelînus, i+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 383 et passim.  ►armelînus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 56: "Deferuntque sub vestibus superioribus pelles delicatas vulpium, variorum, aut etiam armelinorum."  Christopher Columbus, in the margin of his copy of Marco Polo B 3, 48 (where the text has "almellini").  ► harmelînus, i+ m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 20.  ► hermellîna, ae+ f.  ¶ Ducange.  |  adj.  ► ermelînus, a, um+  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 352: "Divites homines vestiunt pannos aureos et de sirico et pulchras pelles zebellinas et ermelinas."  ► armellînus, a, um+  ¶ Ducange s.v. armellina, quoting an 11th c. testament: "Meas pellicias, unam martrinam et aliam armellinam, vendite, ut melius potueritis."  ►► Ducange s.v. hermellina: "HERMELLINA, Mus Ponticus, nostris hermine, ab Armenia dictus, quod inde eius modi murium pelles in Europam adveherentur; nam Hermeniam pro Armenia dixere scriptores Latini recentiores."  ||  OED s.v. ermine, etymological note (after giving theory of derivation from OHG. harmîn): "A different hypothesis (favoured by Littré, Paul Meyer, and others) is that the Romanic words represent L. Armenius Armenian. The mus Ponticus, 'Pontic rat', mentioned by Pliny as a fur-bearing animal, is commonly supposed, though without actual proof, to be the ermine; and as Pontus and Armenia were conterminous, it has been suggested that an alternative name for the animal may have been mus Armenius. That some animal was known by this designation in the second century is rendered probable by a passage in Julius Pollux (c A.D. 180), who (Onomast. VII. 60) gives it as the name of an Armenian garment, and, amongst other conjectures as to the origin of the word, suggests that this article of dress may have been so named because made of the skins of 'the mice (or rats) of that country'. The belief that the ermine derived its name from Armenia was common in the 14th c., and the supposition accounts quite satisfactorily for the Romanic forms of the word. If this view be correct, it involves the consequence that the resemblance in sound between ermine and OHG. harmîn was merely accidental; there may however have been an early confusion between two distinct words of similar sound and meaning."

/2 furs: marten (genus Martes)  ► martes, is f.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 9.

/2 furs: mink (Mustela lutreola L.)  ►   ►► Mustela lutreola is the European mink; the American mink is Mustela vison, also called Neovison vison."  ||  ? lutreola, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 8)

/2 furs: sable (Martes zibellina L.)  ► zibellîna, ae+ f.  ¶ Linn. in species name.  1811 PALLAS 4. \ cebelîna, ae+ f.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 56: "Utuntur etiam pellibus animalium quae cebelinae dicuntur, quae delicatae nimum sunt et pretiosae."  ► zembelînus, i+ m.  ¶ c.1300 A 383: "Sunt illae pelles maximi valoris, et maxime pelles de zembelino."  ► zambelînus, i+ m.  ¶c.1300 MARCO POLO A 482.  ► zambellînus, i+ m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 20.  ► sabellînus, i+ m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 50.  |  adj.  ► zebellînus, a, um+  ¶ c.1300MARCO POLO A 352: "Divites homines vestiunt pannos aureos et de sirico et pulchras pelles zebellinas et ermelinas."  ► cebellînus, a, um+  ¶ "Haec pelles cebellinae vocantur."  ► zambellînus, a, um+  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 478: "Hae pelles vocantur zambellinae."  

/2 furs: wolverine (Gulo gulo L.)  ► gulo, onis m.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 9.

/2 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis L.)  ► camêlopardalis, is f.  ¶ Varr.  ► camêlopardalus, i m.  ¶ Hist. Aug.  Vulg. Deut.  ► camêlopardus, i m.  ¶ Isid.  ► zirâfa, ae+ f.  ¶ c.1300MARCO POLO A 471, in description of Zanzibar: "Ipsi habent zirafas pulchriores de mundo ... Ipsae habent crura curta, et sunt aliquantulum bassae retro, quia crura posteriora sunt parva et gambae anteriores sunt multum longae ... Habent parvum caput et longum collum et non faciunt aliquod malum alicui."  Cf. Arabic  زرافة zarāfah.  Cf. also Old Span. azorafa, 17th-c. Eng. ziraph.  ►giraffa, ae+ f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 474.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 41 (in passage parallel to the one quoted above): "Ibi sunt gyraffae multae collum longum habentes ... Capita vero earum sunt parva et color earum varius, albus, rubeus. Animalia quidem mansueta sunt gyraffae praedictae et neminem laedunt." 

/2 hamster  ► cricetus, i m.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 11.

/2 insect  insectum, i n. (PLIN.; 1811 PALLAS vi)  ► bestiola, ae f., animalculum, i* (1540 VIVES Exer. 342: "nihil horum animalculorum, quibus per aestatem in cubiculus infestamur, tam movet nauseam quam cimices"; 1784 DUCRUE 251: "quod lecti et vestes pediculis at aliis animalculis scateant"; cf. 1811 PALLAS vii: "minutorum autem animalculorum, quae insecta vocantur")

/2 insect: bedbug  cimex, icis m. (1540 VIVES Exer. 342)

/2 insect: beetle  scarabaeus, i m.

/2 insect: cricket  grillus, i m.

/2 insect: grasshopper  locusta, ae f.

/2 insect: grasshopper: locust  cohortalis locusta (1811 PALLAS x)

/2 insect: mosquito  ► culex, icis m.  ¶ Plin.  Hor.  1794 RUIZ xv.

/2 insect: spider  ► arânea, ae f.  ►► Particularly scary or loathsome spiders might be called tarantula (see discussion under the entry wolf spider).

/2 insect: spider: tarantula (family Theraphosidae)  ►   ►► The name tarantula has been transferred to this family in English and American Spanish, but not in the other major European languages.

/2 insect: spider: wolf spider (family Lycosidae) (formerly called tarantula in English)  ► tarantula, ae* f.  ¶ 1654 musical score of a tarantella (reprinted in Albert Czerwinski, Geschichte der Tanzkunst [Leipzig, 1862], 56), as section heading: "antidotum tarantulae."  1704 BAGLIVI 628 (in a paper entitled De anatome, morsu et effectibus tarantulae), relating the oft-repeated story (or legend) of how the frenzied tarantella originated as a therapy for a poisonous spider's bite: "Urgente tamen morbo, vocati sunt cytharoedi, qui prope lectulum patientis stantes interpellarunt eam a cuiusnam coloris vel magnitudinis tarantulâ demorsa esset, ut familiarem talis speciei tarantulae sonum inchoarent. Et cum respondisset se nescire a tarantulâne an a scorpione puncta esset, illi statim duo vel tria sonorum genera instituerunt ... Audito tamen quarto a reliquis diverso, statim suspirare coepit, et se temperare nesciens a vehementissimis insultibus quos musica intus excitabat, solutis omnibus verecundiae limitibus, fere nuda prodiit e lecto, vehementissime saltare coepit, et ita per triduum consueto more continuando, ab omnibus symptomatibus libera evasit."  1724ZWINGER 1, 130: "ut in morsu viperae, canis rabidi, puncturâ tarantulae, in esu cicutae."  LINN., as the species name of a large wolf spider native to southern Italy, Lycosa tarantula, traditionally supposed to be that called tarantula in medieval and early modern texts.  1801 Mém. Turin 6, 245, referring to Giorgio Baglivi's paper, quoted above: "Baglivium vero mirabiliter nimis amplificasse de illâ araneae specie quae tarantulae nomine ceteris distinguitur disserentem, omnes concedunt."  1846 HOEVEN 70, in a chapter entitled "Chorea epidemica": "A tarantulâ demorsi paulo post humi concidunt semimortui, cum totali virium et sensuum iacturâ ... Inchoato musices sono sensim mitescere incipiunt symptomata ante dicta; aeger digitos, manûs, mox pedes movere incipit et successive cetera membra, crescenteque sonorum modulamine motus ipse membrorum augetur, et si patiens humi iacet, vehementissime in pedes elevatur, saltationes inchoat, suspirat et modis fere admirandis contorquetur."  ► tarentula, ae+ f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 461, of a spider of India, the direction of whose approach was treated as an omen: "Si venit ibi aliqua tarentula, de quibus sunt ibi multae, attendunt a quâ parte venit" (where the old Florentine version has "tarantola," the old French version "tarantule").  ►► From the 14th through 17th centuries, reports circulated of a disease called tarantismus, originating in the region around Taranto (ancient Tarentum, in southern Italy), believed to be triggered by the bite of a spider called tarantula, whose victims, called tarantati, could be cured only by a frenetic dance called the tarantella.  Many believe the real cause of the strange symptoms attributed to this tarantula (distinct from the large New World spider that now goes by that name) was not a spider at all, but a sort of mass hysteria, which the popular imagination associated with Lycosa tarantula or some other of the spiders that teem in southern Italy. (Europe was swept in the medieval and early modern periods with recurrent waves of manic dancing – chorea epidemica in medical Latin.)  Given the word's fabulous, non-scientific associations, Latin tarantula might well be extended to any spider viewed as uncannily large, gruesome, or dangerous.

/2 insect: tick  ricinus, i m.

/2 jackal  canis aureus (Linn.; 1811 PALLAS 39)  ► thôs, thôis m. (PLIN.; 1811 PALLAS 40)

/2 llama  ovis Indica, ae f. (Acosta De Nat. Orbis Novi  I:XXI: "Pecudes illas mirabiles habent quas Indi llama, nostri Indicas oves vocant, quae praeter lanam et carnes, quas vestiendo  et alendo generi Indorum praebent, sunt etiam iumenta vehendis oneribus commodissima. Nam dimidium oneris muli cuiusvis portant; sunt autem minimi sumptus quippe quibus neque ferro ad calces neque clitelia ad dorsum neque vero hordeo ad pabulum opus sit.")

/2 lemur  lemur, lemuris m. (*) (1811 PALLAS 4)

/2 marmot  mus Alpînus (PLIN. 8, 132)  ►► ? marmôta, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 9: "marmota quebecana [empetra]")

/2 mongoose (various members of the family Herpestidae, esp. the Egyptian mongoose, Herpestes ichneumon L.)  ► ichneumon, onis m.  ¶ Cic.  Plin. 8, 87: "Natura ... primum hebetes oculos huic malo [scil. serpentibus] dedit ... deinde internecivum bellum cum ichneumone."  Mart. 7, 87, 5: "delectat Marium si perniciosus ichneumon."  Linn. as species name.

/2 moose (U.S.), elk (Br.)  alcês, is f. (CAES.; 1811 PALLAS 9)

/2 opposum  didelph?, dis m. (1811 PALLAS 4)

/2 porcupine (families Hystricidae and Erethizontidae)  ► hystrix, icis f.  ¶ Plin.  ► porcus spinôsus  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 331 (in the corresponding passage in MARCO POLOB 1, 33, called sus spinosa).

/2 porcupine: hedgehog  ► êricius, ii m.  ¶ Varr.  ► êrinâceus, i m.  ¶ Plin.

/2 possum, opossum  didelphys (or -is)* (SMITH)

/2 primate: ape, great ape, anthropoid ape (family Hominidae, encompassing chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans)   ► satyrus, i m.  ¶ Plin. 

/2 primate: ape: bonobo, pygmy chimpanzee (Pan paniscus)  ►

/2 primate: ape: chimpanzee (genus Pan)  ► anthrôpopithêcus, i* m.  ¶  ► ? simpanzêus, i* m.

/2 primate: ape: gorilla (genus Gorilla)  ► gorilla, ae* f.  ¶

/2 primate: ape: orangutan (genus Pongo)  ► orangutânus, i* m.  ¶ ►► Marco Polo (B 3, 18) is probably passing on an account of the orangutan in this passage (part of a description of Sumatra): "Sunt ibi homines multi qui habent caudas ut canis, longitudinis palmae unuis. Hi homines non sunt in civitatibus sed in montibus habitant."  [see first clear description of orangutan in Jakob Bondt; Linné's Homo silvestris.]

/2 primate: baboon  ► cynocephalus, i m.  ¶  ► ? maimon, ônis+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 474: "Ibi sunt simiae, cati pauli et cati maimones."  In old French version: "Il ont gat paulz et autre gat maimon," translated by Yule (2, 431), "baboons and other monkeys".  Marcello Ciccuto, ed., Marco Polo, Il milione (Milan: Rizzoli, 1955), p. 434, n. 26, in note on "gatti mamoni" (in old Florentine version): "Babbuini; in arabo maymūn significa 'scimmia' 'che in Occidente si è incrociato col Mammone biblico' (Cardona)."  Cf. 1766 LINN. SystNat. 35: "Simia maimon," of mandrill.

/2 primate: baboon: mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx)  ► mandrillus, i* m. /

/2 rat  rattus, i+ m. (1811 PALLAS 6)

/2 reindeer  tarandrus, i m. (PLIN.)  ► tarandus, i m. (Anc. Gr.; Linn.; 1811 PALLAS 3)  ► rangifer, eri* m. (1811 PALLAS 53)

/2 reptiles  reptilia, ium n. pl. (1811 PALLAS x)

/2 rhinoceros  ► rhinoceros, ôtos m.  ¶   ►► Cf. asinus Indicus, Plin. 11, 266, identified in Loeb translation as rhino; but seems mixed up in unicorn legends.

/2 rodent

/2 seal  phôca, ae f., vitula marina

/2 sloth  bradypûs, podis m. (1811 PALLAS 4)

/2 snake: rattlesnake  serpens sistrifer (v. crotalophorus)

/2 snake-charmer  ► serpentium incantâtor  ¶ CGL 4, 536, 21, of the Marsi, mentioned in following quote.  974 RATHERIUS Praeloquia 1, 7 (PL  136, 152) : "Psylli in Africa, Marsi fuerunt in Italiâ incantatores serpentium."  Pliny (7, 13) said of these peoples: "Horum corpori ingenitum fuit virus exitiale serpentibus et cuius odore sopirent eas."  Cf. 11th-c. THOMAS CANTIMPRATENSIS,De natura rerum, ed. Helmut Boese (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1973), 8, 2 (p. 277): "Aspis ... quorundam virtute vocabulorum incantatur, ne veneno interimat, vel ideo, ut quidam dicunt, ut quieta possit capi."  Cf. also c.1300 MARCO POLO A 452, of shark-charmers, who protected Indian pearl-divers: "Et mercatores ... donant illi qui incantat pisces, quod non laedant homines qui vadunt sub aquâ pro perlis, de viginti partibus unam; et isti sunt vocati abanamayn, id est incantatores ... Et isti incantant omnem bestiam et omnem avem."  ► serpentium stupefactor*  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 23 (in a passage parallel to the one quoted above): "Conducunt ... magos quosdam qui dicuntur abrayanna, qui cum incantationibus suis et arte diabolicâ cogunt et stupefaciunt pisces illos ita ut neminem possunt laedere."  For the noun stupefactor, see 1650 Jan Jonston, Historia naturalis de piscibus (Frankfurt, 1650), 30, as an alternate name for the torpedo, or electric ray. ► ophiopaecta, ae* m.  ¶ Anc. Gr.  οφιοπα í κτης .  For a similarly-formed word used in Latin, cf. sphaeropecta.

/2 squirrel  ► sciûrus, i m.  ¶  ► erculînus, i+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 478-79, of inhabitants of Russia or Central Asia: "Capiunt illa animalia parva quae habent pelles multum delicatas, sicut sunt rondes, hermelini, herculini, varii, vulpes nigrae, et aliae similes."

/2 walrus  rosmarus, i m. (1811 PALLAS 4)

/2 worm: earthworm  lumbricus terrestris (Pharm. Bat. III. 149)

/2 zebra: equus tigrinus; hippotigris (Anc. Gr. D.C.77.6 ἱππότιγρις), < ? zebra -ae f, ? equus zebra (indecl adi)

/2 z imaginary: griffin (creature with lion's body, eagle's head and wings)  ► gryps, gryphis m.  ¶ Plin.  Sid.  ► gryphus, i m.  ¶ Mel.  Cf. DUCANGE: "GRIFFUS ... Gryps, gryphus, quadrepes alatum, sed fabulosum."  ► griffo, ônis+ m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 470, applying the term to the roc or rukh or Arab lore, the elephant-devouring monster-bird that sunk Sinbad's ship: "Sunt ibi aves griffones ... sed non sunt sic facti ut dicitur, id est quod sint medii avis et medii leo, sed sunt facti ut aquilae, et sic sunt fortes quod accipiunt elephantem et portant eum in aere ... Illi de illâ insulâ vocant aves griffones ruch."

/2 z imaginary: unicorn  ► unicornis, i m.  ¶ Vulg. Ps. 91, 11, translating the Hebrew re'em: "Et exaltabitur sicut unicornis cornu meum et senectus mea in misericordiâ uberi."  Vulg. Is. 34, 7, translating the Hebrew re'em: "Et descendent unicornes cum eis et tauri cum potentibus."  Physiologus Latinus 126, quoted below.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 444, describing a region of Java: "Habent elephantes silvestres satis et unicornes, qui non sunt multo minores. Isti unicornes habent pilum bufalinum et habent pedes sicut elephantes; in medio frontis unum cornu grossum ... et est turpis bestia, et non est sicut dicitur quod se permittat capi pulcellae [scil. virgini], sed est contrarium."  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 15 (in a passage parallel to the preceding one): "Ibi sunt unicornes magni valde, qui parum minores sunt elephantibus. Unicornis enim pilum habet bubali, pedem autem habet ad similitudinem elephantis, caput habet ut aper ... In luto libenter moratur et est animal valde turpe. In fronte mediâ cornu unicum habet grossum valde et nigrum."  ► ûnicornus, i+ m.  ¶ Duncage.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 409.  ► monoceros, ôtis m.  ¶ Plin. 8, 76: "asperrimam autem feram monocerotem, reliquo corpore equo similem, capite cervo, pedibus elephanto, caudâ apro, mugitu gravi, uno cornu nigro mediâ fronte cubitorum duum eminente."  Vulg. Ps. 91, 11 (alternate version), translating the Hebrew re'em: "Et exaltabitur quasi monocerotis cornu meum et senecta mea in oleo uberi."  Physiologus Latinus 126: "Est aliud animal quod Graece dicitur monoceros, Latine vero unicornis ... Habet in capite unum cornu atque nullus venatorum eum capere potest, sed hoc argumento capiunt illum: ducunt puellam virginem in illum locum ubi moratur."   ►► Ancient conceptions of an animal called monoceros or unicornis (such as Pliny's grotesquely fanciful portrait) seem to have arisen from a conflation of factual accounts of the rhinoceros, antilope, and wild ass.  From these evolves the medieval legend of a gentle and graceful beast, mysteriously beautiful, that lets itself be tamed by a maiden.  Marco Polo, applying the term unicornis to the real rhinoceroses of Java (see Yule 2, 290), is disappointed to see how little they resemble the creature he knows from 13th-century art and fable.

/21

/21    ANIMAL MATTERS

/21 animal  ► bestia, ae f.  ► animal brûtum  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 332: "Simplicissima substantiarum, quae Deus est, in homine magis redolet quam in bruto animali, in bruto animali magis quam in planta, in hac quam in minera."  ► brûtum, i n.  ¶ 1726 Wolff 36: "Neque in hôc statu a brutis differt homo."  ► animal, âlis n. (usually of all living beings, including humans, but sometimes in the more restricted sense)  ¶ VARR.  SEN.  PLIN.

/21 animal shelter  ►

/21 bird-feeder  ►

/21 breed (of animal)  ► sêminium, i n.  ¶ Varr.  Lucr.

/21 cub, puppy, kitten, young (of most mammals)  ► catulus, i m.

/21 hibernation  ► veternus, i m.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 44.

/21 insect: exterminator  ►

/21 insecticide  ► venenum contra insecta  ► insecticîdium, i* n.

/21 insecticide: bug spray  ►

/21 kennel  ►

/21 kennel: boarding kennel  ► canum hospitium  ► zôodochîum, i* n.

/21 larva  ►

/21 larva: caterpillar  ► êrûca, ae f.  ¶ Col.  PLIN.

/21 larva: chrysalis  ► chrysallis, idis f.  ¶ PLIN. 11, 112.

/21 larva: cocoon  ►

/21 larva: pupa  ►

/21 pet (an animal)  vb.  ► (manu) demulcêre

/21 pet store  ►  zôopôlium, i n.  ► thêriopôlium, i n.

/21 pet, animal companion  ► animal familiâre  ► pecusculum familiâre  ►► Animal domesticum includes farm animals (see, e.g., 1811 PALLAS 4).

/21 thoroughbred  ►

/21 venom (of snake or other poisonous animal)  ► fel, fellis n.  ¶ Verg. A. 12, 856-57: "sagitta,  ¶ armatam saevi Parthus quam felle veneni."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 403: "Quando coluber venit per istum locum et percutit se in isto ferro ... statim moritur, et accipiunt eum statim et trahunt sibi fel ... quia est optima medicina ad morsum canis rabidi."  ► fel vipereum  ¶ Ov. Tr. 5, 7, 15-16, of the barbarous Getae: "In quibus est nemo qui non coryton et arcum  ¶ telaque vipereo lurida felle gerat."  ► vîrus, i n.  ¶  ► venênum, i n.

/21 veterinarian  ► veterinârius, i m.  ¶ Col.  ► medicus veterinârius  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 16.

/21 veterinarian's office, animal hospital  ► veterinârium, i n.  ¶ HygGrom.

/21 veterinary  ► veterinârius, a, um  ¶ Col.  1826 LÜDERS 14.

/21 veterinary medicine  ► medicîna veterinâria  ¶ Col.

/22

/22    ANIMAL PARTS

/22 antlers  cornua palmata n. pl. (1811 PALLAS 53)

/22 claw (of cat, tiger, etc.)  falcula, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 29 et passim)

/22 elephant: trunk (of elephant)  ► proboscis, idis f.  ¶ PLIN.   ► manus, ûs f.  ¶ CIC.

/22 elephant: tusk (of elephant), ivory  ► dens Indus  ¶ Ov.  ► dens elephantis  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 469: "In universo etiam mundo non est tanta negotiatio dentium elephantum sicut ... in insulâ quae dicitur Zanzibar."  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 23: "Ad cuius portum conveniunt negotiatores Indorum deferentes aromata et margaritas et ... dentes elephantorum et alia pretiosa." 

/22 fish: fin, flipper  ► pinna, ae f. \ Plin. 9, 13, 15, of seals: "Pinnis, quibus in mari utuntur, humi quoque vice pedum serpunt."

/22 fish: gills  ► branchiae, arum f. pl. \ Col.  \ Plin.

/22 tail: wag the tail (of dog)  caudam movêre (Gell. 5, 14: "caudam more adulantium canum blande movet."  ► caudâ adûlâri (1540 VIVES Exer. 286: "Ruscio, huc, canicule festivissime; en ut caudâ adulatur, ut se in se in posteriores pedes erigit."  ► caudâ blandiri (1811 PALLAS 40: "vidi e Persia adlatum homini adblandientem, et in dorso ludibunde se provolentem, ut canes faciunt," of a jackal)  ► caudam iactare (Pers. 4, 15)

/24

/24    FISH

/24 /seafood  fructus maris (TERT.)  ► pisces, ium m. pl. (PLIN.)

/24 anchovy  maena, ae f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 356, and trans. by Calero, p. 86)

/24 cuttlefish  ► sêpia, ae f.  ¶ Cic.  Plin.  1752 STUMPF 30.

/24 herring  harengus, i+ m. (EGGER S.L. 34)

/24 pike  ► lûcius, a, um  ¶ Aus.  1752 STUMPF 30.

/24 salmon  salmo, ônis m. (PLIN.; Aus.)

/24 shark  canis marînus  ►► pristis (EGGER D.L. 20)

/24 shell: sea-shell  concha, ae f., conchylium, i n. (1798 DESFONTAINES iii: "in montibus ... longe a mari distantes, immensas conchyliorum marinorum congeries detexi."  |  gather sea-shells conchas (v. conchylia) legere (CIC. de Orat. 2, 22: "conchas eos et umbilicos ad Caietam et ad Laurentum legere consuesse et ad omnem animi remissionem ludumque descendere")

/24 shellfish (shell-covered marine animal: crustacean or shelled mollusk)  conchylium, i n., concha, ae f., testaceum i n. (PLIN. 32, 58; Bonon. Acad. I, 72: "marina quaedam testacea." ► crustâtum, i n. (PLIN. 11, 165)  ►► Conandum accurate scire quid haec apud Plinium valeant; item "mollia" por "mollusks."

/24 shellfish: crustaceans (subphylum Crustacea, Brünnich, 1772)  crustâcea, orum n. pl.

/24 shellfish: mollusks (phylum Mollusca L.)  mollia, ium n. pl. (PLIN. 11, 267)  ► mollusca, orum n. pl. (Linné, 1758)

/24 squid  (order Teuthida)  lôlîgo, inis f. (CIC.; HOR.; PLIN.)

/24 squid: giant squid (genus Architeuthis)  lôlîgo gigantêa (v. decumâna v. praegrandis)  ►► EL: Fr. calmar géant; architeuthis, calamare gigante; calamar gigante; Riesenkalmare

/24 torpedo ray, torpedo fish, electric ray (families Torpedinidae and Narcinidae)  ► torpêdo, inis f.  ¶ Cic.  Plin.  Linn. as species name.

/24 tuna  ► thunnus, i m.  ¶ Hor.  Plin.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 476.

/6

/6     FAMOUS PEOPLE

/6 Aquinas, Thomas  Thomas Aquinas (Thomae Aquinâtis) (1652 TURS. 208)

/6 Averroes  ► Averroês, is m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 195.  1794 RUIZ i.

/6 Avicenna  < Avicenna, ae m. \ 1569 MERCURIALE 8 et passim: "Galenus atque Avicenna, celebratissimi medicinae scriptores."  \ 1652 TURS. 195.  \ 1843 TRAPPEN 8.

/6 Bayle, Pierre  Baylius, Petrus

/6 Boccaccio  Ioannes Boccatius, i m. (1540 VIVES Exer. 332)  ► Ioannes Boccacius (1652 TURS. 227)

/6 Bourbon (name of a noble family, including kings of France and Spain)  Borbonius, i m. (1652 TURS. 252: Carolus Borbonius Dux, et passim)

/6 Calvin, John  Ioannes Calvînus (1652 TURS. 258)  |  adj.  Calviniânus, a, um

/6 Cervantes  ► Cervantesius, i m.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v (referring to another Spaniard of the same name)

/6 Charlemagne  Carolus Magnus (1652 TURS. 147)

/6 Charles Martel  Carolus Martellus (1652 TURS. 141)

/6 Columbus  Christophorus Columbus Genuensis (1652 TURS. 245)

/6 Confucius  ► Confucius, i m.  ¶ 1726 Wolff 10.  |  Confucian  ► Confuciânus, a, um  ¶ 1726 Wolff 10: "principia philosophiae practicae Confuciana."  ►► Confutsiânus, i m. (EGGERD.L. 10)

/6 Cortés, Hernán  Ferdinandus Cortesius (1652 TURS. 253)

/6 Dante Alighieri  DANTEs Alagherius (Dantis Alagherii) (DANTE Aqua 479; EGGER L.D.I. 109)

/6 El Cid (Campeador), Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar  ► Roderîcus Campiâtor  ¶ Ducange s.v. campiator, citing several sources, including a letter attributed to the warrior's wife Jimena (Latin Eximêna ).

/6 Erik the Red Ericus Rufus  (cf. Rafn)

/6 Farnese (Renaissance Italian family)  Farnesius, i m. (1652 TURS. 379: familia Farnesiorum)

/6 Ferdinand and Isabella  Ferdinandus et Elizabetha Hispaniae reges (1652 TURS. 245)

/6 Francis Xavier  Franciscus Xaverius (1652 TURS. 255)

/6 Frederick Barbarossa  Friderîcus Aenobarbus (1652 TURS. 196: "Barbarussa vulgo dicitur")

/6 Galileo  \\ Galilaeus Florentînus (1652 TURS. 347)

/6 Hitler  Hitlerus, i m. (C.S. Lewis)  |  adj.  Hitleriânus, a, um (EGGER R.A. 112)

/6 Joan of Arc  (cf. 1652 TURS. 236: "Ioanna erat virgo Lotharinga viriles animos gerens")

/6 La Rochefoucauld (name of noble French family)  Rupifocaldus, i m.

/6 Leif Erikson Leivus Erici filius, Leivus Eiriki (cf. Rafn)

/6 Leonardo da Vinci  Leonardus Vincius (EGGER R.A. 141)

/6 Linnaeus, Linné  ► Carolus Linnaeus  ¶  |  adj.  ► Linnaeânus, a, um  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxiv.

/6 Luther, Martin  Martinus Lutherus (1652 TURS. 249; Gesenius 2)

/6 Maoist  Maotsetunganus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 37)

/6 Marco Polo  ► Marcus Paulus  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 299: "Hoc quidem narrat in praesenti opusculo ordinate dominus Marcus Paulus, Venetiarum civis."  ► Marcus Paulus Venetus ¶ 1811 PALLAS 16.  ► Paulus Venetus  ¶ 1652 TURS. 231.

/6 Marxist  Marxianus, a, um (EGGER D.L. 26)

/6 Medici (member of the Florentine ruling family)  Medicês, is (acc. -ên or -em) m. (1652 TURS. 244 et passim)  |  adj.  Medicêus, a, um (1652 TURS. 248 et passimSeptuagint, "Praef.": "Medicea bibliotheca"; EGGER R.A. 132)  |  Lorenzo de' Medici  Laurentius Medicêus (1652 TURS. 245)  |  Cosimo de' Medici  Cosmus Medicês (1652 TURS. 254, 256)  ► Cosmus Medicêus (1652 TURS. 241)  |  Marie de Médicis  Maria Medicêa (1652 TURS. 247)

/6 Michelangelo (Renaissance artist) Michaêl Angelus Bonarrotius (EGGER D.L. 42)  |  adj.  Bonarrotianus, a, um (EGGER R.A. 60)

/6 Michelangelo (Renaissance artist) : Pietà signum Perdolentis Virginis Mariae (Bacci IOE 43)

/6 Mother Teresa Theresia Mater a Calcutta (Certamen Vaticanum XXV 1982, H. Paoletta) [P. Owens]

/6 Muhammad, Muhammed, Mohammed  ► Macomêtus, i m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 313 et passim.  ► Machomêtus, i m.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 332 et passim.  ►Machomettus, i m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 16, et passim.  ► Mahomêtes, is m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 132.  ► Mohammed, êdis m.  ¶ 1726 Wolff 18.  ► Muhamed, êdis m.  ¶ 1843TRAPPEN 11.

/6 Napoleon  Napoleon, ônis m. (EGGER R.A. 43, 73)  ► Napoleon, ntis m.;  adj.  Napoleônicus, a, um, Napoleonticus, a, um 1843 TRAPPEN 49: "sub imperio Napolentico"; 1843 TRAPPEN82: "sub tyrannide Napoleontica")

/6 Newton  Isaacus Neotonius (EGGER S.L. 40)  |  adj.  Neotonianus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 41)

/6 Orange: Prince of Orange (noble title important in history of Netherlands)  princeps Aurantius (1652 TURS.  272: "Philippo Nassovia Aurantio principe," et passim)

/6 Petrarch  Franciscus Petrarcha (1652 TURS. 222)

/6 Pico della Mirandola  Picus Mirandulânus (1698 Hofmann s.v. Savanarola)

/6 Prester John  ► Presbyter Iohannes  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 52.

/6 Rabelais, François  Franciscus Rabelaesus (RABELAIS 936; 1698 Hofmann)

/6 Raphael (Renaissance artist)  Raphaêl Sanctius (Raphaêlis Sanctii) (EGGER D.L. 42; EGGER R.A. 73, 141)

/6 Roland, Orlando  Rolandus, i m. (1652 TURS. 144)

/6 Rubens, Peter Paul  ► Rubenius  ¶ Václav (Wenceslas) Hollar, inscription of copperplate portrait of Rubens: "Petrus Paulus Rubenius, pictorum Apelles, decus huius saeculi, orbis miraculum, aulam Hispanicam, Gallicam, Anglicam, Belgicam penicillo suo illustravit; quem gladio donavit Philippus Quartus Hispaniarum rex, et statuit sibi a secretis in sanctiore suo consilio Bruxellensi, et ad regem Angliae legatum extraordinarium misit."

/6 Saladin, Salah al-Din  Saladînus, i m. (1652 TURS. 199)

/6 Sforza (Milanese ruling family)  Sfortia, ae m. (1595 MERCATOR I, "Helvetia": "ex dono Maximiliani Sfortiae ducis Mediolanensis"; 1652 TURS. 236)

/6 Stuart (English royal family)  ► Stuartus, i m.  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 22: "si qui a Carolo Stuarto pseudolegati adsunt."

/6 Tamerlane, Timur  Tamerlanês, is m. (1652 TURS. 231; 1698 Hofmann s.v. Turcomania)

/6 Tamerlane: Timurid  Timurida, ae m.

/6 Titian (Renaissance artist)  Titiânus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 42; EGGER R.A. 24)

/6 Valois (name of a French royal family)  Valesius, i m. (1652 TURS. 274: Maragarita Valesius, "Marguérite de Valois"; 1652 TURS. 301: "moritur ... regina Margarita Valesia, in qua Valesiorum stirps regia penitus exstincta est")

/6 Vespucci, Amerigo  Americus Vespucius (1652 TURS. 245)

/6 Voltaire  Voltarius, i m. 1843 TRAPPEN 78) , Voltairius (Bambach)

/6 William the Conqueror  Guilelmus Conquestor (20th Latin inscription at his tomb in Norman church)

/6 Wycliffe, John  Viclefus, i m. (DUCANGE s.v. cantus ecclesiasticus)

/6 Zoroaster, Zarathushtra  Zôroastres, is m. (PLIN.; APUL.; 1652 TURS. 4: "Zoroastre ... magiae inventore."  |  adj.  Zôroastrêus, a, um (PRUD.)

/9

/9    CONVERSATIONAL PHRASES

/9 bless you! gesundheit!  (exclamation when someone has sneezed)  salve, Deus te tueatur

/9 bon appétit!  libenter cena (v. comede v. cenate v. comedite) (EGGER L.D.I. 83)  ► bene tibi (v. vobis) sapiat, bonam orexim (tibi exopto)

/9 bon voyage, have a good trip  sit tibi (v. vobis) iter laetum (EGGER L.D.I. 89)  ► bene ambula (EGGER L.D.I. 89)

/9 bravo!  ► sophôs!  ¶ PETR. 40, at the end of Trimalchio's impromptu lecture on astrology: "'Sophos!' universi clamamus, et sublatis manibus ad camaram iuramus Hipparchum Aratumque comparandos illi homines non fuisse."  MART. 6, 48: "Quod tam grande 'sophos' clamat tibi turba togata,  ¶ non tu, Pomponi, cena diserta tua est."

/9 cheers!  (salutation when drinking)  sit tibi (v. vobis) salutiferum, prosit tibi (v. vobis)  ► propîno tibi (v. vobis) salutem (EGGER L.D.I. 83)  ► feliciter (EGGER L.D.I. 83)

/9 date: what's the date today?  qui dies est hodie? (EGGER L.D.I. 100)  ► quotus dies est hodie?

/9 go to hell  abi in malam rem (PLAUT.)  ► abi in malam crucem (PLAUT.; Ter.)  ► quin tu abis in malam pestem (CIC. Phil. 13, 21)

/9 God forbid  \\ Deus prohibeat  \\ dii prohibeant  \\ Deus avertat  \\ dii avertant (v. averruncent)  \\ absit omen

/9 good-by  ► vale, valête  |  say goodby  ► (alicui) vale dîcere /

/9 have: you can have it  ► habeas tibi

/9 hello, good day, good morning, bonjour, buenos días  salve, salvus sis, precor tibi felicem hunc diem (1540 VIVES Exer. 323)

/9 hush, don't say such a thing, what a thing to say  bona verba (Ter.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 381, in dialogue between card-players: "Malim te mihi iudicem quam collusorem.  – Bona verba! Cur istuc quaeso?  – Qui es in ludendo admodum vafer")

/9 luck: good luck!  fêlîciter!  bene tibi (v. vobis) vertat!

/9 name: what is your name?  qui vocaris? quod tibi nomen est?

/9 night: good night  bene dormias, bene quiescas, molliter cubes

/9 no offense meant, forgive my bluntness  (formula for excusing a comment that might offend)  pace tuâ dixerim (HIER. Ep. 112, 19, responding to a question from Augustine about his edition of the Bible: "pace tuâ dixerim, videris mihi non intelligere quod quaesisti")

/9 old: how old are you?  quot annos natus es?  I'm older than Mark  Marco maior natu sum

/9 so help me God  sic me Deus adiuvet (from medieval English juror's oath, quoted by DUCANGE s.v. iurata)

/9 speak: do you speak Latin (French, Chinese)?  loquerisne Latine (Gallice, Sinice)?

/9 thanks, thank you  ► amo te merito  ► amo te (de aliquâ re)  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 352: "amo te de suillâ hac salitâ," spoken to a waiter ("thanks for this salted pork").  ► gratias tibi ago  ► gratiam tibi habeo

/9 thanks: no thanks  benignê (HOR.) tam gratia, tamquam  (Ter.)

/9 thanks: you're welcome  libenter, non est cur gratias agas, non est cur

/9 welcome  (as interjection upon another's arrival)  ► salvum te advenire gaudeo  ¶ Ter.  EGGER L.D.I. 89.  ► feliciter vêneris  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 320.  ► fêliciter  ¶ 1540VIVES Exer. 350: "Crito: Ecce tibi Simonides.  Scopas [host, addressing newly-arrived Simonides]: Feliciter.  Simonides: Et vobis fauste."  ► exspectatus (v. exoptatus) venis  ¶ Cf. CIC. Fam. 16, 7: "Ad nos amantissimos tui veni [imperative] ... Carus omnibus exspectatusque venies."  ► bene venis  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 493: "Quando isti duo ambaxiatores habuerunt ambaxiatam, statim equitaverunt et venerunt ad campum Archomac ... et salutaverunt eum curialiter. Et Archomac dixit quod bene venirent, et fecit eos sedere."

/9 where are you from?  cuias es? unde venis?

/9 yes  etiam, ita, sic, [repetition of main verb of question]

@Ciccuto ed. of Marco -- make it a bibliogr entry.

@find something on anc. vocab. of clothing

@gbooks -- "prismate coloribus" -- prism, color theory, etc.

@gbooks -- hinduismus, (h)indostanum, hamaxobiorum, nerdiludio, pyrobol(ista)(ia), rocheta, rochetus, bombus, globi recreativi

@greekreverse – - σφαιρ -, - ζωνιον

@jacket, coat -- gunella.  fur coat -- gunna.  skirt -- caltula.  find locos, clean up articles.

@nympheum -- check works cited in DC

01

01    LANGUAGE

01 articulate

01 articulate: inarticulate  inarticulâtus, a, um (Arn.; Prisc.; 1846 GROSSE 25: "clamores inarticulati audiebantur")

01 breathing: soft breathing (in Greek)  spiritus lenis (Gesenius 1)

01 circumlocution  periphrasis, is f., circumlocutio, onis f.

01 cognate  subst.  vocabulum cognâtum;  adj.  cognâtus, u, um (Gesenius x: linguae cognatae)

01 compound word  vocabulum compositum, verbum composition 1843 TRAPPEN 28)

01 dictionary, lexicon  lexicon, i n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 279: "lexicon ... Graecolatinum," Greek-Latin dictionary)  ► dictionarium, i n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 265: "habeat [discipulus] dictionarium Latinum et Anglicum, quod saepe consulat, ut sciat quid quodque vocabulum significet."  ► vocabularium, i n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 269: "vocabularium Latinae linguae habebit, Calepinum scilicet, aut Perottum, ad quem recurret haerens in Latina voce")

01 dictionary: thesaurus  thesaurus vocabulorum iuxta sensum ordinatorum, synônymôrum lexicon

01 etymology  (process or act of finding original form or source of a word)  etymologia, ae f., (verbi) originatio (QUINT. 1, 6, 28; EGGER R.A. 67: "non est qui has probet originationes."  ► verbi origo (QUINT. 1, 6, 28)  ► vocis origo (Gell. 13, 10, 1)  ► nominis origo (ISID. Etym. 10, 1)  |  (that original form or source itself)  etymon, i n. (VARR.; Gell.)  | What's the etymology of lucus?  Unde lucus originem duxit?  Quid luci etymon esse dixeris?  (Gell. 13, 10, 1: "quid 'sororis' etymon esse dixerit Labeo."  |  Isidore gives caelo beatusas the etymology of caelebs  Isidorus caelebs a verbis caelo beatus derivat  ►► Quintilian (1, 6, 28) lists Latin terms for etymology: "Etymologia, quae verborum originem inquirit, a Cicerone dicta est 'notatio,' quia nomen eius apud Aristotelen invenitur  s u m b o l o n , quod est 'nota.'  Nam verbum ex verbo ductum, id est 'veriloquium,' ipse Cicero qui finxit reformidat.  Sunt qui vim potius intuiti 'originationem' vocent."  CIC. Top. 2, 10: "tum notatio, cum ex vi verbi argumentum aliquid elicitur."  CIC. Top. 8, 35: "multa etiam ex notatione sumuntur.  Ea est autem, cum ex vi nominis argumentum elicitur: quam Graeci  ετυμολογιαν  vocant, id est verbum e verbo, 'veriloquium.'"  ISID. Etym. 10, 1: "Origo quorundam nominum, id est unde veniant, non paene omnibus patet."

01 etymology: derivative (word derived from another word)  derivatum, i* n. (1698 Hofmann iii)

01 etymology: to be derived from (of a word)  orîginem dûcere (v. trahere) 1843 TRAPPEN 69, of various words for "coffee": "quae omnes, quamvis diverse scribantur, a voce Arabicâ kahwa  originem trahere videntur."  ► etymon habere (VARR. R.R. 1, 48, 2: "videtur vocabulum [grumum] etymum habere a glubendo")

01 fluent:  I'm fluent in French, I speak French fluently  Gallice expedîte loquor, sermone Gallico promptus sum (SUET. Tib. 71: "sermone Graeco quamquam alioqui promptus et facilis, non tamen usque quaque usus est ")

01 guttural  gutturalis, e (Gesenius 1: litterae gutturales)

01 idiom, idiomatic expression  idiôma, atis n. (Charis.)

01 incorrect (of language): incorrect usage, mistake (in language usage)  barbarismus, i m. (of mistake by foreign speaker)  ► soloecismus, i m. (of non-standard usage of native speaker)

01 incorrect: speak a language incorrectly  barbarizare (of mistake by foreign speaker) (Boet.; DANTE Vulg. El. 300, comparing Apulian dialect to standard Italian: "Apuli ... turpiter barbarizant."  ► soloecizare (of non-standard usage of native speaker) (HOVEN citing ERASMUS)

01 Indo-European  Indeuropaeus, a, um, Indogermânicus, a, um (Gesenius x)  ►► Indicus-Europaeus (EGGER S.L. 74)

01 labial  labialis, e (Gesenius 3: soni labiales)

01 language  ► sermo, ônis m.  ► lingua, ae f.  ► idiôma, atis n.  ¶ ThLL.  LLN, defining as "proprietas linguae, lingua, sermo," and providing several quotes with the expression "Theutonicum idioma."  DANTE Vulg. El. 323 et passim.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 465, of a region of India: "habet proprium regem et proprium idioma."  1652 TURS. 383: "idiomate Catalonico."  1726WOLFF 80: " ex Gallico in idioma Latinum traductum."  1826 LÜDERS 17: "idiomate Germanico."  ► loquêla, ae f.  ¶ Ov.  DANTE Vulg. El. 324.

01 language: dialect  ► dialectus, i f.  ¶ Suet.  ► idiôma, atis n.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 2, of a German regional dialect: "idiomate Megapolitano."

01 language: patois

01 language: pidgin, creole, lingua franca

01 Latinist, scholar or student or enthusiast of Latin  Latinitatis (v. linguae Latinae) cultor (v. studiosus)

01 lexicographer  lexicographus, i m.

01 lexicography  lexicographia, ae f. (1698 Hofmann vi)

01 meaning (of a word)  significatio, ônis f., vis f., potestas, âtis f.

01 native tongue, native language  lingua vernacula (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261: "Britanni ex proprietate vernaculae linguae nonnumquam in temporibus peccant"; PERUGINI, Concordata 44)  ► lingua materna (PERUGINI, Concordata 44; cf. DANTE Vulg. El. 323: materna locutio)  ► patrium idiôma (1652 TURS. 313)

01 native tongue: vernacular: the vernacular (a native tounge learned at home, not school, contrasted with a scholarly or liturgical language, such as Latin, ancient Greek, or classical Arabic)  ► sermo vulgaris  ► lingua vulgaris  ¶ Cf. DANTE Vulg. El. 319: "Vulgarem locutionem appellamus eam quam infantes assuefiunt ab assistentibus ... quam sine omni regulâ, nutricem imitantes, accipimus."  |  in the vernacular  ► vernacule (adv.)  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 32: "Iter 50 milliarium cursu publico vehiculari, quem 'mitfahrender offener Post' dicimus, facit."

01 onomatopoeia  onomatopoeia, ae f. (Charis.)

01 onomatopoeic  onomatopoeticus, a, um* (Gesenius x)

01 profanity, bad words, foul or vulgar or obscene language, swearing, cursing  ► verba turpia (n. pl.)  ¶ Dig. 47, 10, 15, 21: "Qui turpibus verbis utitur, non temptat pudicitiam, sed iniuriarum tenetur."  ► verba obscêna (n. pl.)  ¶  ► verba spurca (n. pl.)  ¶ Cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 390: "Ne sint ... dictis spurci."  ► turpiloquium, i n.  ¶ TERT.  Ambros.  ► verba nupta(n. pl.) (words not appropriate for polite company, adult language)  ¶ Paul. ex Fest. p. 170 Müll.

01 profanity:  swear, curse  deierare (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 390: "ne sint blasphemi in Deum, aut deieratores, non in dictis spurci")

01 profanity: pardon my French, excuse the expression  (formulas for excusing indelicate language)  ► honos sit auribus  ¶ Curt. 5,  1, 38, of strippers at Babylonian revels: "Feminarum convivia ineuntium in principio modestus est habitus, dein summa quaeque amicula exuunt, paulatimque pudorem profanant, ad ultimum – honos auribus habitus sit – ima corporum velamenta proiciunt."  1540 VIVES Exer. 360: "vomui – sit honos habitus vestris auribus."  Cf. Cic. Fam. 9, 22, 4, noting the obscene meaning of the verb strangulare when used with a woman as object: "Si dicimus 'ille patrem strangulavit,' honorem non praefamur; sin de Aureliâ aliquid aut Lolliâ, honos praefandus est."  ► sit venia verbo \

01 pronounce  proferre (QUINT. 11, 3, 33: "plerisque extremas syllabas non perferentibus dum priorum sono indulgent"; DANTE Vulg. El. 331: "quae quidem littera [z] non sine multâ rigiditate profertur"; VIVES Stud. pueril. 278: "primum soni litterarum diligenter animadvertendi sunt ... observabis quem ad modum periti proferant, et eos imitaberis ... in usum recte proferendi conscriptae sunt a Hieronymo Aleandro tabellae eruditae; cavendum tamen ne sic adsuescas Graecae pronuntiationi ut Latina illo more proferas."  ► sonare (CIC. Brut. 259: "sonabatque contrarium Catulo, subagreste quiddam planeque subrusticum," "he pronounced in a somewhat rustic way," or "he had something of a rural accent"' VIVES Stud. pueril. 258: "infigenda haec sunt et inculcanda, ut [discipulus] recte litteras et syllabas sonet, nec ullum insit in ore vitium."  ► (litteras) appellare (CIC. Brut. 133: "suavitate appellandarum litterarum."  ► pronuntiare (Meyer 215, ad CIC. Brut. 259: "Graeci litteras iucundius pronuntiabant, quorum eloquendi ratio levius sonaret quiddam."  ►► CIC. Brut. 259: "Catulus erat ille quidem minime indoctus, ut a te paulo est ante dictum, sed tamen suavitas vocis et lenis appellatio litterarum bene loquendi famam confecerat.  Cotta, qui se valde dilatandis litteris a similitudine Graecae locutionis abstraxerat sonabatque contrarium Catulo, subagreste quiddam planeque subrusticum, alia quidem quasi inculta et silvestri via ad eandem laudem pervenerat."  CIC. de Orat. 3, 42: " Est autem vitium, quod non nulli de industria consectantur: rustica vox et agrestis quosdam delectat, quo magis antiquitatem, si ita sonet, eorum sermo retinere videatur; ut tuus, Catule, sodalis, L. Cotta, gaudere mihi videtur gravitate linguae sonoque vocis agresti et illud, quod loquitur, priscum visum iri putat, si plane fuerit rusticanum.  Me autem tuus sonus et subtilitas ista delectat."  QUINT. 11, 3, 35: "Dilucida vero erit pronuntiatio primum si verba tota exierint, quorum pars devorari, pars destitui solet, plerisque extremas syllabas non perferentibus dum priorum sono indulgent."

01 pronounce: accent  (mode of pronunciation characteristic of a certain region, class, foreigners, etc.)  ► sonus, i m. (e.g., rusticus, agrestis, peregrînus, meridiânus)  ¶ CIC. de Orat. 4, 32: "Cotta gaudere mihi videtur gravitate linguae sonoque vocis agresti."  QUINT. 11, 3, 10: "qui verborum atque ipsius etiam soni rusticitate, ut L. Cottam dicit Cicero fecisse, imitationem antiquitatis adfectant."  ► vox, vocis f.  ¶ CIC. de Or. 3, 42: "Rustica vox et agrestis quosdam delectat."  |  have an accent (of a certain sort)  ► sonare (with internal accusative)  |  have a rural accent  ► rusticum (v. agreste) sonare  ¶ CIC. Brut. 259: "Sonabatque contrarium Catulo, subagreste quiddam planeque subrusticum."  |  have a foreign accent  ► peregrînum sonare

01 pronunciation  ► litterarum appellatio  ¶ CIC. Brut. 259, of the orator Catulus: "Suavitas vocis et lenis appellatio litterarum bene loquendi famam confecerat."  QUINT. 11, 3, 35: "Laudatur in Catulo suavis appellatio litterarum."  Cf. CIC. Brut. 133: "de sono vocis et suavitate appellandarum litterarum."  ► pronuntiatio, ônis f.  ¶ QUINT. 11, 3, 35: "Dilucida vero erit pronuntiatio." VIVES Stud. pueril. 268: "Nec solum voces [discipulus] aemulabitur, sed pronuntiationem quoque, ne in accentibus peccet."  Meyer 215, ad CIC. Brut. 259: "appellatio: i.e. pronuntiatio."  ►prôlâtio sonorum  ¶ VIVES Stud. pueril. 277.  ► prôlâtio, ônis f.  ¶ CaelAur.  DANTE Vulg. El. 323, 333: "prolationis mollitiem."   ►► loquêlae formâtio  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 38: "Alterum bonae dentium constitutionis usum ... in eo ponimus, quod ab ipsâ recta loquelae formatio atque commoditas dependet."

01 purist, stickler  (in language usage)  recte loquendi exactor (QUINT. 1, 3, 14: "in filio, ut epistulis apparet, recte loquendi asper quoque exactor," of Cicero)  ► puri sermonis exactor (EGGER R.A. 10; cf. SUET. Gramm. 22: "sermonis Latini exactor molestissimus")

01 root (of word)  radix, îcis f. (Gesenius x)

01 schwa  schwa (indecl.) (Gesenius 1, of the Hebrew vowel)

01 silent (of letters)  quiescens, entis

01 simultaneous translation  < versio simultanea (EGGER D.L. 22)

01 synonym  synônymum, i n. (Prisc.; SERV. Verg.; 1798 DESFONTAINES v; 1843 TRAPPEN 10)

01 term  vox, vocis f., vocabulum, i n., terminus, i m. (especially of technical term) (1811 PALLAS xiv)  |  technical term  artis terminus (1811 PALLAS 49)

01 terminology

01 translate  ► vertere  ¶ PLAUT.  CIC.  LIV.  ► convertere  ¶ CIC.)  ► interpretâri  ¶ CIC.  QUINT.  ► transferre  ¶ CIC.  QUINT.  ► tradûcere  ¶ Gell.  |  translate into Spanish ► Hispanicê convertere  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i: "liber ... Hispanice conversus."  |  translate from Greek into Latin  ► de Graeco in Latinum transferre  ¶ HIER. Ep. 112, 20.  |  translate faithfully  ► castâ fide tradûcere  ¶ 1698 Hofmann s.v. Rabelaesius.

01 translate literally, translate word for word  verbum e verbo exprimere (CIC. Ac. 2, 31; EGGER L.D.I. 121: "interpretes sacrorum Bibliorum saepe verbum e verbo exprimebant."  ► verbum pro verbo reddere (CIC. Opt. Gen. 5, 14)  ► ad verbum exprimere (CIC. Fin. 1, 2, 4: "fabellae Latinae ad verbum de Graecis expressae."  ► ad verbum transferre (QUINT. 7, 4, 4)  ► ad verbum vertere (VIVES Stud. pueril. 279)

01 translation (concretely: a translated work or passage)  interpretâtio, ônis f. (AUG. Ep. 82, 35, of Jerome's translation of the Old Testament: "me nolle tuam ex Hebraeo interpretationem in ecclesiis legi"; HIER. Ep. 112, 19: "cur mea prior in libris canonicis interpretatio asteriscos habeat ... et postea aliam translationem absque his signis ediderim"; VIVES Stud. pueril. 279: "conferas Graeca cum interpretationibus Latinis."  ► interpretâmentum, i n. (Gell.)  ► translâtio, ônis, f. (QUINT. 1, 4, 18; HIER. Ep. 112, 19)  ► tradûctio, ônis (*) f. (RABELAIS 944: "collatis eorum [interpretum] traductionibus cum exemplari Graecanico."  ► versio, ônis+ f. ("a turning" in medieval Latin, "translation" since Renaissance)  ¶ NIERMEYER.  HOVEN.  1794 RUIZ xx: "in versione Hispanicâ."

01 vocabulary  ► verborum supellex  ¶ Quint. 8, proem. 28, commending the orator "qui rationem loquendi primum cognoverit, tum lectione multâ et idoneâ copiosam sibi verborum supellectilem compararit."  ► verborum thesaurus  ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 116.  ► vocabulorum copia

02

02    GRAMMAR

02 agree (of grammatical agreement)  congruere (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261: "intelligat ... suppositum [subject] hoc et verbum quomodo debeant congruere")

02 agreement (grammatical)  congruentia, ae f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260: "post haec incipiet discere congruentiam adiectivi et substantivi in numero, genere, et casu")

02 case  casus, ûs m.

02 cases: ablative  (grammatical case)  (casus) ablativus, casus auferendi

02 cases: ablative of accompaniment  ablativus sociativus* (v. comitativus*) (EGGER L.D.I. 92)  |  ablative of means  ablativus instrumentalis (EGGER L.D.I. 92)  |  ablative of quality ablativus qualitatis (EGGER L.D.I. 92)  |  ablative of separation  ablativus separationis (cf. EGGER L.D.I. 92: "ablativus ... qui vere proprieque dicitur (casus separativus)."  |  ablative of time ablativus temporis (EGGER L.D.I. 92)

02 cases: accusative  (grammatical case)  (casus) accusativus, casus accusandi

02 cases: dative  (grammatical case)  (casus) dativus, casus dandi

02 cases: genitive  (grammatical case)  (casus) genetivus, casus gignendi

02 cases: genitive of quality  genetivus qualitatis (EGGER L.D.I. 92)

02 cases: locative  (grammatical case)  casus localis (cf. adverbia localia, Charis. p. 182 P)  ►► "Locativus" (EGGER L.D.I. 92) should mean "involving the act of placing or leasing."

02 cases: nominative (grammatical case)  (casus) nominativus, casus nominandi, (casus) rectus

02 cases: vocative  (grammatical case)  (casus) vocativus, casus vocandi

02 clause  enuntiatum, i n. (EGGER L.D.I. 79 et passim)  ► membrum, i n. (CIC. Or. 62, 211)

02 conditional sentence  (grammatical)  enuntiatum condicionale (EGGER L.D.I. 79)  |  contrary-to-fact conditional sentence  enuntiatum condicionale irreale* (EGGER L.D.I. 91: "enuntiatum condicionale potest esse: indefinitum (alii dicunt reale) ... irreale (condicio proponitur ut non realis)." ("irrealis" is in BARTAL)

02 conjugation  (group of verbs similarly inflected)  coniugatio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261)  |  (act of inflecting a verb)  dêclînâtio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 264)  ► inflexio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 264)

02 construction (grammar: a syntactical construction, a way of arranging words)  constructio, ônis f. (CIC.; DANTE Vulg. El. 341)

02 declension  dêclînâtio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 259: "in quibusdam nominibus primae declinationis."  ► inflexio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 259: "inflexio nominum"; VIVES Stud. pueril.278: "inflexiones nominum et verborum")

02 decline, conjugate  inflectere (VIVES Stud. pueril. 258: "quae significant fieri aliquid, et inflectuntur per modos et tempora, haec dicuntur verba"; VIVES Stud. pueril. 259: "nomina inflectere";VIVES Stud. pueril. 261: "inflectet verba per quattuor coniugationes."  ► dêclînare (VIVES Stud. pueril. 258: "quae declinantur per casûs, et significant aliquid fieri in tempore, dicuntur participia")

02 deverbal noun  nômen verbâle (VIVES Stud. pueril. 264)

02 diminutive  vox deminutiva (EGGER R.A. 87)  ► (nomen) deminutivum

02 end in  (of grammatical terminations)  exire, desinere

02 figure of speech  figûra, ae (CIC.; QUINT.)  ► schêma, atis n. (QUINT.)

02 figure of speech sarcasm ?dictērium (Muench, 1941), ?dīcācitās -ātis

02 form  (grammatical form of a word)  figûra, ae (QUINT.)

02 gender (grammatical)  genus, eris n.

02 gender: feminine  fêminîni generis, fêminînus, a, um

02 gender: masculine  masculîni generis, masculînus, a, um (QUINT. 1, 6, 3: "ut si quaeratur funis masculinum sit an femininum")

02 gender: neuter  neutri generis, neuter, tra, trum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 259: "nomina neutra habent accusativum et vocativum similes nominativo")

02 grammar  (alicuius linguae) elementa (v. rudimenta) (cf. titles of grammars published in Latin, e.g., Elementa linguae ArabicaeElementa Syriaca)  ► grammatica, ae (or ê, ês) f. (the term applies to literary as well as language studies)  ► prima elementa grammaticae (1540 VIVES Exer. 335: "alii [doctores] prima elementa artis grammaticae laboriose atque aerumnose pueris toto die ingeminant; alii penitiora tradunt artis")

02 indeclinable  (grammatical)  indeclinabilis, e (Diom.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 268)  ► inflexibilis, e (VIVES Stud. pueril. 268)

02 indirect object  (grammatical)  complêmentum indirectum (EGGER L.D.I. 10)

02 irregular  (grammatical)  anômalus, a, um (MART. Cap.; EGGER L.D.I. 81: "verba temporalia anomala, quae videlicet sunt abnormia")

02 letter names: u  u vocalis (VIVES Stud. pueril. 257)

02 letter names: v  u consonans (VIVES Stud. pueril. 257)

02 monosyllabic  adj.  monosyllabus, a, um (MART. Cap.)

02 monosyllable  subst.  mononsyllabon, i n. (QUINT.; DANTE Vulg. El. 345: "quaedam monosyllabal, ut sì, no, me")

02 parts of speech  orationis partes (VIVES Stud. pueril. 258; EGGER L.D.I. 104)

02 parts of speech:  verb  verbum (temporale)

02 parts of speech: adjective  nômen adiectîvum, adiectîvum, i n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)  ► epitheton, i n. (QUINT.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 259)

02 parts of speech: adverb  adverbium, i n.

02 parts of speech: conjunction  coniunctio, ônis f.

02 parts of speech: interjection  interiectio, ônis f.

02 parts of speech: noun  nômen substantîvum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 259)  ► substantîvum, i n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 parts of speech: noun: common noun  nômen appellatîvum

02 parts of speech: noun: proper noun  nômen proprium

02 parts of speech: participle  participium, i n.

02 parts of speech: preposition  praepositio, onis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 258)

02 parts of speech: pronoun  prônômen, inis n.

02 plural   subst.  (the plural)  numerus plûrâlis (QUINT. 1, 5, 42)  ► plûrâlis, is m. (Quint 9, 3, 8; VIVES Stud. pueril. 259: "in plurali hi tres casûs finiuntur in a."  ► numerus plûrâtîvus (Gell.) ► plûratîvum, i n. (Gell.)  |  in the plural  plûrâliter (SEN. Q. N. 2, 56, 1: "tonitrua nos pluraliter dicimus."  ► plûrâtîvê (1540 VIVES Exer. 395: "femur, et ut olim loquebantur, femen; nunc malunt plurative femina")

02 proposition, phrase  enuntiatum, i n. (EGGER L.D.I. 5)  ► enuntiatio, onis f.

02 purpose clause  enuntiatum finale (EGGER L.D.I. 76)

02 result clause  (grammatical)  enuntiatum consecutivum (EGGER L.D.I. 79)

02 rules of grammar  formulae grammaticae (VIVES Stud. pueril. 276)  ► normae grammaticae (VIVES Stud. pueril. 276)  ► praecepta grammatica (VIVES Stud. pueril. 276)

02 semiconsonant  semiconsonans, ntis* f. (EGGER R.A. 47)

02 sentence  periodus, i f. (CIC.; QUINT.)

02 sentence: clause  (part of sentence)  membrum, i n. (CIC.)  |  (short section or provision of statute, treaty, etc.)  clausula, ae f. (DIG.; PERUGINI, Concordata 40)

02 sequence of tenses  (grammatical)  consecutio temporum (EGGER L.D.I. 85)

02 singular (the singular, or a word in the singular)  (numerus) singulâris (cf. VIVES Stud. pueril. 260: "hinc explicandae declinationes quinque, quomodo prima cognoscatur ex genitivo singulari vel plurali."  |  a word in the singular  (nômen) singulâre (QUINT. 1, 5, 16: "quod pluralia singulariter et singularia pluraliter efferuntur")

02 subject  (topic)  argumentum, i n., thema, atis n.;  (grammatical)  subiectum, i* n. (EGGER L.D.I. 10)  ► suppositum, i* n. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261)

02 subject: object  (grammatical)  obiectum, i* n. (EGGER L.D.I. 10)  ► complêmentum directum (EGGER L.D.I. 10)

02 subordinate clause  enuntiatum secundarium (EGGER L.D.I. 76)

02 syntax  structûra verbôrum (CIC. Brut. 8, 33; EGGER L.D.I. 120)  ► syntaxis, is f. (Prisc. 17, 1, 1; VIVES Stud. pueril. 261; EGGER L.D.I. 120)  ► constructio, ônis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril.261: "tum veniendum ad eam quae Graecis dicitur syntaxis, Latinis constructio")

02 verb tense: future (verb tense)  (tempus) futurum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: future perfect  (verb tense)  futurum exactum (EGGER L.D.I. 63)  ► futurum perfectum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: imperfect (verb tense)  (tempus) imperfectum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: past (verb tense)  (tempus) praeteritum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260: "indicativus ... in quo quinque sunt tempora: praesens, tria praeterita, et futurum")

02 verb tense: past perfect (verb tense)  praeteritum plus quam perfectum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: perfect (verb tense)  (praeteritum) perfectum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: perfect subjunctive  (verb tense)  (tempus) perfectum (modi) coniunctivi (EGGER L.D.I. 66)  ► futurum subiunctivi (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb tense: present (verb tense)  (tempus) praesens (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb: deponent verb  verbum dêpônens (VIVES Stud. pueril. 263)

02 verb: gerund  gerundium, i n. (Prisc.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 267)

02 verb: gerundive  gerundium adiectîvum (VIVES Stud. pueril. 267)

02 verb: impersonal verb  verbum impersonâle (Charis.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 266)

02 verb: mood  modus, i m. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260: "quinque sunt modi in verbo: indicativus ... imperativus ... optativus ... subiunctivus ... infinitivus")

02 verb: mood: imperative  (modus) imperativus (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb: mood: indicative  (modus) indicativus (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb: mood: infinitivus  (modus) infinitivus (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261)

02 verb: mood: optativus  (modus) optativus (VIVES Stud. pueril. 260)

02 verb: mood: subjuinctive  (modus) subiunctivus (VIVES Stud. pueril. 261)  ► modus coniunctivus 

02 verb: supine  supînum, i n. (Prisc.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 261)

02 verb: voice  (grammatical)  vox, vocis f. (VIVES Stud. pueril. 266) ►► modus, i m. (QUINT.; EGGER L.D.I. 53: "modus passivus temporis praesentis")

02 verb: voice: active voice  (grammatical)  ►► faciendi modus (QUINT. 9, 3, 7)

02 verb: voice: passive voice  (grammatical)  vox passîva (VIVES Stud. pueril. 266) ►► patiendi modus (QUINT. 1, 6, 26; 9, 3, 7)

027

027    PHONETICS

027 consonant  (littera) consonans (QUINT.)

027 consonant: semivowel  littera (v. consonans) semivocalis (VIVES Stud. pueril. 257)

027 consonant: vowel  (littera) vocalis (CIC.; QUINT.)

027 diphthong  diphthongus, i f. (MART. Cap.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 257)

027 manner: affricate (English ch, j)

027 manner: fricative, spirant (f, s, v, z)

027 manner: fricative: sibilant (s, z)

027 manner: liquid (l, r)  ► consonans liquida  ¶ VIVES Stud. pueril. 257.  ► liquida, ae+ f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 345: "sine duarum liquidarum geminatione vel positione immediate post mutam."

027 manner: nasal (m, n)

027 manner: plosive, oral stop (p, t, k, b, d, g)  ► consonans muta  ¶ VIVES Stud. pueril. 257)  ► muta, ae+ f.  ¶ DANTE Vulg. El. 345.

027 place: alveolar (English t, d, n)  ►

027 place: bilabial (m, b, p)  ►

027 place: dental (Spanish t, d, n)  ► consonans dentâlis  ► littera dentâlis  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 39: "Singulari aeris ad dentes allisioni ipsae quaedam litterae ... peculiariter debentur, ideoque etiam dentalium nomine insigniuntur."  Ibid.: "dentalium praeprimis litterarum elocutionem."  For adj. dentalis, see Souter citing Plin. Med.

027 place: glottal  ►

027 place: labial (m, b, p, f, v)  ►

027 place: labiodental (f, v)  ►

027 place: palatal (Italian gn, gl)  ►

027 place: velar (g, k)  ►

027 silent letter, mute  littera quiescens

027 sound (phonetic), phoneme  sonus, i m.

027 trilled r, trill one's r's

027 voiced consonant

027 voiceless consonant 

028

028    ALAPHABET

028 /alphabet  abecedârium, i n. (1540 VIVES Exer. 320)  ► alphabêtum, i n. (TERT.; HIER.)  ► litterae, arum f. pl.

028 /alphabetical order  litterarum ordo (PLIN. 37, 138: "gemmas reliquas per litterarum ordinem explicabimus."  ► ordo abecedarius (Maiansius 340)

028 /alphabetical order: in alphabetical order, alphabetical (of list, dictionary, etc.)  ad litterarum ordinem digestus (Gesenius x)  ► ordine abecedario distinctus (Maiansius 340)

028 /writing, art of writing  litterae, arum f. pl. (1652 TURS. 13: "Cadmus ... litteras e Phoenicia deportavit in Graeciam")

028 block letter, block capital  litttera quadrata (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

028 capital letter  ► littera maior  ¶ 1810 BROWN vi: " litterâ unicâ Romanâ maiore."  ► littera grandis  ¶ EGGER R.A. 123.

028 capital letter: small letter  ¶ littera minor  ¶ 1810 BROWN viii.

028 check mark  ►► Fr. marque de contrôle

028 hieroglyphic  nota hieroglyphica (Amm.)  ► littera hieroglyphica (Macr.)  ► hieroglypha, ae* f. (Kopp 2: "quae hieroglyphis involuta significavit ... prisca Aegyptus, ea tot saeculorum decursu vel nunc quidem manent, sed vim et potestatem eorum ne ullo quidem modo vel doctissimi adhuc perspicere valuerunt."  ►► Luc. Herm. 44 (vide Lidell-Scott s.v.  χαρακτηρ ) notas hieroglyphicas χαρακτηρας  vocat, distinguit  γραμματα .

028 ideogram, pictogram  ideographêma, atis* f., nota (v. littera) ideographica* (cf. litterae hieroglyphicae, Macr. S. 1, 21, 12; notae hieroglyphicae, Amm. 17, 4, 8)  ► vocis (v. notionis) pictûra (v. figûra)  ►► ideogramma, atis* n. (EGGER S.L. 87: "tria milia idegrammatum, id est signorum seu figurarum, quibus Sineses in scribendo utuntur, mente comprehendit")

028 names of letters: h  aspiratio, ônis f., hacca 

028 names of letters: j  i consonans

028 names of letters: v  u consonans (DANTE Vulg. El. 332)

028 spelling  orthographia, ae f. (norms of correct spelling) (SUET. AUG. 88: "orthographia, id est formula ratioque scribendi a grammaticis instituta"; QUINT. 1, 4, 17)  |  I'm terrible at spelling orthographiam haudquaquam calleo

028 start with (a letter)  cf. 1698 Hofmann iv: "in vocabulis quorum initium daleth litterâ ... efficitur"

03

03    PUNCTUATION

03 accent  (stress or pitch of a syllable)  < accentus, ûs m.  |  (diacritical mark, diacritic)  < accentûs signum (strictly, of mark indicating syllable stress or pitch)  ► apex, icis m. ¶QUINT. 1, 7, 2 et passim, of long mark over vowel.  ¶ Vulg. Matt. 5, 18: "Iota unum aut unus apex non praeteribit a lege."  ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v, of a book in which the Greek accents were negligently printed: "Si tamen Graeca quae passim occurrunt respicias, quot apices, tot fere menda reperias."  ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 8.  ► apiculus, i* m. ¶ LATHAM citing 16-c. source.  ¶ RABELAIS945: "(n medicorum libris ... apiculus inversus aut praepostere scriptus multa hominum milia haud raro neci dedit." 

03 accent: accute accent  accentus acûtus (DANTE Vulg. El. 345)  |  (diacritical mark)  accentûs acûti signum

03 accent: cedilla

03 accent: circumflex accent  accentus circumflexus (DANTE Vulg. El. 345)  |  (diacritical mark)  accentûs circumflexi signum

03 accent: grave accent  accentus gravis;  (diacritical mark)  accentûs gravis signum

03 accent: macron

03 accent: macron: breve

03 accent: tilde

03 accent: umlaut, diaeresis

03 breathing: rough breathing mark  spiritûs asperi signum

03 breathing: smooth breathing mark  spiritûs lenis signum

03 emoticon (series of characters – such as :) – representing facial expression) 

03 emoticon: smiley (symbol representing smiling face)  ôris renidentis imaguncula

03 line: dotted line, broken line, sign on the dotted line

03 logograms: "at" sign (@)

03 logograms: ampersand (&)

03 logograms: equal sign (=)

03 logograms: plus sign (+)

03 logograms: plus: minus sign (-)

03 logograms: pound sign, number sign (#)

03 marks: apostrophe

03 marks: asterisk  ► asteriscus, i m.  ¶ SUET. frag. p. 139 (ed. Reifferscheid).  HIER. Ep. 112, 19.  ISID. Orig. 1, 20, 1.  Ducange, defining as "nota instar stellulae quâ utuntur librarii."  ►stellula, ae f. /

03 marks: colon

03 marks: colon: semicolon

03 marks: comma  ►► Virgula est vox ambigua; vide HIER. Ep. 112, 19: "ubicumque virgulae, hoc est obeli sunt."

03 marks: dagger, obelus, obelisk  ► obelus, i m.  ¶ HIER. Ep. 112, 19: "Ubicumque virgulae, hoc est obeli sunt."  Isid.  1810 BROWN viii: "signo obeli (†) notavi."

03 marks: ellipsis points

03 marks: exclamation point  signum exclamationis (Pharm. Austr. xxii)

03 marks: hyphen

03 marks: hyphen: dash

03 marks: obelus (indicating suspect passage in text)  obelus, i m. (HIER. Ep. 112, 19; ISID. Orig. 1, 20, 1)

03 marks: period (US), full stop (Br.)  punctum, i n.

03 marks: question mark

03 marks: quotation marks

03 marks: slash /

03 marks: slash: backslash \

03 marks: slash: vertical bar

03 parentheses ( )  ► lunulae, arum f. pl.  ¶ Erasmus.  ► unci, orum m. pl.  ¶ 1810 BROWN vi: "litterâ ... uncis inclusâ."

03 parentheses: brackets [ ]

03 parentheses: brackets { }

03 parentheses: brackets ►

03 puncutation  interpunctiones verborum (CIC. Mur. 25)

03 type: bold, boldface

03 type: italics  obliqui typi m. pl. (Pharm. Austr. xxii)

03 type: underline, underlining

04

04    WRITING

04 abbreviate  (vocabulum) compendiose perhibere (EGGER R.A. 147: "nomina scriptorum veterum Latinorum compendiose perhibentur secundum morem qui in libris (et lexicis) eruditorum obtinet")

04 abbreviation  ► compendiariae litterae  ¶ EGGER D.L. 16.  EGGER S.L. 31.  ► scribendi compendium ¶ EGGER R.A. 147.  ► sigla, orum n. pl. (properly, abbrevations consisting of a single letter or other sign)  ¶ Cod. Just. 1, 17, 2, 22: "omnia enim ... per consequentias litterarum volumus, non per sigla manifestari," "to be written out in full, not abbreviated."  1810 BROWN v, of one-letter abbreviations.

04 code, coded writing  ► cifrae, arum+ f. pl.  ¶ LATHAM s.v. cifra, noting this meaning under spelling zifera).  RABIKAUSKAS 151, quoted below.  ► ciphrae, arum+ f. pl.  ¶ DUCANGEs.v. cifrae, sub-entry ciphrae: "Characteres occulti, Gallis chifres, quibus arcana, et quae ab aliis ignorari interest, solent perscribi ac significari. Illarum varias species, ciphras simplices, non significantibus characteribus mixtas, duplices litteras uno charactere complexas, ciphras rotae, ciphras clavis, ciphras verborum, enumerat illustris Verulamius."  HOVEN, defining as "langage chiffré, codé"; citing Vives.  F. BACON, quoted by Ducange.  ► ziffrae, arum+ f. pl.  ¶ DUCANGE, quoting a statute: "Statuerunt et ordinaverunt quod domini ius dicentes in decretationibus ... non utantur ziffris seu aliis litteris brevibus."  ► characteres occulti (m. pl.)  ¶ DUCANGE s.v. cifrae in definition, quoted above.  ► cryptographia, ae* f.  ¶ KOPP 12: "Cavendum est ne eorum decipiamur opinione qui notas Tironianas genus esse cryptographiae docent."  RABIKAUSKAS 150, quoted below.   ► scriptura occulta  ¶ RABIKAUSKAS 150, quoted below.    ►► RABIKAUSKAS 150-151: "De usu cryptographiae in curiâ pontificiâ notitiae copiosiores tantum a saeculo XIV habentur.  In cancellariâ Ioannis XXII usus scripturae occultae sat extensus erat. Signa numeris sic dictis arabicis expressa non adhibebantur; [p. 151] potius ad permutationem diversimodam ipsarum litterararum alphabeti recurrebatur. Postea ... evolutio systematum 'cifrae' valde increbruit, quae etiam in curiâ pontificiâ large applicabantur. Iam saeculo XV cura litterarum 'cifratarum' uni e secratariis papae commissa est, qui a saeculo XVI cifaristaappellabatur ... Opus principale de 'cifris,' in quo plurimae 'claves' cifrarum in curia pontificia saeculo XVI usitataturm evulgatae habentur, est A. Meister, Die Geheimschrift ... Auctor monet investigatores de erroribus qui in transcriptione e minutâ in formam originalem cifratam et postea in eiusdem decifratione occurrere possunt."

04 code: write in code  ► per notas scribere  ¶ SUET. CAES. 56: "Si qua occultius perferenda essent, per notas scripsit."  ► notis sêcrêtioribus scrîbere  ¶ LLI s.v. ziffrare in definition.  ►zifrare  ¶ LLI: "ZIFFRARE, ZIFRARE ... 1. notis secretioribus scribere, compendiarie scribere ... 2. notis arithmeticis scribere."

04 coded document  scriptum furtivum (EGGER S.L. 60)  ► scriptum cryptographicum*, scriptum cifratum* (for the adjective cifratus, see Rabikauskas 151)  ►► cryptogramma, atis* n. (EGGER S.L. 60)

04 cross out (something written), strike through  lituram inducere (1540 VIVES Exer. 322)

04 cuneiform writing, cuneiform characters  litterae cuneatae (Kopp 2)  ► litterae Persepolitânae (Kopp 2: "neque felicius cesserunt eorum studia qui in explicandis litteris Persepolitanis (cuneatas vocant) operam collocarunt."  ► litterae cuneiformes*  ►► The site of ancient Persepolis was perhaps the most important source of cuneiform inscriptions.

04 delete  expungere (1698 Hofmann v: "expunxi prorsus falsa," in revising a dictionary)

04 dictate  dictare

04 dictation: take dictation  excipere (esp. in shorthand) (SUET. Tit. 3: "notis quoque excipere velocissime solitum."  |  one who takes dictation  exceptor, ôris m. (DIG.; 1540 VIVES Exer.340: "huc adducito puerum exceptorem, nam lubet aliquid dictare")

04 draft, rough draft  adumbratio, onis f., litûrârii, orum m. pl. (Aus.)  ► adumbratum exemplum (EGGER S.L. 67)

04 draft: version  forma, ae f. (1698 Hofmann v: "hanc tertiam lexici sui formam excogitaverit."  ► redactio, ônis f.

04 form (document with blanks to fill in)  formula, ae f. (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► schida formularia*;  (grammatical form of word)  figura, ae f. (VARR.; QUINT.)

04 handwriting  manus, ûs f. (CIC.)  ► chîrographum, i n. (CIC. Phil. 2, 8: "quid opponas tandem, si negem me umquam ad te istas litteras misisse quo me teste convincas? an chirographo?"; 1652TURS. 199, of a Byzantine emperor: "chirographo suo astrologorum damnavit artem."  |  to have messy handwriting  perturbate exarare litteras (1540 VIVES Exer. 317)

04 handwriting: autograph  nômen autographum, autographa nôminis scriptio (EGGER S.L. 56; LRL)

04 illiterate  analphabetus, a, um* (Kopp 2)  |  be illiterate  ►► In CIC. Brut. 259, "litteras nescire" valet potius "have no literary culture."

04 key (of typewriter, computer)  ► malleolus, i m.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 88.  The term was extended in antiquity to objects resembling in form a hammerhead or mallet-head, including sorts of plant slips and military missiles.

04 keyboard (of typewriter, computer)  ► abacus, i m.

04 label  pittacium, i n.

04 notebook  ► adversaria, orum n. pl.  ¶ CIC.  EGGER L.D.I. 104.  ► pugillâres, ium m. pl. (small notebook)  ► liber vacuus  ¶ VIVES Stud. pueril. 268: "Habeat [discipulus] librum vacuum maiusculum, in quem manu suâ coniiciat tum verba ... tum loquendi formulas."  ► liber chartae vacuae  ¶ VIVES Stud. pueril. 272.  ► liber exceptorius  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 340.  ►quaternio, ônis+ m. (originally of four folded sheets)  ¶ Ducange: "QUATERNIO, QUATERNUS, QUATERNUNCULUS, Chartae invicem compactae, nostris cahier ... Rabanaus Epist. ad Hincmarum: 'Prudentius Trecassinae civitatis episcopus plura testimonia praeteritorum patrum in quaternionibus suis collegit.'"  ► quaternus, i+ m.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 64: "Similiter autem stabularii et hospitum receptores scribunt in suis quaternis nomina omnium viatorum quos in suis hospitiis recipiunt."

04 notes  ► adversâria, orum n. pl.  ¶ CIC.  1794 RUIZ v: "ex eiusdem Itinere a praeceptore Linnaeo ex adversariis excerpto, et Holmiae evulgato."  1794 RUIZ x: "quaecumque de itineribus ... in adversariis diligenter adnotavimus."  ► schedae, arum f. pl.  ¶ RABELAIS 944: "adnotatiunculas itaque illas ... cum nuper inter schedas meas vidisset."  1811 PALLAS vi.

04 outline  lineamenta, orum n. pl. (Rabikauskas, title page: "praelectionum lineamenta")

04 poster  libellus parieti affixus, libellus parietarius (v. parietalis)  ► libellus (EGGER R.A. 80)

04 register, catalogue  regesta, orum n. pl. (PRUD.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 340)

04 revise, rewrite  ► recognoscere  ¶ 1698 Hofmann vi: "operis recognoscendi provincia," of revision of a dictionary.  ► retractare  ¶ 1698 Hofmann vii.  ► incûdi reddere  ¶ Hor. A.P. 440-441: "Delere iubebat  ¶ et male tornatos incudi reddere versûs."  ► ad incûdem revocare  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xxi: "quae [scil. volumina] ad incudem revocantes ex vegetabilium viventium sedulâ inspectione reformavimus."

04 secretary, one who writes for another, one who takes dictation  \\ notârius, i m. (esp. of shorthand-writer)  \ Plin. Ep.  \ Quint.  \ Amm.

04 secretary: stenographer, one who writes in shorthand  \\ tachygraphus, i* m. \ Kopp 15 et passim.

04 sign  vb.  subscribere (alicui rei)  ► subnotare (aliquid)  ►► rationibus subscribere, testamento subscribere, DIG. 40, 7, 40; nomina subnotare, SUET. Calig. 41; subnotare tabulas (EGGER D.L. 46)  |  pacto subscribere (EGGER S.L. 68)

04 slip of the pen  lapsus calami (cf. Septuagint, "Praef.": "librarii lapsus," copyist's mistake)  ► sphalma, atis* n.

04 spacing  versuum intercapêdo (1540 VIVES Exer. 322: "posthac relinquite maiorem intercapedinem versuum, ut sit ubi ego possim corrigere vestra errata."  ► versuum interstitium

04 spacing: double-space  vb.  interstitium duplex interponere (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 320: "duc versûs densiores: quid necesse habes tam magna interstitia relinquere?."  |  double-spaced interstitio duplice interposito

04 spacing: single-space  vb.  interstitium simplex interponere;  single-spaced  interstitio simplice interposito

04 stenography, shorthand  \\ tachygrahia, ae* f.  \ Kopp 3 et passim.

04 two-sided (of document or copy with writing on both sides)  opisthographus, a, um (PLIN. Ep. 3, 5, 17: "[avunculus meus] commentarios centum sexaginta mihi reliquit, opisthographos quidem et minutissime scriptos")

04 two-sided copy  exemplar opisthographum

04 typographical error, typo  < typographiae vitium ¶ 1698 HOFMANN vii.  ► typographiae mendum ¶ 1798 DESFONTAINES v: "in castigandis typographiae mendis."  ► errâtum, i n. ¶ 1672 FRISIUS vi, quoted below.  ► sphalma, atis* n. ¶ 1811 PALLAS 569.  << Typos and similar errors are said to irrêpere – "creep into" a book:  ¶ 1672 FRISIUS vi, in publisher's preface: "Nulli tamen dubitamus quin leviora sint, si qua forte invitis nobis irrepserunt errata, quam ut aequus animus illis offendatur."

05

05    OFFICE

05 archives, official records  regesta, orum n. pl. (DUCANGE s.v. aresta in article)

05 archives, records office  ► archîvum, i n.  ► tabulârium, i n. (especially of public records office)  ¶ 1794 RUIZ vii, of a monastery's archies.  KOPP 2: "Cum peregrinas regiones perlustrarem, in tabulariorum custodes incidi quibus ne legere quidem per imperitiam liceret chartas curis ipsorum commissas."

05 archivist, keeper or records  \\ tabulârius, i m.  \ Sen.  \ Dig.

05 bulletin board (US), noticeboard (Br.)  nuntiorum tabula  ►► EL: tableau d'affichage; bacheca; schwartzes Brett; Du. prikbord

05 cardboard  charta densata (EGGER S.L. 69)

05 cardboard: corrugated

05 copy  subst.  exemplum, i n., exemplar, âris n., apographon, i n. (a single copy or transcript, made from an original) (CIC. in Greek; PLIN.)  |  vb.  describere (RABELAIS 946: manu describere)  |  have 2000 copies printed  (librum) in exemplaria bis mille excudendum dare (RABELAIS 946)

05 copy: photocopier  machina phototypica*

05 copy: photocopy  subst.  exemplum phototypicum*;  vb.  phototypice* describere  ►► The expression phototypice exprimere was used as early as 1889 of photostatic copies, and has been transferred in more recent scholarly Latin to the process of photocopying.  WC title: Novum Testamentum e codice Vaticano 1209 nativi textûs Graeci primo omnium phototypice repraesentatum auspice Leone XIII. Pont. Max. (Rome: Biblioteca Vaticana, 1889) (part of the series Codices e Vaticanis selecti phototypice expressi iussu Leonis PP. XIII.).

05 fax  ? exemplar teletypicum*  ►► LRL: isographia e longinquo

05 fax machine  ? machina teletypica*

05 fax: teletype machine, teleprinter  instrumentum têletypicum (EGGER D.L. 33)

05 file cabinet   scrinium ... ►► In scriniis conduntur chartae, epistolae.  HELFER: actorum armarium.  Alb.: repositorium.

05 file, file folder  ►► Helf: integumentum astrictorium (s.v. Aktenordner)  ► loculamentum (s.v. Ordner)  ► actorum coperculum (s.v. Aktendeckel).  LRL: chartarum (v. schedularum v. scidularum) fasciculus.  Alb.: collectorium.

05 office  (place where business is transacted, office building, white-collar work-place)  tractatorium, i n. (SID.)  ► statio, onis f. (COD. TH.; Cod. Just.)  ► quaestûs cottidiani locus (CIC. Cato 4, 17)  ► taberna, ae f., sedes, is f. (with appropriate genitive)  ► officiorum sedes (EGGER D.L. 21, 29)  |  (separate room or space for one or a few within larger work-place)  scriptorium, i+ n., musê(ol)um, i* n. (properly a study, thus used for office of professor or scholar)  ► cella, ae f., ? officiorum sedes (EGGER D.L. 22)  ► ? officii sedes (EGGERS.L. 29: "generalis praectus exercitûs ... dum Matriti in officii sui sedem vehitur, est ex insidiis necatus"; EGGER S.L. 82: "cum ... ex aedibus suis ad officii sedem se conferret")

05 paper  ► charta, ae f.  ¶ In antiquity of papyrus; applied to paper since ML.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 384, of Chinese paper money: "De isto cortice facit fieri chartas sicut de bambace."  ►papŷrus, i (+) m./f.  ¶ In antiquity of papyrus; applied to paper since ML.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 21: "folia de papyro"; et passim.  ► charta bombŷcina  ¶ Ducange s.v. bombax: "Graeci χυλοχάρτιον  vocant chartam bombycinam."  Most European paper was made of cotton rags until the 19th c.

05 paper mill, paper factory  officîna chartâria (PLIN. 18, 89)

05 paper: a sheet of paper, a piece of paper  charta, ae f., scheda, ae f. (CIC.; QUINT.)  ► folium, i n., chartae folium (1540 VIVES Exer. 320: "mutua mihi dimidium chartae folium."  ► ? plagula, ae f. (PLIN. 13, 77: "siccantur sole [papypri] plagulae atque inter se iunguntur")

05 paper: a slip of paper  schedula, ae f. (HIER.)

05 paper: blank paper  charta pûra (MART. )  ► charta vacua (VIVES Stud. pueril. 266)

05 paper: brown wrapping paper, packing paper  charta emporêtica (1540 VIVES Exer. 320)

05 paper: letter-head

05 paper: papyrus  papyrus, i m. and f. (EGGER R.A. 138: "in museo Aegyptio ... vide sis ... papyros."  ►► Non invenio papyri numero plurali (ut apud EGGER) pro monumentis in charta papyracea conscriptis.

05 paper: parchment  membrâna, ae f. (HOR.; PLIN.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 340: "liber ... tectus membranâ ruditer."  ► folium membrânâceum (EGGER R.A. 142)  ► pergamêna, ae f. (HIER.;ISID.)  |  parchment manuscript  liber membrânâceus (1540 VIVES Exer. 336)  ► codex membrânâceus

05 paper: side (of sheet of paper)  facies, êi f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 318: "Latini scribebant in membrana ... unâ tantum facie"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 320: "scribe in utraque facie")

05 paper: stationery  charta epistolaris (1540 VIVES Exer. 319)

05 pen  calamus (scriptorius)  ►► calamus stilographicus (EGGER L.D.I. 104)

05 pen: a piece of chalk  crêta, ae f., lapillus crêtâceus (LRL)

05 pen: ball-point pen  calamus praepilâtus  ►► graphium sphaeralis (EGGER S.L. 105)

05 pen: crayon  stilus cereus

05 pen: marker, magic marker

05 pen: marker: felt-tip pen  calamus coactilicius* (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 387: "calcei coactilicii," of felt shoes)

05 pen: marker: highlighter  ►► EL: evidenziatore; Leuchtstiff, Textmarker

05 pen: pencil  ► plumbum, i n.  ¶ Eugenius Oder, ed., Mulomedicina Chironis (Leipzig: Teubner, 1901), xix-xx, of a manuscript that had been marked in pencil by another scholar: "Numeros capitum Vegetianorum, quae respondent particulis singulis Mulomedicinae, in sinistro margine duarum columnarum, ut solet, plumbo ascripsit Guilelmus Meyer."     &nbsnbsp;►► lapis scriptorius (EGGERL.D.I. 104)

05 pen: pencil-sharpener  côticula, ae f.

05 pen: quill (for writing)  penna, ae f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 316; 1540 VIVES Exer. 318: "anserinis pennis scribimus")

05 pencase  ► thêca calamâria  ¶ Suet.  Cf. Mart. 14, 19: "theca libraria."  ► calamârium, i+ n.  ¶ Ducange, definining as "vas in quo asservantur encausta, vel atramenta, atque adeo ipsi quibus scribimus calami, unde nomen."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 441: "Et habent multum de ligno unde fiunt calamaria, id est de bonusso, quod in latino dicitur ebenus."

05 pen-stroke  calami ductus (Kopp 12: "paucissimis calami ductibus ut scriptio absolveretur sine ulla dubitatione primus harum notarum [sc. Tironianarum] finis fuit")

05 stationer's (shop)  chartopôlium, i* n. (cf. chartopôla, Schol. JUV. 4, 27)

05 tack  cf. sûbula, clâvulus, punctorium

05 typewriter  machina scriptoria  (cf. EGGER S.L. 88: machinula scriptoria)

05 whole-puncher  punctorium chartârum (v. chartârium)

06

06    MAIL

06 \\ [from Craig Caldwell] Under the Roman Republic, when provincial administration was tantamount to the private business of the nobles who served as governors, there were private networks of messengers called tabellarii.  Augustus introduced an empire-wide system modeled on those of the Hellenistic kings; this first imperial postal system used long-distance (not relay) messengers called iuvenes .  Our evidence for this early imperial post is thin, but from evidence from the later Empire, we can deduce that the cursus publicus evolved into one of the largest -- perhaps the largest -- administrative enterprise of the Roman Empire.  It was both comprehensive in its scope and the impetus for some of the most despised forms of taxation, including the vehiculatio (requisitioning/compulsory sale of animals and provisions for the post).  The system was based on mansiones (posting stations; smaller ones were called mutationes) staffed by state personnel who ran inns, tended the animals, and ensured that messages made it across the Empire.  In the third century, the emperor Septimius Severus was probably responsible for the creation of a slow post (cursus clabularis) of ox-carts to complement the cursus velox, as it was now called.  This slower network could convey supplies across the Empire, especially as taxes were increasingly collected in kind rather than in coin.  Messages could travel over the relays of stations at average speeds of 50 miles/day -- a rapid pace for reliable communications in the ancient world.  Particularly important messages even seem to have traveled 150 miles/day on certain occasions in Roman history.

06 address  inscriptio cursualis (EGGER S.L. 75; EGGER L.D.I. 102)

06 box  (one of set of compartments for receving mail)  loculus, i m., loculamentum, i n.;  set of compartments or boxes  columbarium, i n.

06 courier, messenger  cursor, ôris m. (NEP.; PLIN.; SUET.; 1652 TURS. 437)  ► verêdârius, i m. (Vulg.; HIER.)

06 deliver (a letter)  (epistulam) perferre (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

06 envelope  involûcrum, i n. (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

06 forward (mail, a letter or message)  perferre (SEN. Ep. 3, 1: "epistulas ad me perferendas tradidisti ... amico tuo," "you gave your friend letters to forward to me")

06 mail (a letter), post (a letter)  vb.  (epistulam) mittere (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► (epistulam) cursui publico tradere (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  |  how much does it cost to mail a post card?  quanti stat missio chartulae cursualis? (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

06 mail box  cursûs publici capsula (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► arca (v. capsa) cursualis

06 mail, post  subst.  cursus publicus (Cod. Just. 12, 50; EGGER L.D.I. 102)  |  adj.  curusalis, e

06 mailman, mail carrier, postman, postal deliverer  ► tabellarius, i m.  ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 102.  ► verêdârius, i m.  ¶ SID.  Vulg.  ERASMUS Coll. 160.

06 mailman: courier  ► cursor, ôris m.  ¶ Nep. Milit. 4, 3: "Cursorem eius generis qui hemerodromoe vocantur Lacedaemonem miserunt."  Suet. Ner. 49, of the courier the senate sent to read Nero his death sentence.  Mart. 3, 100: "Cursorem sextâ tibi, Rufe, remisimus horâ,  ¶ carmina quem madidum nostra tulisse reor."

06 post office  cursûs publici diribitorium (EGGER S.L. 40; EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► diribitorium cursuale

06 post, mail  subst.  cursus publicus (EGGER S.L. 31)

06 postcard  chartula cursualis (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

06 stamp (postage)  pittacium cursuale (EGGER L.D.I. 102), pittacium vehiculāre  to stamp (v.) epistulam pittaciō vehiculārī mūnīre (Bacci, OIE 329)

07

07    BOOKS

07 bind: bookbinder  bibliopegus, i m., libri (v. librorum) compactor  ►► librarius glutinator (1540 VIVES Exer. 341)

07 bind: cloth-bound  panno tectus

07 bind: hard-bound, hardcover  tegumento rigido (abl.)

07 bind: leather-bound  corio tectus (1540 VIVES Exer. 340: "liber est expolitus, tectus corio")

07 bookstore  bibliopôlium, i* n. (HOVEN)  ► taberna librâria (CIC. Phil. 2, 9, 21)  ► librâria, ae f. (Gell.)

07 bookstore: bookseller  bibliopôla, ae m. (PLIN.; MART.; 1843 TRAPPEN 30)  ► librârius, i m. (SEN.; Gell.)

07 brochure, pamphlet 

07 brochure: leaflet  folium plicatile (cf. Fr. dépliant)

07 censure (e.g., a book, film, author)  censûra afficere (1652 TURS. 338: "origo huius velitationis ex libris censurâ affectis."  ► censûrâ notâre (1652 TURS. 342: "Emundus Richer, qui ob libellum de ecclesiasticâ et politicâ potestate censurâ notatus fuerat"; 356: "duo libri ... gravi censûrâ notati sunt")

07 dedicate  ► nuncupare  ¶  ► dedicare /

07 dedication (in book)  nuncupatio, ônis f. (PLIN.)  ► dedicatio, ônis f., nuncupatûra, ae* f. (HOVEN)

07 encyclopedia  libri encyclopaedici*, encyclopaedia, ae* f.

07 font, typeface (e.g., Arial, Times New Roman)  < typorum (v. formularum) series (v. genus)  < character, êris (*) m. ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v, of citations placed in margin with a distinct typeface: "Citata auctorum nomina et loca, quae nullo antea discrimine cernebantur, suis singula notis, et diversitate characteris ab ipso textu secrevimus."

07 font: font sytle (e.g., bold, italics, regular)  <

07 format: folio 

07 format: octavo  liber in forma octava editus (cf. Ducrue 220)

07 format: quarto  liber in forma quarta editus (1784 DUCRUE 220)

07 illustration  ► îcon, îconis f. (especially of a realistic, precisely drawn representation, as images of plants in botanical works)  ¶ 1794 RUIZ title page.  ¶ 1798 DESFONTAINES v: "Synonyma auctorum adieci qui iconibus aut descriptionibus rem herbariam illustrarunt."  ¶ 1811 PALLAS xii.  < figûra, ae f. ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v-vi, on the celebrated woodcuts illustrating Mercuriale's De arte gymnastica: "Ad figuras quidem ipsas quod attinet, non alias hîc tibi et publico offerimus quam quas insignis antiquiarius Pyrrhus Ligorius Mercuriali obtulit, maximorum curâ artificum designatas, et ... non sine maximis impensis ligno insculptas. Et harum quidem figurarum ut non leve artificium est, ita sors quoque minime vulgaris semper fuit. Etenim non paucos ... videre mihi contigit, qui linguae Latinae rudes, hôc solo figurarum artificio ducti, hunc librum avide et ambabus quod aiunt manibus venerabundi exciperent."

07 incunabula  specimina artis typographicae primordialis (v. primaevae v. primigeniae)  ► primordialia (v. primaeva v. primigenia) artis typographicae specimina, artis typographicae velut incunabulorum specimina  ►► Cf. EGGER R.A. 142: "huc accedunt amplius octo milia 'incunabulorum' artis typographicae."

07 introduction (to a book)  |  (of an entire book, as introducing a complex subject or a larger work)  ► prodromus, i (*) m.  ¶ 1810 BROWN vi: "in prodromo operis futuri." 1794 RUIZ xviii: "Novorum generum volumen, veluti totius operis prodromum, praemittendum e re duximus."

07 introduction: preface  ► praefâtio, ônis f.  ¶ Plin.  Quint. 

07 manuscript  ► liber manu scriptus  ¶ Gesenius xii.  ► exemplar manu scriptum  ¶ Septuagint, "Praef."  ► codex manu scriptus  ¶ Septuagint, "Praef."  ► manuscriptum, i* n.  ¶ 1784DUCRUE 255.  1843 TRAPPEN 7.  ► codex, icis m.  ¶ Septuagint, "Praef.": "exemplaria manu scripta ... quibus deinde cum codice Vaticanae bibliothecae saepe et diligenter comparatis."  1794RUIZ vii (corresponding to "manuscritos" in accompanying Spanish translation).  HASE v: "Historiam Michaelis Pselli quam e codice descriptam Latineque versum in scriniis habeo." 

07 map  ► tabula geographica  ¶ Ducange s.v. mappa mundi in definition, quoted below. EGGER R.A. 142.  ► mappa (+) geographica  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 46.  ► mappa, ae (+) f.  ¶ 1784DUCRUE 234.  ► mappa (+) mundi (properly, of a map of the entire earth)  ¶ Ducange: "2. MAPPA MUNDI, Charta vel mappa explicata, in quâ orbis seu mundi descriptio continetur ... quarum quidem tabularum geographicarum primum auctorem fuisse Anaximandrum ... tradit Eustathius. ... Gervasius Tilleberiensis lib. 2, Otior. Imperial.: 'Considerantes quod ipsa pictorum varietas mendaces efficit de locorum varietate picturas, quas mappam mundi vulgus nominat.'" c.1300 MARCO POLO A 448, describing Ceylon: "Antiquitus fuit maior, quia girabat 1,600 miliaria, sicut dicit mappa mundi."  ► tabula chôrographica*  ► chôrographia, ae f.  ► (alicuius terrae) descriptio  ¶ Ducange s.v. mappa mundi in definition, quoted above.

07 paperback  liber chartâ contectus (v. involutus) (HELFER)  |  see also handbook

07 paperback: handbook, small book, concise edition (cf. Fr. livre de poche, Ger. Taschenbuch)  enchîridium, i n. (DIG.; VIVES Stud. pueril. 266; RABELAIS 945: "libro ... in enchiridii formam redacto," of an in-16o)  |  ERASMUS)  ► liber manuâlis (cf. Gesenius ix: lexicon manuale) 

07 parts: appendix  auctârium, i n., appendix, icis f. (PERUGINI, Concordata v; Index  86), πάρεργον / parergon -i n (Thomas Vallaurius, “Historia Critica Litterarum Latinarum accedit parergon aliquot monumentorum latini sermonis vetustioris” 1850)

07 parts: chapter (division of book)  caput, itis n. (CIC. Leg. 1, 21; CIC. Fam. 7, 22; Septuagint, "Praef.," of a manuscript of the Septuagint: "cum toto exemplari nulla capitum divisio sit."  ►capitulum, i n. (TERT.; HIER.; DANTE Vulg. El. 329)

07 parts: dedicatory letter (in book)  epistola nuncupatôria+ (RABELAIS 957)

07 parts: figure (diagram or delineation, esp. illustrating text of a book)  figûra, ae (+) f. DANTE Aqua 470: "ut patet in figura signata," of accompanying figure, marked with letters explained in text)

07 parts: index  index rerum principalium (Rabikauskas 3)  ► index rerum notabilium (Rabikauskas 159)  ► index rerum et verborum (Hase vi)

07 parts: table (in book), chart  tabula, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 41; Pharm. Austr. xx)  ► tabella, ae f. 1843 TRAPPEN 40)  ► conspectus, ûs m. 1843 TRAPPEN 45)

07 parts: table of contents  rerum conspectus, index synopticus*

07 print (e.g., book)  typis (v. formulis) imprimere, typis excûdere (RABELAIS 944)  ► excûdere (RABELAIS 942, 946: "[librum] excudendum in exemplaria bis mille dedi."  ► excûdere (1571MATTIOLI 110, of woodcut accompanying text: "musae imaginem ... excudi curavimus."  ► imprimere (1652 TURS. 239: "ratio imprimendorum librorum apud Germanos inventa, magno ingeniorum compendio")  |  The book is now in print.  ► Liber sub prelo sudat.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ i.

07 print: page-proof, proof  plagula, ae (*) f. (ERASMUS; 1698 Hofmann vii: "diligentiam maximam adhibui plagulis libri singulis accurate perspiciendis, ne lector typographiae vitiis haereret dubius."  ► specimen typographicum (Gesenius xi: "in speciminibus typographicis castigandis")

07 print: proofread, copy-edit  ►

07 print: proofreader  ►corrector, ôris m. / 1672 FRISIUS v: "Incredibile dictu est quam hîc incuriâ typographi simul et correctoris a verâ lectione recessum sit longius." 

07 printer (person who prints books)  ► typographus, i* m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 356.  ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v: "Incredibile dictu est quam hîc incuriâ typographi simul et correctoris a verâ lectione recessum sit longius."  ► chalcographus, i* m.  ¶ HOVEN.  ¶ RABELAIS 945.  |  send (a book) to the printer  ► (librum) excudendum dare  ¶ RABELAIS 946.  ► (librum) prêlo mandare  ¶ 1652 TURS. "Elogium Auctoris." 

07 printing  typographia, ae* f., chalcographia, ae* f. (HOVEN)  |  adj.  typographicus, a, um,* chalcographicus, a, um* (HOVEN)  |  since the invention of the printing press  post inventam typographiam (1811 PALLAS xvii)

07 printing press  prêlum (typographicum*)  |  hot off the press  a prelo madidus

07 printing: typesetter  typotheta, ae* m. (EGGER L.D.I. 6)

07 publication (act of publishing)  ► editio, ônis f.  ¶ Sen.  Quint.  1794 RUIZ iv: "Philippo IV editionis impensas erogante."  1794 RUIZ xv: "Quaecumque ad manuscriptorum editionem opus essent, diligenter apparanda persuasit."

07 publish  ► êdere  ► in lucem êdere  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ i.  ► divulgare  ► evulgare  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v.  ► publici iuris facere  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxvi.  ► foras dare  ¶ HASE v. |  be published  ► prodîre in lucem  ► prodîre  ¶ 1652 TURS. 356. 1794 RUIZ iv.  |  send to the publisher, have published  ► typis mandare  ¶ 1652 TURS. 301.

07 publisher, publishing house  < bibliopôlium, i* n. < 1672 FRISIUS vi, on the Venice printing and publishing houses of La Nou and the Giunta family: "Huius rei gratia ... carissimo fratri meo Ioanni La Nou, eruditorum omnium fautori eximio, et bibliopolae apud Venetos non postremo, debetur, cuius erga bonas artes affectu factum est ut non minimam typographiae et bibliopolii Juntarum partem ... impensis haud sane levibus suam fecerit."    < taberna librâria êditôria ¶ EGGER S.L. 25.  ► societas êditôria ¶ EGGER S.L. 24-25.  ►► domus êditôria ¶ EGGER S.L. 24-25. 

07 read  \\ legere  \\ perlegere  \\ lectitare  \\ evolvere  \\ percurrere  |  want to read  \\ lecturire  \ Sid.

07 read: skim (a book, article)  \\ strictim legere  \\ vellicatim legere  \ RABELAIS 936.

07 read: speed-reading  ►    ¶ Cf. QUINT. 10, 7, 11: "Est igitur usus quidam irrationalis, quam Graeci  άλογον τριβην vocant, quâ manus in scribendo decurrit, quâ oculi totos simul in lectione versûs flexûsque eorum et transitûs intuentur, et ante sequentia vident quam priora dixerunt."

07 reprint (vb.), republish  ► repetere  ¶ 1698 HOFMANN v: "in praefatione sua, quam ideo in hac alterâ editione repetendam censui."  ► recûdere (+)  ¶ 1726 WOLFF 8.  1784 THUNBERGxxvi: "Herbarium ... primum impressum est in China, deinde in Iaponia aliquatenus nitidius recusum."  1794 RUIZ xx.

07 review  (written judgment of book, film, play, etc.)  existimâtio, ônis f.

07 review: critic, one who write book, movie or theater reviews  existimâtor, ôris m. (CIC. Or. 112)

07 title  (of book, article)  titulus, i m., inscriptio, onis f., lemma, atis n. (1540 VIVES Exer. 340)  |  the title of the book is The Satiricon  liber inscribitur Satiricon

07 title: headword  lemma, atis n.

07 volume  (book)  ► tomus, i m.  ► volûmen, inis n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ vi.  Hase 4.  EGGER S.L. 24.

08

08    JOURNALISM

08 journalist  diurnarius, i m. (EGGER D.L. 33)

08 magazine, periodical, journal  ► ephemerides, um (*) f. pl.  ¶ In antiquity, of personal diary.  In this sense: 1826 LÜDERS 2: "in ephemeridibus quibus titulus Nordisches Archiv," of a scientific journal.  GAUSS V, 32: "in ephemeridibus Ticinensibus (Giornale di fisica T. 9)", of scientific journal.  ► ephemeris, idis f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 46: "ephemeris Germanica imaginibus ornata, cui titulis 'Stella' (Stern)."  ► commentarii periodici (m. pl.)  ► commentarium periodicum  ¶ EGGER S.L. 101.  ► periodicum, i n.  ► diarium, i n.  ¶ Wolff 8, of the 18th c., Jesuit-sponsored Journal de Trévoux, which appeared monthly: "Diarii Trevoltensis auctores."

08 magazine: issue (of a periodical)  ► fasciculus, i (*) m.  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxvi: "Kaempferus ... fasciculos suos quinque Amoenitatum Exoticarum ... publici iuris fecit."

08 magazine: newspaper  ► ephemerides, um (*) f. pl. (also of other periodicals)  ¶ In antiquity, of personal diary.  In this sense: 1826 LÜDERS v: "Patet ex nuperrime editis Ephemeridibus Altonanis (Alt. Merc. Sept. 12, 1826)."  1843 TRAPPEN 25, of London coffee-houses: "praeter praecipuam tabernam Lloydsii, ubi ephemerides, diaria, quaelibetve alia nuncia ex omnibus fere orbis exculti locis reperiebantur."  EGGER S.L. 94.  ► ephemerides publicae (f. pl.)  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 3.  ► acta diurna n. pl.  ► diarium, i n.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 25.  EGGER D.L. 58. EGGER S.L. 94.

08 media, news media  nuntiorum divulgatio, nuntiorum divulgatores, societates (v. sedes) nuntiorum divulgatrices  ►► instrumenta communicationis socialis (Vat. II; EGGER S.L. 60)  ► communicatio socialis (EGGER D.L. 44) 

08 news  (television broadcast)  acta diurna televisifica (EGGER L.D.I. 105)

08 news agency  sedes nuntiis divulgandis (EGGER D.L. 50)  ► sedes diurnariis edocendis (EGGER S.L. 88: "Reuteriana sedes diurnariis edocendis")

08 news photographer, photojournalist  relator photographus* (EGGER D.L. 25; EGGER S.L. 34)

08 reporter  relator, ôris m. (EGGER S.L. 47; EGGER S.L. 94, of television reporter)

08 subscribe  (to a periodical)  ►► "subnotare commentarios periodicos" (LRL, etc.) should mean "write notes at end of a periodical"; cf. PLIN. Ep. 1, 10, 9: "sedeo pro tribunali, subnoto libellos [I annotate petitions], conficio tabulas, scribo ... litteras"  ►► Ch. Frisch, ed., Joannis Kepleri astronomi opera omnia (Frankfurt, 1858)  ► vol. 1, page following dedication: "Libri emptores se professi sunt nominis subscriptione," introducing a list of subscribers to a multi-volume edition.

08 tabloid 

09

09    LITERATURE

09 anthology  ► florilegium, i (*) n.  ¶ HOVEN citing ERASMUS.  ► spicilegium, i (*) n.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ i.  ►  chrêstomathia, ae* f.  ¶  ► anthologia, ae* f.  ¶

09 circulate, be in circulation (of book)  circumferri (QUINT. 2, 13, 15: "si quem ex his, qui breves plerumque circumferuntur, artis libelleum edidicerit"; QUINT. 2, 15, 4: "haec opinio originem ab Isocrate – si tamen re verâ 'Ars' quae circumfertur eius est – duxit"; RABELAIS 944: "ea [exemplaria] quae vulgo circumferuntur")

09 excerpt  excerptum, i n. (QUINT.; SEN.)

09 fiction, non-fiction

09 fictional  fictîvus, a, um+ (DANTE Ep. 439, describing the Divine Comedy: "modus tractandi est poeticus, fictivus."  ► fictiôsus, a, um (Ps.-Cypr. Aleat. 7, cited in Gaffiot)

09 genre: article (short piece of non-fiction writing, esp. in a newspaper, journal, or other periodical)  ► opusculum, i n.  ►  commentatio, onis f. 1752 STUMPF 35, of seven-page article within a book.  ► symbola, ae f. (a "contribution" to a periodical or jointly authored book) 

09 genre: article: dissertation, thesis  ► dissertâtio inaugurâlis  ¶ Title page of most dissertations published in Latin, 17th to 20th century.  ► dissertâtio, ônis f.  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 32.  1752STUMPF 1st letter of commendation (back of book): "Gratulor dissertationem tuam exquisite conscriptam."  ► specimen inaugûrâle  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 7: "dum specimen inaugurale pro obtinendis summis in medicinâ honoribus edere paramus."  ► dissertâtio acadêmica  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 9.  ► specimen, inis n. (with doctrinae or other specifier)  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 2nd letter of commendation (in back of book), praising a doctoral dissertation: "ex praestantissimo doctrinae tuae specimine, quod iam ... defensum is."  1843 TRAPPEN title page: "Specimen historico-medicum de coffea quod ... pro gradu doctoratus ... eruditorum examini submittit Johannes Everhardus van der Trappen."  1843 TRAPPEN praef.: "Dicere possem ... de molesta quae tunc civibus academicis incumbit lex, ut quoddam specimen, acquisitarum doctrinarum testimonium, praestent."  |  defend a dissertation (or thesis)  ► dissertationem (v. specimen) publice defendere  ¶ Title page of many published dissertations; e.g., 1752 STUMPF title page: "dissertatio inauguralis ... quam ... in Alma Regio Fridericiana publice defendet auctor."  1752 STUMPF 2nd letter of commendation (in back of book), praising a doctoral dissertation: "ex praestantissimo doctrinae tuae specimine, quod iam ex cathedrâ, applaudentibus omnibus bonis, defensum is."   1846 GROSSE 32: "dissertatione thesibusque publice defensis."  Cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 337: "is est propugnator qui impetum omnium sustinet," of a dissertation defense.  ► dissertationem sustinêre  ¶ 1771 WAYtitle page: "Dissertatio medica inauguralis, de variolarum insitione, quam ... sustinuit Nicolaus Way."

09 genre: article: paper, scholarly work, treatise  ► commentâtio, ônis f.  ¶ Plin.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ i. dissertâtio, ônis f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 15.  ► tractatio, onis (*) f.  ¶ Bonon.Acad. I, 311.  ► tractâtus, ûs (+) m.  ¶ DANTE Monarchia 356: "et quia praesens tractatus est inquisitio quaedam."  LATHAM.  1826 LÜDERS 7, of a medical treatise.  ► specimen, inis n.

09 genre: biographer  (alicuius) vîtae scriptor, vîtarum scriptor, qui vîtas aliorum scribit (Capitol. Macr. 1, 2: "sed eius qui vitas aliorum scribere orditur officium est digna cognitione perscribere")

09 genre: biography  (alicuius) vîta, ae (Index 90: "propter vitam primo volumini praemissam")

09 genre: biography: autobiographer  vîtae suae scriptor

09 genre: biography: autobiography, write one's  vîam suam scribere

09 genre: diary  ► ephemerides, um f. pl.  ¶ CIC.  SEN.  PLIN.  ► acta diurna (n. pl.)  ¶ EGGER S.L. 46.  ►► "Periodicals" (or "newspapers") may be distinguished as "ephemerides publicae."

09 genre: essay  ►

09 genre: novel  fabula (v. liber) Romanensis (Huet; see below Krebs and Heinichin)  ► histôria Romanensis (Leibniz, Werke III. III. 72, of mathematical works he had read carelessly: "paene legebam ut historias Romanenses"), fabula Milesia (EGGER L.D.I. 105; Katterfeld 416: "poeta [scil. Aeschylus] non imprudentes nos opprimit nec rem in fine fabulae in summo momento relinquit, ut scriptores historiae Romanensis, qui eâ re ad exspectationem augendam utuntur."  ► fabula amâtôria (Index 36: "Balzac, Honoré de, Omnes fabulae amatoriae"; term used throughout the Index for condemned novels)  ► ? mythistoria, ae f. (Capitol. Macr. 1, 3; cf. Mod. Gr.  μυθιστορια μυθιστορημα , novel)  ►► Nineteenth-century purists recognizing fabula Romanensis, liber Romanensis as the Neo-Latin term for "novel" (and therefore condemning it):  Krebs s.v. Romanensis: "Romanensis or Romanticus liber is the Neo-Latin term corresponding to our word 'novel,' but cannot be used without a clarifying and mitigating expression.  What the ancients called fabula Milesia was almost the same thing, and that term is best used for the novel; others say liber fabulosus or historia fabulosa."  Heinichin 42:  "Romanensis liber, novel, Neo-Latin; best replaced by fabula Milesia."   || Dubito utrum mythistoria competat.  Invenitur apud antiquos semel tantum, in Historia Augustamythistoricus semel quoque, in alia Historiae Augustae vita.  Spectant haec voces ad fabellas parum graves de rebus historicis.  ||  Capitolinus, Opellius Macrinus 1, 3-5: "Et Iunio quidem Cordo studium fuit eorum imperatorum vitas edere quos obscuriores videbat.  Qui non multum profecit; nam et pauca repperit et indigna memoratu, adserens se minima quaeque persecuturum, quasi vel de Traiano aut Pio aut Marco sciendum sit, quotiens processerit, quando cibos variaverit et quando vestem mutaverit et quos quando promoverit.  Quae ille omnis exsequendo libros mythistoriis replevit talia scribendo, cum omnino rerum vilium aut nulla scribenda sint aut nimis pauca."  Trans. Magie (Loeb series): "By searching out all this sort of thing and recording it, he filled his books with gossip."  Trans. Burcan (Budé series): "À force de quêter tous ces détails, il a rempli ses livres de romans historiques en notant de pareilles vetilles"; note ad 1, 5: "mythistoriis: Locution propre a l'HA; cf. Q 1, 2 (ou Marius Maximus est crédité de mythistorica volumina et correlativement dénigré).  Il s'agit d'une historiographe d'historiettes (fabellae) assaisonnée de ragots [gossip]: 'legat Cordum qui haec omnia usque ad fabellam scripsit' (Max., 31, 4).  Fabella equivaut ici comme mythistoria à l'acception méprisante et péjorative du grec μυθους λεγειν."  ||  ThLGr: " μυθιστοριαης,Historia fabularis, ut SUET. in Tib.: Maxime tamen curavit historiae fabularis notitiam usque ad ineptias atque derisum.  Aelius Spart. in suis Historiis [Macrin. c. 1 (qui in edd. Capitolini)] citat aliquando μυθιστοριας. Bud."  ||  Forc.:  "mythistoria ... narratio fabulosa et frivola ... Capitol. Marcrin. 1.  ||  Forc. "fabularis ... idem ac fabulosus, ut Historia fabularis in qua multa falsa.  SUET. Tib. 70. Maxime tamen curavit historiae fabularis notitiam."  ||  ThLL: "mythistoria ... i.q. narratio fabulosa: Capitol. Opil. 1, 5 (de Iunio Cordo viliora quaeque de imperatoribus referente)"  ||  Vopiscus, Firmus, 1, 2 (noting that Suet and Marius Maximus omitted or passed over quickly minor tyrant-emperors): "Et de Suetonio non miramur, cui familiare fuit amare brevitatem.  Quid Marius Maximus, homo omnium verbosissimus, qui et mythistoricis se voluminibus implicavit, num ad istam descriptionem descendit?"  Trans. Magie (Loeb series): "who involved himself in pseudo-historical works."  ||  Forc.: "mythistoricus ... fabulosus, mixtus ex historia et fabulis, ut mythistorica volumina, Vopisc. Firm. 1"  ||  ThLL: "mythistoricus ... i.q. narrationes fabulosas continens: Vopisc. quatt. tyr. 1, 2"  ||  Christian 1698 Hofmann, Dissertatio mythistorica de terrore panico ([Jenae?], 1669).  Hoc tantum apud WC inveni; puto me et aliubi apud recentiores vocem mythistoricus vidisse, ita adhibitam ut significare videretur, tamquam in dissertatione citata, "ad criticam fabularum veterum investigationem pertinens."

09 literature  ? humaniores litterae

09 myth  veterum (v. antîquôrum) fâbula, fâbula, ae f. (1652 TURS. 15: "Graecorum heroes ... haud exigua materia fabularum, Hercules, Orpheus, Castor, Pollux."  ► fâbulâris histôria (EGGER R.A. 23: "sarcophagus fabularem historiam exhibens Meleagri")

09 myth: /mythology  (myths, collectively)  veterum (v. antîquôrum) fâbulae;  (study of myths)  mythologia, ae f.

09 myth: folk- (as in folklore, folktale, folksong, folk music)  ► vernâculus, a, um (with defining gen.)  ► rustic(ân)us, a, um  ► ? pâgânicus, a, um  |  Bartok traveled all over Hungary to hear and transcribe folk songs.  ► Bartok totam Hungariam perlustravit ad cantilenas vernaculas audiendas notisque excipiendas.

09 myth: legend, traditional or popular account (rather than one based on historical evidence)  ► traditio, ônis f.  ¶ Gell. 13, 23, 14: "Per quod apparet non esse id poetice a Plauto dictum, sed eam quoque traditionem fuisse ut Nerio a quibusdam uxor esse Martis diceretur."  1826 LÜDERS 1: "Incipit historia vacciolarum a traditionibus, quas quidem in Holsatia usque ad saeculi praeterlapsi initium persequi licet. Antiquiorum temporum traditiones ad vacciolarum aevum mythicum referendae sunt, nec criticês historicae examen perferunt."  Ibid. 7: "Medicus hic in tractatu suo traditiones potius refert inter rusticanos Anglicanos de vacciolis celebres quam observationes proprias."  Ibid. 28: "Num alia huius cognitionis vestigia in veterum Indorum traditionibus et scriptis reperiunda sint," etc.  ► vulgi traditio  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 1: "vulgi traditiones de vacciolis.  Cf. ibid. 8: "Plures ex ori vulgi receptas traditiones de vacciolis in Holsatiae vaccis observatis promulgavit."

09 mythological, mythical, legendary  ► fâbulôsus, a, um  ¶ 1652 TURS. 8: "per idem tempus Promotheus et Atlas egregii astrologi exsisterunt, fabulosis Graecis carminibus inclyti."  ►mŷthicus, a, um  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 1: " Antiquiorum temporum traditiones ad vacciolarum aevum mythicum referendae sunt, nec criticês historicae examen perferunt."

09 patron (of a writer or scholor or artist, of learning, the arts, etc.)  ► Maecênâs, âtis m. (used since Renaissance as common noun)  ¶ RABELAIS 943: "Saluta mihi ... antistitem Malleacensem, Maecenatem meum."  1752 STUMPF dedication page: "Antonio Balthasar de Walther ... domino ac mecenati suo perquam gratiosos."  1811 PALLAS iii-iv: "comiti Alexio Cyrilli filio Rasumofsky ... Maecenati egregio."  ► fautor, ôris m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 240: doctrinae fautor (patron of learning).  ► prômôtor, ôris+ m.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xx: "botanices promotoribus" ("patrons of botanical research")

09 patron of the arts  ► artium bonarum (v. elegantium) fautor  ¶ 1794 RUIZ v: "Carolus III ... bonarum artium scientiarumque fautor egregius."  ► Maecênâs, âtis m.

09 patronage (of arts, learning, etc.)  ► patrocinium, i n.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ viii: "de regum nostrorum providentiâ, eorumque erga botanicen et historiam naturalem patrocinio."  1794 RUIZ xvi: "Potissimum locum in regium animum sibi vindicavit fructuosarum artium et scientiarum patrocinium."

09 poem genre: ballad  ballata, ae+ f. (DANTE Vulg. El. 339)

09 poem genre: canzone (sort of lyric poem)  cantio, ônis (+) f. (DANTE Vulg. El. 339)

09 poem genre: epic  carmen epicum (QUINT.)  ► epos n. (found only nom. and acc.) (HOR.; MART. )  ► carmen herôum (QUINT.; Prop.)  ► carmen herôicum (TAC.; SERV.)

09 poem genre: haiku  epigramma Iaponicum, carmen heptadecasyllabum* (the compound heptadecastichum means "of seventeen syllables." 

09 poem genre: improvised or impromptu poem  schedium, i n. (PETR.; APUL.; cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 340: "profer ... mea schedia in quibus libet nonnulla expolire."  ► carmen tumultuarium (SID. Ep. 2, 10)

09 poem genre: madrigal   carmen ?matri(c)ale

09 poem genre: ode  ôdê, ês f. (Porph. HOR.)  ► ôda, ae f. (Philom.)

09 poem genre: refrain, chorus (recurring part of song)  responsôrium, i n. (in late antiquity, of congregation's spoken response or refrain: Ambros.; Greg. Tur.; from ML, of refrain in poetry or music: DANTE Vulg. El. 347; BADELLINO)

09 poem genre: sonnet  sonêtum, i* n. (Noël; HELFER)  ► sonettum, i* n. (BARTAL; Mir-Calvano)  ► carmen tetradecastichum* (BARTAL s.v. sonneta in def.; the compoundtetradecastichum means "of fourteen lines."  ►► LRL: carmen quattuordecim hendadecasyllaborum (at hoc peculiare est Italorum sonnetorum).  DANTE Vulg. El. 339: sonitus.

09 poem lines: distich  \\ distichon, i n. \ MART.  \ SUET.

09 poem lines: quatrain  \\ tetrastichon, i n. \ QUINT.

09 poem lines: tercet, triplet  \\ tristichon, i* n.

09 poem meter: alexandrine, twelve-syllable French verse  versus Alexandrînus (v. dôdecasyllabus)  (for adj. dôdecasyllabus, see Souter)

09 poem meter: hendecasyllable, eleven-syllable verse  hendecasyllabus, i m. (PLIN. Ep.)  |  a poem composed of hendecasyllables  carmen hendecasyllabum (DANTE Vulg. El.342)

09 poem meter: octosyllable, eight-syllable verse  versus octosyllabus

09 poem part: canto (as in Dante's Divine Comedy, or Spenser's Fairy Queen)  cantus, ûs m. (DANTE Ep. 439, describing the structure of the Divine Comedy: "prima divisio est quâ totum opus dividitur in tres canticas; secunda, quae quaelibet cantica dividitur in cantûs")

09 poem part: stanza, verse (group of lines of poetry), strophe  stropha, ae f., ? stantia, ae+ f. (DANTE Vulg. El. 346: "dicimus ergo quod cantio [the canzone as a poetic form] ... est aequalium stantiarum sine responsorio ad unam sententiam tragicam coniugatio."

09 poem: rhyme  subst.   homoeoteleuton, i n. (MART. Cap.; Charis.)  ►► rhythmus (DANTE Vulg. El. 351: "aliud est stantia cuius omnia carmina eundum rithimum reddunt ... sunt etenim quidam qui non omnes quandoque desinentias carminum rithimantur in eadem stantia"; DANTE Vulg. El. 352: "eiusdem rithimi repercussio")

09 poem: rhyme  v.i.

09 poet laureate  poêta laurêtus, poêta laureâ dônâtus (1652 TURS. 222: "pontifex ... Franciscum Petrarcham poetam nobilissimum in capitolium invectum laureâ donari iubet")

09 posthumous (of book, work of art)  postumus, a, um (Index 36: "opus postumum," of book)

09 rhapsode

09 text  ► contextus, ûs m.  \ DANTE Ep. 415 of a biblical passage: "sacrae vocis contextui."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 23: "Vitruvii contextui non mutato, sed in aliquibus tantum melius ordinato."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 85, of the text of the targums (Aramaic translations of the Hebrew Bible) : "contextus sacrorum librorum Syriacus."  \\ verborum contextus  \ EGGER R.A. 7: "ut narratiunculis et commentariolis verborum amplificetur contextus."  ► textus, ûs m. \ PERUGINI, Concordata 2.

092

092    PHILOLOGY

092 archeological  archaeologicus, a, um* (EGGER D.L. 17)  ► ? angîologicus, a, um*

092 archeologist  archaeologus, i* m. (EGGER S.L. 23, 108)  ► ? angîologus, i* m.  ►► At "archaeologus" potius "classicist" sonat.

092 archeology  archaeologia, ae* f., ? angîologia, ae* f.,

092 archeology: excavate (archeology)  effodere (EGGER S.L. 93; EGGER R.A. 11: "in aedibus quarum parietinae sunt ex parte effossae")

092 archeology: excavations, archeological dig  effossiones, um f. pl. (EGGER S.L. 23)  ► fossiones, um f. pl. (EGGER R.A. 57 133)  |  excavate  effodere, eruere (RABELAIS 956: "id [temporis] lubens collustrandis Urbis monumentis dabas; nec tibi fuit satis exposita vidisse, eruenda etiam curasti")

092 bibliography  bibliographia, ae* f. (Rabikauskas 3)  ► index bibliographicus* (Rabikauskas 152)

092 citation (of book or other written work)  < citâtio, onis f. ¶ 1811 PALLAS xiii.  < citâta auctorum nômina et loca  ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v, of citations placed in margin: "Citata auctorum nomina et loca, quae nullo antea discrimine cernebantur, suis singula notis, et diversitate characteris ab ipso textu secrevimus."

092 cite (a source)  ► laudare  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 3: "iam supra laudatus," referring to a work previously cited.  ► citare \\ 1752 STUMPF 38: "in libro citato," referring to a work previously cited.

092 cite:  above (before or earlier, in a book or other written  work)  < suprâ  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 3: "iam supra laudatus," referring to a work previously cited.   < superius

092 cite:  below (after or later, in a book or other written  work)  < infrâ  < inferius  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 22: "Ante Neronis quoque tempora fuisse Romae gymnasia ex PlautiBacchidibus, cuius locum apponam inferius, colligere licet."

092 classic, classical  ► classicus, a, um (1540 VIVES Exer. 336: "eruditissimos et acerrimo iudicio scriptores sibi sumunt, optimos quosque, et eos quos classicos vos grammatici appellatis";EGGER L.D.I. 111: "praestantium auctorum, quos classicos dicimus"; EGGER R.A. 142: "Museum Gregorianum Profanum abundant artis operis, quae aetate 'classicâ,' quam dicunt, sunt fabre facta")

092 classic: a classic (book)  ► liber classicus  ¶ 1726 Wolff 10: "Usus sum in citandis Sinarum libris classicis verione ... Coupleti."

092 classicist, classical scholar  ►antiquârius, i m.  ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v-vi, on Pirro Ligorio, 16th-c. artist, classical scholar, and superintendent of ancient monuments for two popes: "Ad figuras quidem ipsas quod attinet, non alias hîc tibi et publico offerimus quam quas insignis antiquarius Pyrrhus Ligorius Mercuriali obtulit, maximorum curâ artificum designatas, et ... non sine maximis impensis ligno insculptas."  ►antiquitâtis perîtus  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 21, of Pirro Ligorio, mentioned above: "Ligorius antiquitatis totius peritissimus."  ► rerum antiquarum perîtus  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 77-78, of two 16th-c. classical scholars: "Petrus Ciacconius et Fulvius Ursinus, rerum antiquarum pertissimi."  \ EGGER R.A. 57.  ►antiquitâtis studiôsus \ EGGER R.A. 48.  ¶ Cf. RABELAIS 957: "ascitis ... iuvenibus honestissimis, antiquitatisque studiosiossimis."  ¶ Cf. also KOPP 2: "Inter philologos etiam, aliosque qui antiquitatis studio tenentur, raro reperies veterum scripturarum curiosum."  ► palaeologus, i* m.  \\ \\ Antiquarius seems must often to refer to those who study the customs and mores or the extant physical remains of antiquity, as opposed to its literature.

092 classics, classical studies, study of ancient Greek and Roman civilization  ► antiquitates (Graecae et Romanae) (f. pl.)  ► studia antiquitatis (Graecae et Romanae)  ¶ Sillig i.  ► palaeologia, ae* f. ► philologia Graeca et Romana (study of Greek and Latin literature)

092 conjecture (editorial)  coniectûra, ae f. (Septuagint, "Praef.": "satius est visum locos vel aliquo modo suspectos ... relinqui quam eos ex alicuius ingenio aut coniecturâ emendari")

092 edit (prepare a text for publication; esp., produce a text in accordance with principles of textual criticism)  êmendare (Septuagint, "Praef.": "sed emendationis consilio iam explicato, ipsa quoque ratio quae in emendando adhibita est nunc erit aperienda"; cf. HIER. Ep. 112, 20: "si me ... in Novi Testamenti emendatione suscipis."  ► castigare (Septuagint, "Praef.":"effecit ut summus Pontifex Gregorius XIII Graeca Septuginta interpretum biblia, adhibitâ diligenti castigatione, in pristinum splendorem restituenda curaret."  ► recensêre

092 edition  (version of a book, consisting of a set of copies published together)  \\ êditio, ônis f.  \ QUINT. 5, 11, 40, of the varying ancient editions of Homer: "Megarios ab Atheniensibus .. victos Homeri versu, qui tamen ipse non in omni editione reperitur."  \ HIER. Ep. 112, 19: "ex Theodotionis editione."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 22, in a second edition: "in primâ editione."  \ Septuagint praef., of the Sixtine edition of the Septuagint: "nova haec editio."  |  (a text, esp. of a classical work, established by a particular editor in accordance with principles of textual criticism)  \\ recensio, ônis f.  \

092 figurative, symbolic  fîgûrâtus, a, um (SERV.)  ► fîgûrâlis, e (Ruf.)  |  figuratively, symbolically  fîgûrâtê (SERV.; DANTE Vulg. El. 320: "Ovidius ... hoc figurate dicit."  ► fîgûrâliter (SID.; TERT.)

092 figurative: allegorical, mystical or spiritual (of an interpretation)  allêgoricus, a, um (TERT. Res. 19; DANTE Ep. 438, on interpreting the Divine Comedy: "primus [sensus] dicitur litteralis, secundus vero allegoricus sive moralis vie anagogicus ... et quamquam isti sensûs mystici variis appellentur nominibus, generaliter omnes dici possunt allegorici, cum sint a litterali sive historiali diversi."  ► anagogicus, a, um+ (DANTE Ep. 438)

092 figure of speech  fîgûra, ae f. (QUINT.; PLIN. Ep.)  ► schêma, ae f.  ►► Ecquid interest inter figuram et schemam? (Gaffiot: illa "figure de style," haec "figure de rhétorique")

092 lacuna  (missing portion in text, manuscript)  lacuna, ae f. (EGGER R.A. 144: "litterati quidem conati sunt lacunas implere, sed coniecturali tantum ratione")

092 literary critic, commentator, one who engages in literary interpretation  (auctorum) interpres, etis (VIVES Stud. pueril. 276: "eget ista tua aetas etiam adultior interpretibus auctorum."  ► grammaticus, i m. (the term applies to those engaged in literary as well as language studies; 1540 VIVES Exer. 336)

092 literary scholar, scholar of literature, philologist (in broad sense)  philologus, i m. (SEN.; SUET.; Sillig i, of plans for an edition of Pliny's Historia Naturalis: "animo obsersabatur editio a philologo aliquo pluribusque physicis communi operâ paranda, ut philologi partes essent in verbis scriptoris et emendandis et illustrandis")

092 literary studies, philology (in broad sense)  philologia, ae f.

092 literary studies: relating to literary studies, philological (in broad sense)  philologicus, a, um*, philologus, a, um (VITR. 6 prooem. 4: "philologis et philotechnis rebus me delectans." ►► Philologicus is much more common than philologus (used as an adjective) in titles of published books; the few examples of the latter are from the late 19th and 20th centuries (WC).

092 note, annotation, footnote, endnote  nota, ae f., adnotâtio, ônis f., animadversio, ônis f.

092 note: annotated  notis (v. adnotationibus v. animadversionibus) auctus (Index 8: "permittitur editio notis et animadversionibus Constantini Rocaglia aucta")

092 note: endnote  adnotâtio (v. nota) in calce posita (v. ad calcem relêgâta)

092 note: footnote  adnotâtio (v. nota) in imâ paginâ posita

092 paleographer  palaeographiae* perîtus (v. studiôsus)  ► antiquarius, i m. (LS: "one that understands reading and copying ancient manuscripts, COD. TH. 4, 8, 2; Aus. Ep. 16 al.."  ►► Atantiquarius sonat etiam "one that is fond of or employs himself about antiquities" (LS)  ► hoc est fere "classicist"; nescio igitur an hic sufficiat.  Palaeographus significare oportet "antiquus scriptor," vel "qui antiquo more scribit."

092 paleography  ars palaeographica*, palaeographia* critica (Kopp 3)  ► ars antiquaria (LS: "the art of reading and copying ancient manuscripts, HIER. Ep. ad Flor. 5, 1."  |  cf. res diplomatica* (Mabillon, De re diplomaticaKopp 3)  ► diplomatica, ae* f. (RabikauskasDiplomatica pontificia)  ►► The term (res) diplomatica is often used as approximately synonymous withpalaeographia; but when the terms are used precisely, diplomatica deals with official documents (such as deeds and charters)  ► palaeographia with writings of all sorts.  ||  Palaeographia apudMontfauconium (qui videtur primum hoc vocabulo esse usus, OED s.v. palaeography) idem valet ac "vetus scriptura"; hoc videtur mihi vox palaeographia paene necessario significare, potius quam "veteris scripturae legendae disciplina."  Attamen vide huius vocabuli apud Kopp usum.  Kopp 2: "Neque enim ulla bonarum artium magis neglecta ... iacet quam palaeographia, cuius perexiguam partem vix emplectuntur necessitate coacti artis diplomaticae studiosi.  Inter philologos etiam, aliosque qui antiquitatis studio tenentur, raro reperies veterum scripturarum curiosum.  Quos tamen ipsos, si palaeographia non imbuti sunt, cum doctis analphabetis haud iniuria comparaveris."  Kopp 3: "Equidem ab initio rei diplomaticae tantum operam navavi ... Sed haecce palaestra cum nimis angusta mihi deinde videretur ... iam primum spatium minus actis circumscriptum finisbus quaesivi, maiora gravioraque amplexus.  Quo factum est u palaeographiae criticae condendae magnos susciperem labores, quaelibet excutiens scripta sive in marmore, sive in aere, sive in membrana, sive in papyro, sive in argilla, sive in quavis alia materia."  Everado Audrich, Institutiones antiquariae, quibus praesidia pro graecis latinisque scriptoribus, nummis et marmoribus facilius intelligendis proponuntur, ac plurima ad numerorum et vocum compendia ad chronologiam etpalaeographiam spectantia accurate explicantur (Florentiae, 1756) [liber invenitur apud Univ. Cincinnati]

092 passage (in book or other written work)  < locus, i m. (pl. loci)  \ Cic.  \ Quint.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 22: "Ante Neronis quoque tempora fuisse Romae gymnasia ex PlautiBacchidibus, cuius locum apponam inferius, colligere licet."

092 semiotic (adj.)  ► sêmiôticus, a, um*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 35: "semiotica phaenomona," of medical semiotics.

092 semiotics, semiology  ► sêmiôticê, ês* f.  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 31, of medical semiotics, involving the interpretation of symptoms as signs of disease.  ► sêmiologia, ae f.

092 variants (textual), variant readings  variae lectiones (f. pl.)  ► lectionum varietates (f. pl.) (Septuagint, "Praef.")

102

102    SEE

102 audiovisual  ►► audivisificus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 57)

102 double vision, see double:  I'm seeing double  res mihi duplicantur in conspectu (1846 GROSSE 15, describing effects of cannabis: "oculi ... duplicabant res in conspectu")

102 glasses, eyeglasses, spectacles  ocularia vitrea (n. pl.) (Est I. 671, quoted below passim and specifically Bacci OIE 31 )  ► ocularia, ium* n. pl. (Ducange; Petrarch 2, describing himself: "vivacibus oculis et visu per longum tempus acerrimo, qui praeter spem supra sexagsimum aetatis annum me destituit, ut indignanti mihi ad ocularium confugiendum esset auxilium."  ► conspicilla, orum (*) n. pl. (PLAUT., apparently with meaning "vantage point"; of eyeglasses: Calepino s.v. conspicilia: "item quod oculis adhibemus ut melius intueamur; vulgo 'ocularia' dicuntur, perspicilla"; RABELAIS 942: "sic hallucinari necesse sit et caecutire nullis ut postea collyriis aut conspiciliis iuvari possint"; ERASMUS Coll.; Ducange s.v. ocularia in def.)  ► conspicilla (*) ocularia (n. pl.) (Erasmus Epist. III. 145: "pervenerat ille usque ad annum octogesimum, integris membris, vigentibus adhuc oculis, ut nec scipione nec conspicillis ocularibus esset opus."  ► perspicilla, orum (*) n. pl. (Ducange quoting from a 16c church register: "impegit pugnum apertum in faciem eiusdem deponentis, qui tunc habebat sua perspicilia in naso"; Est I. 671: "existimat Caietanus 'per speculum videre' sic intellegi posse quomodo videmus per ocularia vitrea, quae perspicilla vocantur, sed non est verisimile; solent enim huius modi adhiberi ad clarius videndum, maxime ab iis quibus ob senium visus deficit."  ►► The spellings conspicilia and perspicilia are also found.

102 glasses: contact, contact lens  ► lens adhaerens  ► lens exemptilis  ►► Misit Aloisius: "Dum te exspecto hic avide, lectitabam Politiani illius Lamiam, opus iucundum quidem et grave simul. Cuius in initio haec scripta vidi de ocularibus: 'Lamiam igitur hanc Plutarchus ille Chaeronaeus, nescio doctior an gravior, habere ait oculos exemptiles, hoc est quos sibi eximat detrahatque cum libuit, rursusque cum libuit resumat atque affigat: quemadmodum senes ocularia specilla solent, quibus hebescenti per aetatem visui opitulantur; nam et cum quid inspectare avent, insertant quasi forfici nasum, et cum satis inspectarunt, recondunt in theca.' Continuo post talia de dentibus ficticiis: 'Quidam vero etiam dentibus utuntur aeque exemptilibus, quos nocte non aliter reponunt quam togam.' Quae verba sequuntur haec de capillamentis: 'sicuti uxorculae quoque vestrae comam suam illam dependulam et cincinnos.'"

102 glasses: telescope, field glasses, opera glasses, instrument for viewing distant objects  perspicillum, i n. (ERASMUS; F. Bacon Works [1850] II. 484 [Nov. Org. II. 39]: "quale perspillum si vidisset Democritus, exsuiluisset forte, et modum videndi atomum .. inventum fuisse putasset"; LATHAM citing Newton)  ► conspicillum, i n. (Zwingli VI. II. 177)  ► tubus opticus (Galileo, etc.)  ► perspicillum, i* n.  ► têlescopium, i* n. (LATHAM citing Newton; EGGER S.L. 78)

102 glasses: telescope: binoculars  geminatum perspicillum* (EGGER R.A. 58)

102 glasses: telescope: periscope  ► periscopium, i* n.  ¶ Mod. Gr. περισκόπιο.

102 glasses: with the naked eye  nudis oculis (abl.) (GAUSS VI, 27: "cometa nudis quoque oculis valde conspicuus fuit."

102 lens  lens, ntis (*) f. (Bonon. Acad. I, 302: "lentem ex utroque parte convexam."  ► lenticula, ae (*) f. (Bonon. Acad. I, 303)

102 microscope  microscopium, i* n. (Bonon. Acad. I, 302EGGER D.L. 26)

102 opaque  impellucidus, a, um* (Pharm. Austr. xxvi)  ► luci impervius (Pharm. Austr. 16)

102 spectrum  ► spectrum, i (*) n.  ► ? phasma, atis* n.  ¶ Mod. Gr.  φασμα .

102 spectrum: infra-red  ► hyperythrus, a, um*  ¶ Mod. Gr. υπέρυθρος.

102 spectrum: prism  ►

102 spectrum: ultra-violet  ► hyeriôdeus, a, um*  ¶ Mod. Gr. υπεριώδ η ς.

102 vision, eyesight  ► oculorum acies  ¶ PLAUT.  Lucr.  ► acies, ei f. ( CAES.  CIC..  ► vîsus, ûs m.

102 vision:  my eyesight is going bad, my vision is deteriorating  visus mihi destituit  ¶ Petrarch 2.  ► visus mihi deficit  ¶ Est. I. 671.

102 vision:  sharpen the eyesight  ► vîsum acuere ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 487.

102 vision: poor vision, bad eyesight  ► videndi imbecillitas  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 322.  ► dêbilis visûs acies  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 122.

103

103    COLOR

103 /color (used as adj., as in "color picture"), in color  ► vîvis colôribus pictus (v. depictus v. expressus v. adumbrâtus)  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xxvi: "Mentzelii Flora Iaponica ... plantis coloribus vivis depictis."  1794 RUIZ xi: "Earum [scil. plantarum] imagines vivis coloribus expressas in navim 'El Buen Consejo' in Hispaniam deferendas imposuimus."  ► nâtîvis colôribus pictus (v. depictus v. expressus v. adumbrâtus)  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xvii: "ad plantarum figuras aeri incidendas nativisque coloribus adumbrandas."  \ colôribus pictus (v. depictus v. expressus v. adumbrâtus)  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 75, of artistic representations of Mary Magdelene washing Jesus' feet: "Complures ... eam mulieris actionem repraesentare et sine coloribus et cum coloribus sunt conati, quo factum est ut eius modi figura tam solis typis quam etiam coloribus expressa in varios orbis locos sit divulgata."

103 /colorless  ► colôris expers  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 15.  ► incolor, ôris  ¶ Gloss.

103 /dark, deep (of color)  ► saturâtus, a, um  ¶ PLIN. 21, 46.  1571 MATTIOLI 324: "Alii [flores] saturatâ purpurâ nitent."   ► austêrus, a, um  ¶ PLIN. 35, 30: "Sunt autem colores austeri aut floridi."  |  adv.  (with color adjective)  ► saturâtê  ► intensê  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 12, describing human gums: "intense rubicundus color."  1811 PALLAS 17: "corpus supra intense fulvum," of tiger.  Pharm. Austr. 5: "Colorem intense rubrum induit."

103 /dark: light, pale  adv.  (with color adjective)  exolêtê (1811 PALLAS 53: "sunt autem aestate omnes exolêtê fusci."  |  a light color  color dilûtus (1571 MATTIOLI 128, in description of lemons; "citri faciem referentia, atque etiam colore magis dilûto."  |  light gray  pallentis cinerii coloris (Bauhin I. 421)

103 /examples of mixed color words:  blackish-gray  colore ex cinereo nigricante 1843 TRAPPEN 55)

103 blackish  ► nigricans, ntis  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 16.

103 brown  ► castaneus, a, um  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 354: "coloris castanei."  ► brûnus, a, um+  ¶ Latham.  Ducange.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 333 et passim.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 48: "Ibi sunt viri pulchri mulieresque pulchrae, coloris tamen bruni."

103 crimson (adj.), deep red, slightly blue-tinged red  ► coccineus, a, um  ¶ Petr.  Mart.  ► coccinus, a, um  ¶ Petr.  Mart.  ► carmesinus, a, um+  ¶ Ducange: "CARMESINUS, Color ostrinus, pupureus, chermisi Italia, cramoisi nostris; a kermes, voce Arabicâ, quae vermiculum sonat qui gignitur in baccis cocci, ex quorum liquore panni coccino seu purpureo colore tingi solent."  ► vermiculâtus, a, um+  ¶ Ducange.  ► vermilius, a, um+  ¶ Ducange s.v. vermiculus, quoting a medieval chronicle: "Apparuit quaedam crux rubea vel vermilia in castro dicto Spello." c.1300 MARCO POLO A 449, of a magnificent ruby owned by the king of Ceylon: "Ipse est lucidior res de mundo et est vermilius sicut ignis."

103 crimson (subst.), coloring agent or dye traditionally produced from the insect Kermes vermilio  ► coccum, i n.  ¶ Hor.  Mart.  ► vermiculus, i m.  ¶ Vulg. Ex. 35, 26. Ducange: "VERMICULUS, VERMICULUM ... Papias: 'Vermiculum, rubrum sive coccineum; est enim vericulus ex silvestribus frondibus, in quo lana tingitur.'"

103 gray, grey  ► cinereus, a, um  ¶ Col.  PLIN.  1843 TRAPPEN 55.  ► râvus, a, um  ¶ CIC.  HOR.  PLIN.   ► griseus, a, um+  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 65; 2, 27.  1846 GROSSE 7. 1811 PALLAS 18.  ► incânus, a, um  ¶ Verg. G. 3, 311, of mint.  1571 MATTIOLI 487, of rosemary.

103 indigo (subst.), coloring agent or dye obtained from the indigo plant (genus Indigofera, esp. Indigofera tinctoria L.)  ► indicum, i n.  ¶ PLIN. 33, 163: "Non pridem adportari et indicum coeptum est, cuius pretium denarii octo in libras. Ratio in picturâ ad incisuras, hoc est umbras dividendas ab lumine."  (Incisura here appears to be a technical term, equivalent tocommissura, for the boundaries between highlight and shadow by which chiaroscuro effects were created.  See Alexandre 9, 132, ad loc.).  PLIN. 35, 46: "Ab hoc [scil. purpurisso] maxime auctoritas indico. Ex Indiâ venit, harundinum spumae adhaerescente limo. Cum cernatur, nigrum, at in diluendo mixturam purpurae caeruleique mirabilem reddit."  1832 ALEXANDRE 9, 310 (note of xxx on Plin. 35, 46): " Ινδνκον , Dioscoridis loco laudato [5, 107], nobis est Indigofera tinctoria ... indigo, infectoribus nunc usitatissimus. Habitat in Indiâ orientali."  ► endicus, i+ m.  ¶ c.1300MARCO POLO A 466, of the Indian region of Gujarat: "Hic est endicus, piper, zenziber, et multae aliae species."  ► endici indecl.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 463, of the southwest coast of India: "Ibi est endici quo tinctores utuntur copia maxima."

103 orange  aureus, a, um (1571 MATTIOLI 129, of orange tree: "poma fert rotunda, aureo colore"; the orange tree has been called malum aureum, as well as aurantium)  ► flammeus, a, um, croceus, a, um (PERUGINI Dizion.)  ► luteus, a, um (PERUGINI Dizion.)  ► aurantinus, a, um*, aurantius, a, um* (PERUGINI Dizion.)

103 pastel  ►

103 pink  roseus, a, um (EGGER R.A. 73: "columnae ... e lapid granite ravi roseique coloris."  ► subruber, bra, brum (ERASMUS Coll. 199, of rosé wine; Pharm. Austr. 424)

103 red: vermilion (adj.), orange-red  ► minius, a, um  ¶ Apul. M. 4, 2: "Inter varias herbulas et laetissima virecta, fungentium rosarum minius color renidebat."  Apul. Flor. 12: "Enimvero cervicula eius [scil. psittaci] circulo minio velut aureâ torqui pari fulgoris circumactu cingitur et coronatur."

103 red: vermilion (subst.), coloring agent or dye traditionally produced from the mineral cinnabar  ► minium, i n.  ¶ Verg. B. 10, 26-27: "Pan deus Arcadiae vênit, quem vidimus ipsi  ¶ sanguineis ebuli bacis minioque rubentem."  Plin. 33, 117: "Cinnabari veteres quae etiam nunc vocant monochromata pingebant; pinxerunt et Ephesio minio, quod derelictum est, quia curatio magni operis erat."

103 ultramarine (adj.), deep blue, azure  ► cŷaneus, a, um  ¶ PLIN. 10, 89.  PRUD. Psych. 858.  1832 ALEXANDRE 9, 131, quoted above.  ► azûrinus, a, um+  ¶ Ducange.

103 ultramarine (subst.), coloring agent or pigment traditionally made from lapis lazuli  ► azûrum, i+ n.  ¶ Ducange.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 34, in description of Badakhshan: "In hac provinciâ in monte alio invenitur lasuli de quo fit azurum melius quod reperitur in mundo."  ► arzûrum, i+ n.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 358: "Invenerunt lapides unde fit arzurum multum bonum."  Ibid. 429: "Tota illa sala est picta ad aurum et ad arzurum cum multis pulchris historiis, et nihil potest videri in muris et tecto nisi aurum et arzurum."  ► ultramarînum, i* n.  ¶ 1832ALEXANDRE 9, 131 (on Plin. 33, 161): "Caeruleum. Obsolevit istud iam dudum, inque eius locum successit alterum simile, quod ex cyaneo lapide lazuli parant, vocantque ultramarinum,outremer."  Caeruleum was a blue dye of the ancients, of uncertain identity; in may in some cases have been ultramarine (Bostock 6, 141 n. 8, on Plin. 33, 161). 

103 woad, pastel, coloring agent or dye obtained from the woad plant (Isatis tinctoria L., which contains the same blue pigment as indigo)  ► glastum, i n.  ¶ PLIN. 22, 2: "Simili plantagini – glastum in Gallia vocatur – Britannorum coniuges nurûsque toto corpore oblitae quibusdam in sacris nudae incedunt, Aethiopum colorem imitantes."  DUCANGE: "GLASTUM, Gallis herbae genus, quo Britanni tingendis corporibus usi ... Guesdum vel pastellum nostri appellant; cuius inficiendis lanis maximus usus."  1832 ALEXANDRE 9, 310 (note of Dalechamps on Plin. 35, 46): "Indicum nihil aliud esse quam pigmentum confectum in Guzarate ex Indico glasto, Garcias auctor est, lib. 2, capt. 26.  Anil Turcae vocant, Indi gali, plerique nil." (The commentator seems to use the phrase Indicum glastum of indigo; anil and nil are words for indigo in various languages.)  Ibid. (note of Hardouin on same passage): "Eius [scil. indici] vice paratur ex arte germinum: alterum [scil. pigmenti genus] ex isati, seu glasto, molâ maceratâ, formatâque in panes ... alterum ex simili herbâ quam indigo vocant."  ► gua(i)(s)da, ae+ f. (also ga-, g(u)e-, wa-, we-, -d(i)um, etc.)  ¶ LATHAM.  NIERMEYER.  DUCANGE: "GUAISDIUM, Glastum Plinio, quo infectores lanarum utuntur, nostris guède, Picardis waide" (giving many other variant spellings). ► pastellum, i+ n.  ¶ DUCANGE: "PASTELLUM, Herbae genus, nostris pastel, quâ infectores lanarum utuntur, ab effigie pastillorum, in quam glomerantur eius cineres, sic dicta; aliis quippeguesdium vel guesdum nuncupatur; quae vitrum Latinis, Graecis í σατις  dicitur"; citing 14th-c. sources.  Latham citing 16th-c. source.   ►► EL: guède, pastel des teinturiers; guasto, yerba pastel; guado; Waid.

103 yellow  ► flavus, a, um  ¶  ► croceus, a, um  ¶ Ducange quoting letter of King of England, 1277, requiring Jews to wear a yellow emblem on their clothing: "Unus quisque eorum ... in superiori vestimento suo quoddam signam deferat ad modum duarum tabularum de feltro croceo."  1652 TURS. 256: "Iudaei ... croceis pileis insignes," of the yellow caps Jews were required to wear)

103 yellowish  ► flavescens, ntis  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 14.

106

106    HEAR

106 earplug  auris obturamentum (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 303: "aures habet gossipio oburatas")

106 hearing aid   ►► cf. tubus acûsticus (Kircher)  |  cf. specillum auricularium (CELS. 7, 26, 1)

106 hearing impaired, hard of hearing  ► surdaster, tra, trum  ¶ Cic.

106 hearing impairment, hardness of hearing  ► audîtûs gravitas  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 42.

106 listen eagerly, hang onto (someone's) every word  auribus arrectis (aliquem) audire, avidissimas aures (alicui) praebere 1843 TRAPPEN 24)

106 noisy  ► clamôsus, a, um  ► strepens, ntis  ► obstrepens, ntis  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ ii  ► fragôsus, a, um  ¶ Verg.  Plin.  Amm.  ► obstreperus, a, um  ¶ Apul.

106 overhear, eavesdrop  ► subauscultare (CIC. Top. 75: "ea locutus est bonis viris subauscultantibus pariete interposito, quibus patefactis ... iure damnatus est."  ► auscultare (PLAUT. Merc. 2, 4, 9: "omnia istaec auscultavi ab ostio."  ► sermoni (alicuius) auceps esse (PLAUT. Mil. 4, 1, 9: "circumspice dum, ne quis nostro hic auceps sermoni siet"; cf. PLAUT. Stich. 1, 2, 45: "numquis hic est alienus nostris dictis auceps auribus."  ► aucupium auribus facere (PLAUT. Mil. 4, 1)  ►sermones custôdire  ¶ Tac. A. 2, 52, where K. Wellesley translates, "They spied on their conversation,"

106 read lips

106 soundproof  ► sonis impervius (cf. airtight and cite)  |  cf. PLIN. Ep. 2, 17, 22: "tam alti abditique secreti illa ratio, quod interiacens andron parietem cubiculi hortique distinguit atque ita omnem sonum mediâ inanitate consumit"

106 tinnitus, ringing (or whistling or humming) in the ears  ► susurrus aurium (1846 GROSSE 9, in list of effect of hashish use)

107

107    ODOR

107 bad breath, halitosis  ► animae gravitas  ¶ PLIN. 20, 91.  ► ôris graveolentia  ¶ PLIN. 22, 88.  ► anima foetida  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 42.  ► anima foetens  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 152, of nutmeg fruit: "Commansae oris suavitatem commendant, et foetentis animae virus abolent."  |  he has bad breath  ► ôs ei olet  ¶ Mart. 12, 87: "Pediconibus os olere dicis."  Dig. 21, 1, 12, 4: "Is cui os oleat an sanus sit quaesitum est; Trebatius ait non esse morbosum os alicui olere, veluti hircosum, strabonem, hoc enim ex illuvie oris accidere solere."

107 bad breath: freshen the breath  ôris halitum commendare (1571 MATTIOLI 487, of rosemary)  ► ôris halitum iucundiôrem facere (PLIN. 20, 186, of anise: "oris halitum iucundiorem facit fetoremque tollit manducatum."  ► ôris suâvitâtem commendare (1571 MATTIOLI 152)  ► anhêlitum commendare (1571 MATTIOLI 323)

107 body odor: having body odor  ► hircôsus, a, um (Plaut.; Pers.; Mart. 10, 98, 10: hircosus subulcus; Mart. 12, 59, 4-5: "te pilosus ¶ hircoso premit osculo colonus"; Dig. 21, 1, 12, 4: "Trebatius ait non esse morbosum os alicui olere, veluti hircosum, strabonem")

107 body odor: underarm odor  ► alarum graveolentia (PLIN. 22, 87)

107 incense  ► suffîmentum, i n. (CIC.; PLIN.)  ► suffîmen, inis n. (Ov.; 1843 TRAPPEN 91: "de suffimine ex coffeae seminibus."  ► odor, ôris m. (Plaut.; Cic.; Hor. C. 3, 18, 7: "ara  ¶ fumat odore."  ► tûs, tûris n. (often used specifically of frankincens) (CIC.; Verg.; Ov.; PLIN.)  |  burn incense, fumigate  ► suffîre (Verg. G. 4, 241: "suffire thymo"; Col. 12, 18, 3: "cella quoque vinaria ... bonis odoribus suffienda, ne quem redoleat foetorem."  ► vapôrare (Verg. A. 11, 481: "templum ture vaporant"; Stat.)  ► fûmigare (Varr.; Col.)  ► odôres incendere (Plaut. Men. 353: "sternite lectos, incendite odores"; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 78: "ture, odoribus incensis."  | burning of incense, fumigation  ► suffîtus, ûs m. (PLIN.; ERASMUS Coll. 158: "suffitum aliquem facito purgando aëri."  ► fûmigâtio, ônis f. (Cael. Aur.; 1843 TRAPPEN 82, of medicinal use of fumes from coffee beans)

107 incense burner, censer, thurible  tûribulum, i n. (Cic.; Liv.)

107 perfume store  taberna unguentâria (SEN.; SUET.)

107 perfume, cologne  \\ odôrâmentum, i n. \ Col.  \ PLIN.   \\ odôres, um m. pl. (used also of incense, air-fresheners, etc.)  \ Virg.  \ Hor.  \\ oleum odôrâtum  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 36.  ►unguentum, i n. \ CIC.  \ HOR.  \ PLIN. N.H.  \\ unguentum odôriferum  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 37.  \\ unguentum odôribus condîtum  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 35, on the ancients' use of perfumes after exercise: "cum post exercitationes et post balnea infinita prope variorum odoribus conditorum unguentorum genera tradantur adhibita."

107 smell  v.i.  (give off an odor)  olêre  ► odôrem mittere  |  it smells good  bene olet ( Cic. Att. 2, 1, 1)  |  it smells bad  male olet  ► foetet  |  it smells like saffron  crocum olet (Cic. de Or. 3, 25, 99)

107 smell  v.t.  (perceive an odor, without or without intent)  olfacere  ► odôrem percipere 1843 TRAPPEN 92: "qui nauseâ molestentur quoties coffeae odorem percipiant."  |  (to purposely inhale an odor, sniff at)  odôrari (Plaut. Mil. 268: "ibo odorans quasi canis venaticus")

107 smell: foul-smelling, smelly, reeking, stinking, rank  grave olens  ► foetidus, a, um

107 substances: ambergris  ► ambra, ae+ f.  ¶ DUCANGE, also giving forms ambar and ambre, and providing this explanation (s.v. ambre): "Idem quod ambar, vel succinum et electrum, Gallisambre. In hoc autem distinguuntur ambar and succinum, quod ambar bituminis genus sit oceani orientalis proprium, cinerei aut nigri coloris, in litus maris eiectum, quod aeri expositum durescit, et odorem spirat suavem; succinum vero sit aliud bitumen lapidescens, flavum aut album, ex tritu vel ab igne fragrans, quod in sinu Codano reperitur."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 468: "Hic est copia de ambrâ pulchrâ et bonâ, quia in illo mari sunt cete grandia."  ► ambrum, i+ n.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 469, referring (probably) to Madagascar: "Ibi est ambri copia magna, quia in mari illo capodogli [sperm whales] et cete grandia capiuntur saepe."  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 37 (in a passage parallel to that quoted above for ambra): "In hoc mari est ambri copia magno, et ibi cete multa et grandia capiuntur." 

11

11    RECORD

11 amplifier

11 cassette  capsella magnêtophônica* (EGGER S.L. 52)

11 cassette deck, tape deck, cassette tape player

11 CD player

11 CD, compact disc  discus capacior, discus mûsicus

11 CD: record, album, vinyl disk

11 CD: single

11 DVD   ? (capācior) disculus cinēsiopticus 11 digital audio player, mp3 player, iPod

11 feedback (recording, radio)

11 headphone  (large, surrounding ears)  concha acûstica (v. auditiva)  |  (small: earphone, earbud)

11&nbnbsp;megaphone  ►► megaphônium, EGGER D.L. 27

11 microphone  microphônum, i* n., apparatus micriphônicus* (EGGER S.L. 44)

11 play (a piece of music or other recording on a stereo, computer, etc.), show or project (a film, slide, clip, image, etc.)  ► repraesentare  ¶ Cf. CURT. 3, 10, 7, summarizing a battle-eve speech of Alexander: "Philippus pater invocabatur, domitaeque nuper Boeotiae et urbis in eâ nobilissimae ad solum dirutae species repraesentabatur animis" (Loeb trans.: "presented to their minds a picture").  Cf. QUINT. 6, 2, 29: "Quas  φαντασ í ας  Graeci vocant, nos sane visiones appellemus, per quas imagines rerum absentium ita repraesentantur animo ut eas cernere oculis ac praesentes habere videamur."  Cf. PLIN. 7, 89, in a list of examples of prodigious memory ability: "Charmadas ... quae quis exegerat volumina in bibliothecis legentis modo repraesentavit" ("recited from memory as if reading the book").

11 play: instant replay  repentîna repraesentatio

11 record, tape  vb.  imprimere (EGGER S.L. 52: "capsellam magnetophonicam inveniri in qua vos Emmanuelae esset impressa."  ► incîdere, soni imaginem excipere

11 recording studio  ► phônographêum, i* n.  ¶ / Cf. Anc. Gr.  ζωγρφειον  (Plut.), of a painter's studio.

11 speaker (stereo speaker, loudspeaker)  êchêum, i (*) n. (VITR. 1, 1, 9 and 5, 5, 2 and 5, 5, 7 of metal sounding-plates used to amplify sound in theater; see CALLEBAT Dict. 99; in modern sense: Lev.; HELFER)  ► megalo­phô­num, i* n. (LRL; the adjective  μεγαλοφωνος , loud-sounding, is ancient Greek; cf. Mod. Gr.  μεγαφωνο , loudspeaker)  ►► LS: "êchêa, ôrum, n., vessels to increase the sound of the actors' voices in theatre, sounding-vessels, VITR. 5, 5, 2 (1, 1, 9 written as Greek)."  CALLEBAT Dict. 99: "caisse d'un instrument de musique; traduit par vasa aerea, il désigne les 'vases résonateurs.'"  HILGERS 177: echea are vasa aerea placed in theater for amplification of sound.  ||  VITR. 1, 1, 9: "Item theatris vasa area ... quae Gracei echeiaappellant, ad symphonias musicas sive concentûs componuntur ... uti vox scaenici ... aucta cum incremento clarior et suavior ad spectatorum perveniat aures."  VITR. 5, 5, 7: "Cum autem ex solidis rebus theatra constituuntur, id est ex structura caementorum, lapide, marmore, quae sonare non possunt, tunc echeis hae rationes sunt explicandae.  VITR. 5, 5, 8: "Multi etiam sollertes architecti, qui in oppidis non magnis theatra constituerunt, propter inopiam fictilibus doliis ita sonantibus electis hac ratiocinatione compositis perfecerunt utilissimos effectus."

11 speaker: woofer, tweeter

11 stereo  (concrete: a stereo set, sound system)  stereophônum, i* n.;   (abstract: stereo sound)  sterephônia, ae* f., diphônia, ae* f.

11 stereo: quadraphonic sound, surround sound  amphiphônia, ae* f.

11 volume  (sound)  sonus, i m., vocis quantitas (QUINT. 11, 3, 14)  |  turn up the volume  sonum augere, sonum intendere

11 walkman, mp3-player, iPod  ►► Fr. balladeur

12

12    PHOTOGRAPHY, OPTICS

12 camera  (for still pictures)  machinula photographica (EGGER D.L. 49)  ► instrumentum photographicum (EGGER S.L. 85)

12 cameraman  ►► rei cinematograhicae artifex (EGGER S.L. 101)

12 focal point, focus (in optics)  ► focus, i (*) m.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 138, using the term metaphorically to describe the seat or central point of inflammation in the body: "loco ab irritationis foco paululum remotiore."  ►► OED s.v. focus: " The Lat. word was first used in sense 1 [geom.] by Kepler (Astron. pars optica iv. 4, written in 1604); his reason for the choice of the name is not stated, but it is conjectured that the optical sense 2, ‘burning point of a lens or mirror’ (which is easily derived from the lit. sense) must have been already in existence; this would account for Kepler's use, as the ‘burning point’ or ‘focus’ of a parabolic mirror is situate at the geometrical ‘focus’ of its curvature."

12 photograph   subst.  ► imago phôtographica*  ¶ Johannes van Vloten, ed., Ad Benedicti de Spinoza opera quae supersunt omnia supplementum ... cum philosophi chirographo ejusque imagine photographica, ex originali hospitis H. van der Spijck (Amsterdam, 1862).  ► phôtographia, ae* f.  ¶ For the concrete use of photographia, cf. Anc. Gr.  χρονογραφια (chronicle).  ► phôtographêma, atis* n.  ¶  ► tabula phôtotypa*  ¶  Eugenius Oder, ed., Mulomedicina Chironis (Leipzig: Teubner, 1901), title page: "Adiecta est tabula phototypa."  Ibid. xix: "Indicibus autem ut recte utantur [lectores], velim perpendant quanta fides codicis Monacensis librario in universum habenda sit, cuius artem celerrime ex tabulâ phototypâ calci editionis adiectâ cognoscimus."

12 photograph (vi), take a photograph or picture of  ► (alicuius rei) imaginem luce imprimere  ¶ EGGER D.L. 25.  ► (aliquid) luce imprimere  ¶ EGGER S.L. 85.  ►photographice* reddere  ¶ EGGER D.L. 37: "Amoenitates iugorum Imai photographice reddiderunt."  ► imaginem photographiceexprimere  ¶ EGGER D.L. 49. 

12 photographer  ► photographus, i* m.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 25, 43.

12 photographer's studio  ► photographêum, i* n.  ¶ Cf. Anc. Gr.  ζωγρφειον  (Plut.), of a painter's studio.

12 photography  ► ars phôtographica*  ¶ John Henry Parker, Monumentorum urbis Romae arte photographicâ relatorum series amplissima ad ipsius urbis formam et historiam illustrandam maxime idonea (Roma, 1868). 

12 slide  subst.  (small transparency for projection)  imaguncula pellucida, imaguncula translucida (EGGER S.L. 57)

12 telephoto  adj.  telephotographicus* (EGGER D.L. 46)  |  telephoto lens  telelenticula, ae* f. (EGGER D.L. 37)

13

13    TELEPHONE

13 answering machine  machina responsoria

13 dial  subst.  orbis (v. discus) volubilis (v. rotatilis)

13 dial  vb.

13 receiver (telephone)  auscultabulum, i* n. (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

13 telegram  nuntius telegraphicus* (EGGER D.L. 20; EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► têlegraphêma, atis* n.

13 telemarketer

13 telephone  têlephônum, i* n. (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  ► instrumentum têlephônicum* (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  |  adj.  têlephônicus, a, um* (EGGER S.L. 22)  |  talk by telephone  têlephônicê* colloqui (EGGER L.D.I. 102)  |  the telephone is ringing  têlephônum tinnit (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

13 telephone booth  cellula têlephônica* (EGGER L.D.I. 102)

13 telephone line

13 telephone message  nuntius têlephônicus

13 telephone pole

13 voice mail 

14

14    RADIO

14 broadcast  per aetheris undas dimittere (v. emittere v. divulgare)  ►► per aetheris undas transmittere (EGGER S.L. 72).  L.S.: "dimitto ... litteras per omnes provincias, CAES. B. C. 3, 79, 4; with which cf.: nuntios per agros, id. B. G. 6, 31, 2: librum per totam Italiam, PLIN. Ep. 4, 7, 2: edicta per provincias, SUET. Galb. 10: certos per litora, Verg. A. 1, 577 et saep.: nuntios tota civitate Aeduorum, CAES. B. G. 7, 38, 9: nuntios in omnes partes, id. ib. 4, 19, 2 ; 4, 34, 5; cf. ib. 5, 49, 8."

14 radar  ►► radioëlectricum instrumentum detectorium (EGGER D.L. 53)  ► instrumentum detectorium (EGGER S.L. 35)

14 radio  (abstract)  radiophônia, ae* f.;  (concrete)  radiophônum*, instrumentum radiophônicum* (EGGER S.L. 27)  |  adj.  radiophônicus, a, um* (EGGER L.D.I. 126)

14 radio station  sedes radiophonica* (EGGER D.L. 8)  ► statio radiophonica* (EGGER D.L. 58, EGGER S.L. 72)

14 short wave 

14 tune in  ►► cf. Span. sintonizar

15

15    TELEVISION

15 anchor, newscaster  locutor televisificus* (EGGER S.L. 36)

15 antenna (television, radio)

15 cable television  têlevisio funiculâris+ (for funicularis, see LATHAM)  ►► HELFER: television capularis

15 color televsion  instrumentum têlevîsificum versicolor (EGGER L.D.I. 105)  ►► instrumentum televisificum coloratum (EGGER S.L. 15-16)

15 reception: good reception

15 satellite dish

15 screen (of television, computer)  album, i n. (EGGER S.L. 48)  ► quadrum (visorium)

15 television  (abstract)  têlevisio, onis* f., têleopsia, ae* f.;  (concrete)  instrumentum têlevisificum* (EGGER D.L. 46; EGGER L.D.I. 105)  ► scrinium têlevisificum* (EGGER S.L. 48)  ► instrumentum (v. scrinium) têleopticum*; tēleopsis, is/eōs* f.,  adj.  têlevîsificus, a, um* (EGGER L.D.I. 126)  ► têleopticus, a, um* (Mod. Gr.)  |  Americans watch too much television  nimii sunt Americani in televisione spectandâ

15 television: channel

15 television series  spectaculorum series (EGGER L.D.I. 105)  ►► teleorasis, is* f. (EGGER D.L. 21)

15 television station  statio têlevisifica* (EGGER D.L. 58)  ► statio têleoptica*

15 television: t ê leorāsis is f., tēlevīsiō ōnis f

15 video clip  ? segmentum cinêsiopticum*

16

16    COMPUTERS

16 computer  computatorium, i+ (Maigne: of place where computations are made)  ► instrumentum computatorium* (EGGER D.L. 39)  ► ? computorium+, ? computarium+, informaculum, i* n., ? logisterium* (electronicum*)  |  adj.  ? informacularis, e*, ? informaticus, a, um*  ►► computatrum, ordinatrum

16 digital  (opp. analog) 

16 handheld computer, palmtop, personal digital assistant, PDA, "Palm Pilot"  computarium* pugillare

16 home page  vestibulum, i n.

16 link, hyperlink

16 optical character recognition, OCR

16 rewritable CD  discus (capax) dêlêtilis (cf. membrana deletilis, 1540 VIVES Exer. 318, of ancient palimpsests)

16 scan  (document, card; medical)

16 scanner  (with computer; card-scanner)

16 scroll

16 search  perquisitio informatica* (v. verbalis)  |  search engine

16 voice recognition, speech recognition

16 wireless: cordless

16 wireless: wireless network, wireless access, wifi

1680  KIRCHER Physiologia

17

17    ENTERTAINMENT

17 amusement park

17 beauty pageant, Miss America, etc.

17 circus  ► ludi papilionarii* (m. pl.)  ¶ For papilionarius, cf. Ducange (pavillonarius).

17 clown, jester, comic, (stand-up) comedian, impersonator  ► ioculâtor, ôris m. (also minstrel, traveling entertainer)  ¶  ►► distinguenda haec: scurra, balatro, ioculator, ridicularius, sannio, ludius, mimus, comoedus, actor comicus

17 clown: court jester  môrio, ônis m. (ERASMUS)  ► scurra, ae f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 371)

17 disk jockey, DJ  ►

17 emcee, master of ceremonies  ► spectaculi magister  ¶ Cf. convivii magister (Varr., Apul.), of one appointed to supervise the festivities during a banquet.

17 entertainer, performer  ► âcroâma, atis n. \\ ioculâtor, ôris (+) m.  ¶ LLN, defining as "a. nar [fool]; sannio ... b. jongleur, minstreel; histrio, tibicen."  LLI, defining as "mimus, funambulus, praestigiator."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 409, using histrio and ioculator as synonyms: "Magnus Kaan ... dixit omnibus histrionibus quos habebat in suâ curâ quod volebat ut irent ad conquaestandum istam provinciam ... Ioculatores dixerunt quod volebant ire libenter."  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 13, of entertainment at Kublai Khan's court: "Terminato prandio ... per ioculatores et histriones et nigromanticos ioci et solacia magna fiunt coram rege et coram aliis qui in eius curâ comedunt."  The ioculator (cf. French jongleur, whence English juggler) may be a minstrel, jester, comedian, acrobat, juggler, etc.

17 entertainer: minstrel, bard, troubadour, trouvère  ► ioculâtor, ôris (+) m.  ► Cf. DANTE Vulg. El. 351: "cantionum inventores."

17 entertainer: minstrel: Goliard  ► goliardus, i+ m.  ¶ Ducange.  ► vagus scholâris  ¶ Ducange s.v. goliardus, quoting a 13th-c. council of Trier: "Sacerdotes non permittant trutannos et alios vagos scholares aut goliardos contare versûs super Sanctus, Agnus Die in missis vel in divinis officiis, quia ex hoc ... scandalizantur homines audientes."

17 entertainment, shows  ► voluptates, um f. pl.  ► solacia, orum (+) n. pl.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 377, of entertainment at Kublai Khan's court: "Multi histriones veniunt et faciunt ibi multa et diversa solatia."  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 13 (in a passage parallel to the preceding one): "Terminato prandio surgunt citharoedi omnes et suaves faciunt melodias, et per ioculatores et histriones et nigromanticos ioci et solacia magna fiunt coram rege et coram aliis qui in eius curae comedunt." 

17 live: live concert, live broadcast, recorded live

17 magic (illusion), magic tricks, legerdemain, sleight-of-hand  ► praestîgiae, arum f. pl.  ¶ Plaut.  Cic.

17 magician, illusionist, prestidigitator  ► praestîgiâtor, ôris m.  ¶ Plaut.  Sen.

17 magician: escape artist

17 merry-go-round, carrousel

17 parade  pompa, ae (EGGER S.L. 49)

17 puppet

17 puppet: marionette  neurospastum, i n. (Gell.; 1843 TRAPPEN 20: "neurospastis delectari"; EGGER R.A. 90: "theatrum neurospastorum seu parvorum simulacrorum ligneorum, quae nervis agitantur")

17 roller-coaster

17 swing (set)  \\ oscillum, i n.  \ 1773 Hahn 34: "cum enim califae Errasbidi concubina in oscillo se iactasset vehementius."

17 vaudeville

17 ventriloquist  ► ventriloquus, i m.  ¶ TERT.  HIER.  1561 GENTIAN trans. 11th-c. BALSAMON, canon 65 conc. in Trullo (p. 741), on ecclesiastical denunciations of the occult arts (in which ventriloquism was traditionally included): "Ventriloqui ( εγγαστρίμυθοι ) autem aruspicesque dicuntur omnes qui Satanicâ incitatione afflati dicunt ea quae cognosci non possunt, ut critriae, athingani, pseudoprophetae, eremitae et alii."  1677 MAGRI s.v. engastrimyth.  1876 DUNGLISON 1096 s. v. engastrimyth.  ► engastrimythus, i* m.  ¶ 1677 MAGRI.  1876 DUNGLISON 1096 s. vv.engastrimyth and ventriloque.  Cf. Anc. Gr.  εγγαστρίμυθος .  ► gastriloquus, i* m. Cf.  ¶ 1876 DUNGLISON 1096 s. v. engastrimyth

17 ventriloquist: dummy

18

18    ART

18 art  pictûra et statuâria, artes visuales (f. pl.)  ► artes ad oculorum voluptatem tendentes (SEN. Ep. 88, 22: "ludicrae [artes] sunt quae ad voluptatem oculorum atque aurium tendunt."  ► artes voluptariae (f. pl.)  ► callitechnia, ae* f. (Anc. and Mod. Gr.)

18 artist  pingendi (v. scalpendi) artifex (cf. EGGER R.A. 78: "Ioannes Laurentius Bernini ... filius Petri, qui et ispe statuarius et pingendi artifex fuit."  ► ? artifex, icis m. (EGGER D.L. 11)  ►callitechna, ae* m. (Anc. and Mod. Gr.)

18 artistic  callitechnicus, a, um* f. (Anc. and Mod. Gr.)

18 esthetics doctrina elegantiae, artis ratio, doctrina cognitionis sensibilis (Springhetti, Lexicon); aesthēticēs (Egger)

18 esthetic ad elegantiam pertinens, ad artis rationes seu ad aesthetices principia factum (Springhetti, Lexicon)

18 artist's studio  ► (pictôris) pergula  ¶ Plin. 35, 12, in an oft-quoted anecdote about the painter Apelles: "Idem perfecta opera proponebat in pergulâ transeuntibus atque, ipse post tabulam latens, vitia quae notarentur auscultabat, vulgum diligentiorem iudicem quam se praeferens."  Lact. Inst. 1, 22, quoting Lucilius: "Nam Lucilius eorum stultitiam, qui simulacra deos putant esse, deridet his versibus: 'Terricolas Lamias Fauni, quas Pompiliique  ¶ instituere Numae, tremit has; hic omnia ponit.  ¶ Ut pueri infantes credunt signa omnia ahena  ¶ vivere et esse homines, sic ista omnia ficta  ¶ vera putant; credunt signis cor inesse in ahenis.  ¶ Pergula pictorum; veri nihil; omnia ficta.'"  ► zôgraphêum, i n.  ¶ Cf. Anc. Gr.  ζωγρφειον  (Plut.).   ►► Smith: "PERGULA, appears to have been a kind of booth or small house, which afforded scarcely any protection except by its roof, so that those who passed by could easily look into it. It served both as a workshop (Dig. 5, 1, 19) and a stall where things were exhibited for sale. We find, for instance, that painters exhibited their works in a pergula that they might be seen by those who passed by (Lucil. ap. Lactant. 1, 22), and Apelles is said to have concealed himself in his pergula behind his pictures that he might overhear the remarks of those who looked at them (Plin. H. N. 36, 12). Such places were occupied by persons, who, either by working or sitting in them, wished to attract the attention of the public (Salmas. ad Script. Hist. Aug. pp. 458, 459). Hence we find them inhabited by poor philosophers and grammarians who gave instruction and wished to attract notice in order to obtain pupils (Suet. Aug. 94, de Illustr. Grammat. 18; Flav. Vopisc. Saturnin. 10; Juven. 11, 137). It should be observed that scholars do not agree as to the real meaning of pergula: Scaliger (ad Plaut. Pseud. I.2.79) describes it as a part of a house built out into the street, as in some old houses of modern times; Ernesti (ad Suet. Aug. 94) thinks that a pergula is a little room in the upper part of a house which was occasionally used by poor philosophers as an observatory. But neither of these two definitions is so applicable to all the passages in which the word occurs as that which we have proposed."

18 chiaroscuro  luminis et umbrae dispositio (cf. PLIN. 35, 29: "se ars [picturae] ipsa distinxit et invenit lumen atque umbras, differentiâ colorum alternâ vice sese excitante."  ► umbrae lucisque mixtio (v. compositio) (LRL)

18 connoisseur  (in aliqua re v. alicuius rei) intelligens (CIC. Verr. 2, 4, 4: "signa pulcherrima quae non modo istum hominem, ingeniosum atque intelligentem, verum etiam quemvis nostrum, quos iste idiotas appellat, delectare possent"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 393: "periti emptores, et picturae intelligentes," "art connoisseurs")

18 enamel  encaustum, i n. (DUCANGE s.v. smaltum in def.; Aldrovandi 1: "qui gemmatum annulum fabricaturus, ex auro obrizo et infecto primitus circulum format, deinde encausto illum exornat";COLES; SMITH; BRUN)  ► smaltum, i+ n. (DUCANGE, quoting ML source: "cantharam auream unam cum pretiosis margaritis et gemmis ac smalto"; COLES; DECAHORS; GOELZER citing Gloss. Pap.)  ► crusta vitrea (GOELZER; BADELLINO)  ►► For the ancients encaustum and encausticum referred to encaustic painting, by which heated, colored wax was applied to a surface – a sort of "enameling" in the broadest sense of the word.  DUCANGE: "Smaltum, Encaustum, liquati coloratique metalli pigmentum, Italis smalto."  Fusilis argilla (GOELZER).

18 enameled  encausto distinctus (DUCANGE s.v. smaltum in def.)  ► encausto inustus (COLES)  ► encausto pictus (COLES; BRUN)  ► encausto crustâtus, encaustus, a, um (MART.; COLES) ► smaltâtus, a, um+ (DUCANGE, quoting ML source: "offerre fecit calicem unum argenteum ... mirifice deauratum et smaltatum."  ► smaltinus, a, um+ (DECAHORS; SMITH; GOELZER citing Anast. Bibl.)

18 enameling (art or practice)  ars encaustica (Aldrovandi 1)  ► encausticê, ês (or a, ae) f. (PLIN.; COLES) 

18 enameller  encaustês (or a)  ► ae* m. (COLES; BRUN)

18 forms: bust (sculpture)  effigies dimidiata (EGGER R.A. 24)  ► facies marmorea (v. e gypso expresso) (CIC. cited by GOELZER s.v. buste)  ► thôrax, âcis m. (Hist. Aug. Claud. 3)  ► ? herma, ae (*)  ► superioris corporis effigies (v. signum)

18 forms: drawing (concretely: a drawing)  dêlîneâtio, ônis f. (TERT.)  |  (act or art of drawing)  graphicê, ês f. (PLIN.; RABELAIS 957)

18 forms: drawing: charcoal (for drawing)  carbo, ônis m. (1571 MATTIOLI 487, of rosemary: "parantur e virgis ... carbones ad picturas delineandas."  ► graphium carbôneum (v. ex carbône)

18 forms: drawing: charcoal drawing  delineatio (v. adumbratio) carbônâria (v. carbône facta)

18 forms: fresco  pictura udo inducta (EGGER S.L. 68)  ► imago udo illita (EGGER R.A. 48)

18 forms: illuminated manuscript  liber miniâtus (1540 VIVES Exer. 336: "libri ipsi plerique omnes membranacei et variis coloribus miniati")

18 forms: illumination, miniature, small image in manuscript  minuta pictura (EGGER R.A. 61)  ► miniâtûra, ae+ (OED s.v. miniature, citing 15th-century source; BARTAL)

18 forms: illuminator of manuscrpts, miniaturist, miniator  minutarum picturarum effector (EGGER R.A. 61)  ► miniâtor, ôris+ (LATHAM; Maigne)

18 forms: landscape  (as subject of landscape painting)  topia, orum n. pl. (VITR.)

18 forms: mosaic  ► opus tessellatum  ¶ EGGER R.A. 52, 119.  ► asarôtum, i n.  ¶ STAT.  ¶ PLIN.   ► mûsîvum, i n.  ¶ AUG. CivDei, 16, 8: "musivo picta sunt."  ¶ EGGER R.A. 57, 52, quoting 19th-century inscription in Lateran basilica: "Vetus musivum ad antiquum exemplum restitui ... iussit."  ►► opus musivum ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 109.  [[EB (s.v. "mosaic"): "miniature mosaic work (called opus vermiculatum, meaning 'wormlike work' because of the close-set, undulating rows of small tesserae)."]]

18 forms: mosaic: floor mosaic  ► lithostrôtum, i n.  ¶ Plin. 36, 184: "Pavimenta originem apud Graecos habent elaborata arte picturae ratione, donec lithostrota expulere eam."  ¶ Cf. 5th c.PS. PROSP. Prom. 3, 38, 44 (PL 51, 834A): "Apud Africam Carthagini Caelestis inesse ferebatur templum nimis amplum, omnium deorum suorum aedibus vallatum. Cuius platea lithostrata, pavimento ac pretiosis columnis et moenibus decorata, prope in duobus fere millibus passuum protendebatur."    ► pavimentum lithostrôtum  ¶ VARR. R. R. 3, 1, 10.  ► pavimentum tessâllatum  ¶ SUET. Caes. 46  

18 forms: mural  pictûra parietâria (cf. pictor parietarius, Edict. Diocl. p. 19)

18 forms: mural-painter  pictor parietârius (Edict. Diocl.)

18 forms: portrait  imâgo, inis f. (alicuius hominis)  ► imâgo picta (GOELZER citing PLIN.)  |  Holbein specialized in portraits  Holbein in primis hominum imagines pingebat   ►► Imago has often in Latin the meaning "portrait, artistic representation of a person"; the adjective "picta" may be added to specify that a portrait is a painting (rather than a drawing, photograph, statue).

18 forms: relief  (work executed in relief, objected carved in relief)  imago ectypa (EGGER R.A. 24: "sarcophagi ectypis imaginibus eximie sculptis"; cf. SEN. Ben. 3, 26: "imaginem Caesaris habens ectypâ et eminente gemmâ," of a gem carved in relief; cf. also EGGER R.A. 52: "aenea tabula ectypa ... tegit sepulcrum."  ► scalptura ectypa (PLIN.)  ► ectypa, orum n. pl. (PLIN.; EGGER S.L. 21)  ► anaglypta, orum n. pl. (PLIN. 33, 139)  ► typus, i m., toreuma, atis n., opus (v. vas v. aurum v. argentum) caelatum  |  low relief, bas-relief  imago (v. scalptura v. figura v. effigies) parum eminens (v. extans v. prominens)  ► prostypum (PLIN. N.H. 35, 152)  |  high-relief, haut-relief  imago (v. scalptura v. figura v. effigies) alte eminens (v. extans v. prominens)  ►► Toreuma and opus caelatum are used of relief work carved or engraved in metal or stone; typus appears to apply especially to relief work modeled or molded in clay.  According to Lidell and Scott, prostypum refers to bas-relief, ectypus to haut-relief; but given the confusion in other dictionaries on precisely how these Latin terms correspond to the notions of high and low relief, it will be clearest to use phrases such as "parum eminens," "alte eminens."

18 forms: silhouette  ? umbrae figura (v. effigies)  ►► LRL: extrema lineamenta, imago obliqua, figura lineis circumducta.  HELFER, SCHELLER: adumbratio, sciagraphia.  Lev.: pictura monogramma.  SMITH: obliqua imago.  GOELZER: adumbratio, imago adumbrata.  Noel: umbra ex facie alicuius.  Mod. Gr.:  περιγραμμα

18 forms: silhouette: profile  (image from the side)  imago obliqua (PLIN. 35, 90: "pinxit et Antigoni regis imaginem altero lumine orbati primus excogitata ratione vitia condendi, obliquam namque fecit."  |  (summary account of process, activity, category)  adumbratio, onis f., delineatio, onis f.;  (bigraphical sketch)  adumbratio (alicuius) vitae, adumbrata vita (alicuius)

18 forms: stained-glass window  fenestra depicta (1540 VIVES Exer. 332: "quae fenestrae speculares, quam scite depictae! ... quaenam est historia vitrearum?."  ► vitrum imaginibus pictum (cf.1652 TURS. 380, describing destruction of religious images ordered by English parliament in 1641: "ut pluribus in locis vitrea claustra imaginibus picta lacerarentur."  ► vitrum pictûrâtum

18 forms: still life   ►► EL: nature morte; natura morta, riposo; bodegón, naturaleza muerta; Stillleben;  νεκρή φύση

18 forms: tapestry  aulaeum, i n., aulaeum picturatum (ERASMUS)  ► pictura textilis (Lucr.; EGGER R.A. 141: "summa artificia Raphaelis Sanctii sunt propolam collocata, veluti decem picturae textiles, quarum ratione ab eo sunt descriptae quaeque in textrinis Belgicis sunt confectae."  ► peripetasma pictûrâtum  ►► aulaeum acu pictum (EGGER S.L. 67)  ||  Peripetasma: "tapisserie, tapis, tenture" (Gaffiot)  ► "voile ou tenture" (Bailly citing Jos.)  ► "hanging, curtain" (Souter)  ► "velum navis" (Maigne).

18 forms: watercolor imago aquatis coloribus picta (LRL)  ► hydatographia, ae* f. (LRL)

18 forms: woodcut  < xylographia, ae f.  < imâgo xylographica  < imâgo ligno incîsa  < figûra ligno insculpta ¶ 1672 FRISIUS v-vi, on the celebrated woodcuts illustrating Mercuriale's De arte gymnastica: "Ad figuras quidem ipsas quod attinet, non alias hîc tibi et publico offerimus quam quas insignis antiquiarius Pyrrhus Ligorius Mercuriali obtulit, maximorum curâ artificum designatas, et ... non sine maximis impensis ligno insculptas."

18 forms: woodcut: engraving, print (from metal plate), plate (in book), copperplate  ► tabula aeri incîsa  ¶ Schlegel, etc.  Cf. 1794 RUIZ xvii: "ad plantarum figuras aeri incidendas nativisque coloribus adumbrandas."  ► effigies aere expressa  ¶ 1754 REISKE ann. PORPHYROGENITUS vol. 2, p. 309.  ► îcon, îconis (*) f.  ¶ 1794 RUIZ title page (corresponding to "lámina" ["copperplate"] in accompanying Spanish translation)  ►► scalptura (EGGER R.A. 142)

18 forms: woodcut: lithograph  lithographia, ae f., imago lithographica

18 gradation  (transition from one shade to another in painting)  harmogê, ês f., commisûra (v. transitus) colorum (PLIN. 35, 29: "appellarunt ... commissuras ... colorum et transitûs 'harmogen'")

18 icon (religious image, especially in Eastern Orthodox tradition)  ► sancta imâgo  ¶ 1652 TURS. 145, of an iconoclast Byzantine emperor: "sanctarum imaginum cultores indignis vexavit modis."

18 movements1: romanesque

18 movements2: gothic

18 movements3: baroque  adj.  barôcus, a, um* (EGGER L.D.I. 109: "laudant etiam frontem ecclesiae Sanctae Mariae ad artis barocae rationem affabre factam"; EGGER R.A. 27: "imago Christi de cruce detracti, quam Christophorus Roncalli ... barocâ mobilitate depinxit")

18 movements31: mannerist    mannerism

18 movements4: rococo

18 movements5: romantic  romanticus, a, um* (EGGER D.L. 42)  |  romanticism

18 movements6: realist    realism

18 movements61: surrealist    surrealism

18 movements65: naturalist    naturalism

18 movements7: impressionist    impressionism

18 movements71: pointillist

18 movements8: fauve    fauvism

18 movements82: cubist    cubism

18 movements84: dada, dadism

18 movements9: abstract expressionism

18 museum, cabinet of curiosities, Wunderkammer  mûsêum, i n. (1798 DESFONTAINES  title page: "in museo historiae naturalis Parisiensi"; 1843 TRAPPEN 28: "museum Wormianum";1811 PALLAS 16: Museum Academicum, of a university's collection of artworks, scientific specimens, etc.; EGGER S.L. 25: "Musaea Vaticana"; EGGER S.L. 39; EGGER S.L. 40: "sedes musaei disciplinarum naturalium."  ► gazophylacium, i n. (see Vincent below)  ► cimelia, orum n. pl. (1811 PALLAS 39: "exuviae lupi nigri asservabantur in cimeliis regiis Berolini."  ► cimelotheca, ae* f. (see Menestrier below)  ► compounds in -thêca (as "metallotheca," of a museum of metals; "dactyliotheca" of museum of jewelry, see Hebenstreit below)  ► theâtrum (with gen., as "naturae theatrum," natural history museum)  ► thesaurus, i m. (Seba [see below]: "rerum naturalium thesauru."  ► rariorum collectio 1843 TRAPPEN 28: "Quamdiu in rariorum collectionibus asservata manserint coffeae semina ... dicere non possum; reperi autem Bernardum Paludanum anno 1610 museum Wormianum ... iis donasse."  |  art museum  pinacothêca, ae f. (if containing chiefly paintings) (EGGER L.D.I. 109; EGGER R.A. 23, 140)  ►► Museum – properly, a shrine to the muses – referred in antiquity to a sort of university and research center (as at Alexandria)  |  since the Renaissance it has also referred to a scholar's study or office, as well as to a curiosity cabinet, Wunderkammer, or museum of any kind.  ||  From various sources:  First museum was perhaps that of Palazzo Medici, c. 1440, containing classical artifacts, precious metals, etc.  Early modern museums were private, but arranged as displays for visitors; called curiosity cabinet, Wunderkammer, Kunstkammer.  Examples: "cabinets" of 16th c. naturalists; antiquarium of Wittelsbach, Munich, 1568 (sculpture)  |  musaeum (or naturae theatrum) of Francesco Calzolari (Verona, 1622; see book title below)  |  museum of Olaus Worm (Leiden, 1655; see book title below)  |  museums of Ferrante Imperato (Venice, 1672)  ► Ferdinando Cespi (Bologna, 1677)  ► "Collegii Romani S.J. Musaeum" (Rome 1678, under Athanasius Kircher)  ||  Titles of books on early museums or Wunderkammer:  Oliva, Giovanni Battista, De reconditis et praecipuis collectaneis ab honestissimo et solertissimo Francisco Calceolario Veronensi in musaeo adservatis (Verona, 1593) [other authors: Aldrovandi, Ulisse, 1522-1605, Calzolari, Francesco, 1522-1609; title page note: "Ulyssis Aldrovandi testimonium peregrinarum rerum, quae in naturae theatro Francisci Calzolarii congregatae conspiciuntur," p. 79-81].  |  Ceruti, Benedetto and Andrea Chiocco, Musaeum Francisci Calceolarii junioris Veronensis a Benedicto Ceruto medico. inceptum, et ab Andrea Chiocco medico physico excellentissimi collegii luculenter descriptum et perfectum, in quo multa ad naturalem moralemque philosophiam spectantia, non pauca ad rem medicam pertinentia erudite proponuntur et explicantur, non sine magna rerum exoticarum supellectile, quae artifici plane manu in aes incisae studiosis exhibentur (Verona, 1622).  |  Worm, Ole, Museum Wormianum, seu historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quæ Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur (Leiden, 1655)  |  Menestrier, Claude-François, Symbolica Dianae Ephesiae statua a Claudio Menetreio ceimeliothecae Barberinae praefecto exposita (Roma, 1688)  |  Hebenstreit, Johann Ernst, Museum Richterianum continens fossilia animalia vegetabilia marina illustrata iconibus et commentariis; accedit de gemmis scalptis antiquis liber singularis (Leipzig 1742) [title page note: "Mvsei Richteriani dactyliotheca gemmas scalptas opere antiqvo plerasqve complexa"]  |  Seba,AlbertLocupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri accurata descriptio, et iconibus artificiosissimis expressio, per universam physices historiam; opus cui in hoc rerum genere nullum par exstitit, ex toto terrarum orbe collegit, digessit, descripsit, et depingendum curavit Albertus Seba (Amsterdam, 1734)  |  Vincent, Levin, Elenchus tabularum, pinacothecarum atque nonnullorum cimeliorum, in gazophylacio Levini Vincent; description abregée des planches, qui représentent les cabinets et quelques-unes des curiosités, contenues dans le théâtre des merveilles de la nature de Levin Vincent (Haarlem, 1719)  ||  Alios titulos librorum ad musea sive gazophylaica pertinentium vide in documento "musaea_list."

18 museum: exhibit, display  vb.  propalam collocare (CIC. de Or. 1, 161: "et tamquam in aliquam locupletem ac refertam domum venerim, non explicatâ veste neque proposito argento neque tabulis et signis propalam collocatis"; EGGER R.A. 141)  |  subst.  ? exhibitio, onis f. (EGGER S.L. 57)

18 museum: gallery (art)  pinacotêca, ae f. (EGGER L.D.I. 109)

18 ogive window (with pointed Gothic arch)  fenestra in acutum fastigata (EGGER R.A. 51)

18 painter  (artist)  pictor, ôris m. (CIC.; PLIN.)  |  (house painter)  dealbâtor, ôris m. (Cod. Just.)  ► pictor cubiclorum (1846 GROSSE  27)

18 painting  (concretely: a painting)  tabula picta, pictûra, ae f. (PLAUT.; CIC.; SEN.)  |  (art of painting)  pictûra, ae f.

18 painting tools: brush  pênicillus, i m.

18 painting tools: brush stroke, brush work

18 painting tools: easel  pluetus, i m. (“Pluteos appello, ista sustentacula, in quibus reponi tabellae solent, dum pinguntur.” Scheffer, p.89 Graphice, id est, de arte pingendi 1619) {Patricius Owens | 2014}

18 painting tools: paint  pigmentum, i n.

18 painting tools: pallet  orbis pictôrius

18 perspective:  representation in perspective  ► scênographia, ae f. (VITR. 1, 2, 2: "scenographia est frontis et laterum abscedentium adumbratio ad circinique centrum omnium linearum responsus."  ► pictûra scênographica* (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 332: "quae fenestrae speculares, quam scite depictae picturâ sciographicâ!" of stained glass windows; sciographia is a variant forscenographia in Vitruvius)  |  represented or drawn in perspective  scênographicus, a, um* (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 331: sciographicus)  ►► A passage in Vitruvius (7, 11) describes the development of a practice and theory of perspective representation in fifth-century Greece, and makes clear why such representation was associated with the term scenographia: "Agatharchus Athenis Aeschylo docente tragoediam scaenam fecit, et de ea commentarium reliquit.  Ex eo moniti Democritus et Anaxagoras de eadem re scripserunt, quemadmodum oporteat ad aciem oculorum radiorumque extentionem, certo loco centro constituto, lineas ratione naturali respondere, uti de certa re certae imagines aedificiorum in scaenarum picturis redderent speciem et, quae in directis planisque frontibus sint figurata, alia abscedentia, alia prominentia esse videantur."  Trans. Morgan: "Agatharcus, in Athens, when Aeschylus was bringing out a tragedy, painted a scene, and left a commentary about it.  This led Democritus and Anaxagoras to write on the same subject, showing how, given a centre in a definite place, the lines should naturally correspond with due regard to the point of sight and the divergence of the visual rays, so that by this deception a faithful representation of the appearance of buildings might be given in painted scenery, and so that, though all is drawn on a vertical flat facade, some parts may seem to be withdrawing into the background, and others to be standing out in front."  ||  Perspectiva.  LATHAM, OED: optics.  HOVEN: la perspective géométrique.

18 perspective: background  (part of a scene depicted as farther from viewer)  abscendentia, ium n. pl. (VITR. 7, 11: "uti ... alia abscedentia, alia prominentia esse videantur," of perspective painting, or scenographia)  |  (prior circumstances or experiences as relevant to a historical event, individual's current life, etc.)

18 perspective: foreground  prominentia, ium n. pl. (VITR. 7, 11: "uti ... alia abscedentia, alia prominentia esse videantur," of perspective painting, or scenographia)

18 plaque  (inscribed tablet)  tabula (v. tabella) inscripta

18 style (architectural)  architecturae genus (EGGER S.L. 10)  ► architectandi ratio (EGGER R.A. 48)  ► structûrae genus (EGGER R.A. 51, 102: "ecclesia ... Gothico structurae genere ... est exstructa")

18 work of art, artifact, handicraft  opus artificiôsum (CIC. N. D. 2, 55, 138; EGGER R.A. 66: "museum ... refertissimum antiquitatis artificiosis operibus."  ► artificiâtum, i+ n. (DANTE Vulg.El. 340)

182

182    THEATER

182 act  (in play, film)  vb.  partem agere, scenicum agere (EGGER S.L. 22)

182 actor  actor (scenicus v. cinematographicus*)  ► scenicus, i m., histrio, ônis m., artifex scenicus (CIC. Arch. 5, 10)

182 actress  scênica, ae f., actrix scênica (EGGER S.L. 37)  ► actrix (cinematographica*)

182 amphitheater (outdoor theater)  theatrum subdiâle (v. hypaethrum) (for adj. hypaethrus, see VITR.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 348: cenatio hypaethra, of an uncovered terrace for dining)  ► theâtrum Graecanicum

182 claque, hired or professional applauders (at theater, opera performances)  ► operae theâtrâlis  ¶ Tac. Ann. 1, 16: "Percennius quidam, dux olim theatralium operarum, dein gregarius miles, procax linguâ et miscere coetûs histrionali studio doctus."

182 decor (theater, opera)  apparatus scênicus (EGGER S.L. 39)

182 dénouement  catastrophê, ês f., exitus, ûs m. (1540 VIVES Exer. 364: "quis fuit convivii exitus tamquam fabulae?")

182 direct: produce (play)  fâbulam docêre (CIC. Brut. 72)  ► fabulam dare (Ter. Eun. 9; CIC. Brut. 73)

182 director (of play)  imperâtor histricus (PLAUT. Poen. 4)

182 farce, comic skit  mîmus, i m. (CIC.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 300: "facis tragoediam ex comoedia, seu mimo verius."  ►► The Roman mimus was a genre quite similar to that of farce as it developed in late medieval and early modern Europe – a short, generally crude comic work, featuring stock characters and a rudimentary plot often involving cuckoldry.

182 flop: be a flop, fall flat, not go over well (esp. of a play, speech, performance)  frigêre (CIC. Att. 1, 14, 1: "prima contio Pompei ... frigebat."  ► refrigescere (QUINT. 4, 3, 2: "ne ... oratio refrigescat")

182 flop: pan: the play was panned by the critics  fabula ad existimatores frigebat (CIC. Brut. 187: "quare tibicen Antigenidas dixerit discipulo sane frigenti ad populum, 'mihi cane et Musis'")

182 mime, pantomime  (person)  \\ chîronomos, i m. \ JUV.  ► gesticularius, i  \ AMM.  |  (art or practice)  \\ chîronomia, ae f.  \ QUINT. 1, 11, 17, of the art of gesturing in general.  \ Cf. Anc. Gr.  χειρονομία , "pantomimic movement" (Lidell-Scott).  \\ \\  Χειρόνομος  and related words evoke artful or virtuosic use of gesture generally (not only imitative motion).  See Juv. 5, 120-122, of a knife-whirling showman at a tacky banquet: "Structorem interea – ne qua indignatio desit – \ saltantem spectes et  χειρονομουντα volanti \ cultello."

182 play, drama  fâbula, ae f. (CIC.; HOR.)  ► fâbula scênica (Amm. 28, 1, 4)  ► fâbula theâtrâlis (Amm. 14, 6, 20)  ► drâma, atis n. (Aus. Ep. 18, 15; EGGER R.A. 39)

182 prompter  suggestor

182 prompter: teleprompter

182 prop  ► supellex scênica

182 scalp (tickets)  tesseras aucto pretio revendere, tesseras venditione furtivâ dare (EGGER S.L. 74: "tesserulae eius modi venditione furtivâ datae sunt pretio immensum aucto")

182 seat (at theater, stadium)  locus, i m.

182 stage  (raised platform for actors, speakers)  scêna, ae f., proscênium, i n., pulpita, orum n. pl., suggestus, ûs m. (EGGER S.L. 9)  |  (phase in a process)  stadium, i (*) n.

182 supernumerary, extra  (film or theater)  muta persôna (EGGER S.L. 101)

182 understudy  actor (v. scênicus v. histrio) subsidiarius

183

183    CINEMA

183 movie camera  ►► instrumentum cinematographicum* (EGGER S.L. 88)

183 movie studio  ► cinematographêum, i* n.  ¶ Cf. Anc. Gr.  ζωγρφειον  (Plut.), of a painter's studio.  ► cinesigraphêum, i* n.

183 movie theater, cinema  theatrum cinematographicum* (v. cinesigraphicum*) cinematographium, i n.* (Muench, 1941)   ►► Cinematographeum (EGGER D.L. 40) should refer to a place where movies are made, -graph- retaining its verbal force in accord with the norms governing such Greek compounds; typographeum, for example, is a place where books are printed, not where they are displayed or sold.

183 movie, film  \\ cinematographia, ae* f.  \\ fabula cinematographica*  ► spectaculum cinematographicum*  \ EGGER L.D.I. 105.  ► pellicula cinematographica* \ EGGER S.L. 69. ►► taeniola cinematographica*  \ EGGER D.L. 40.  \\ \\ Consider also cinetograph- (cf. kinetograph; Mod. Gr. κινητοσκόπιο), cinesigraph- (cf. Anc. Gr.  κινεσίφορος ).

183 movie, film, cinematographic  adj.  cinematographicus, a, um* (EGGER S.L. 22; EGGER R.A. 94)  ► cinesigraphicus, a, um*

183 Oscar Award  praemium Ansgarianum (EGGER S.L. 22)

183 preview (of film), film trailer  ? peliculae praelibatio (cf. DANTE Ep. 440: "ad expositionem litterae secundum quandam praelibationem accedendum est," in DANTE's introduction or "preview" to his own Divine Comedy)

183 star: movie star, football star, etc.

183 subtitle, caption, closed caption, dub

185

185    DANCE

185 /dance (subst.)  ► saltâtio, ônis f.  ► chorea, ae f.  ► ballâtio, ônis  ¶ Aug. Serm. 265, 4 (now ascribed to Caes. Arel.).

185 /dance (vb)  ► saltare  ► choreas ducere  ► ballare (esp. of licentious or frenetic dancing)  ¶ Aug. Serm. 265, 4 (now ascribed to Caes. Arel.): "Isti enim infelices et miseri, qui ballationes et saltationes ante ipsas basilicas sanctorum exercere ... pagani de ecclesia revertuntur, quia ista consuetudo ballandi de paganorum observatione remansit."  Aug. Serm. 266, 3 (now ascribed to Caes. Arel.): "Ille Christianus qualis est qui ... usque ad vomitum bibit et, postquam se inebriaverit, surgit velut phreneticus et insanus balare diabolico more, saltare, verba turpia et amatoria vel luxuriosa cantare?"  Ducange: "BALARE, BALLARE, Saltare, choreas ducere."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 405, of native witch-doctors: "Pulsant instrumenta et cantant et ballant, et quando ballaverunt aliquantulum, unus istorum magorum cadit in terram cum spumâ ad os et fit semivivus."  ||  On the connotation of ballare, see Paul Lejay, "Le rôle théologique de Césaire d'Arles," Revue d'histoire et de littérature religieuses 10 (1905), 481 (my trans.): "The terms balare and balatio (or rather ballareballatio) were, originally at least, associated with the cult of the Great Mother, and referred to the frantic dances of the Galli [the priests of Cybele]; cf. C.I.L., VII, 2265: 'Sodales ballatores Cybelae.'"  Many of Ducange's quotations for ballare are from ecclesiastical decrees prohibiting inappropriate dancing.

185 ballet  pantomîmus, i m., saltatoria fabula (LRL)

185 waltz saltātiō volūtābunda (Jena, 1803, p457)

185 minuet saltātiō gemina (Jena, 1803, p457)

185 waltz

19

19    MUSIC

19 accompany  (music)  (alicui) succinere

19 accompany: unaccompanied, solo (of instrument or voice)  assus, a, um (SERV. G. 2, 417: assae tibiae)

19 acoustic  (guitar, etc.)  anelectricus, a, um*

19 baton  virga symphôniaca, portisculus, i m. (Enn.; PLAUT.)  ►► Portisculus.  Gaffiot: "bâton avec lequel le chef des rameurs marquait le rhythme."  LS: "a truncheon or hammer with which the master of the rowers gave signals, and beat time to indicate the proper stroke."

19 beat (music, poetry)  ictus, ûs m. (HOR.; PLIN.)

19 chord (mus.: combination of tones sounded together)  consonantia, ae f.

19 compose  (music)  modos musicos facere (Ter.; EGGER S.L. 34)

19 composer  musicae compositor (cf. Cassiod. Hist. Eccl. 1, 2: melodiae compositor)  ► mûsûrgus, i* (Kirchner)

19 concert  concentus (mûsicus) (EGGER S.L. 34)  |  give a concert, perform a concert  concentum edere (EGGER S.L. 34)  ►► concentus polyphonicus (EGGER S.L. 99)

19 concert hall, symphony hall  odêum, i n. (VITR.; SUET.; TERT.; EGGER S.L. 34)

19 concert hall: opera house  ôdêum, i n., theâtrum mûsicum (EGGER L.D.I. 109)

19 conduct (orchestra), direct (chorus)  moderari (EGGER S.L. 99: "Karajan in Petriana Baslicia Romae concentum polyphonicum moderatur")

19 conductor (of orchestra), director (of chorus)  ► magister symphôniacus  ► mûsicês magister  ¶ EGGER S.L. 99.  ► moderator, ôris m.  ¶ LRL.

19 conductor: chorus director, choir director  ► magister chori canentium  ¶ Col. 12, 1.

19 ensembles: band  (musical group)  aenatores, um m. pl. (EGGER D.L. 15)  ► manus aeneatorum (EGGER S.L. 50)

19 ensembles: orchestra  (group of musicians performing together)  sympônia, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 99: "fornices ac tholus ... vocibus ad symphoniam canentium resonuerunt."  ► symphoniaci, orum m. pl. (EGGER S.L. 99)  |  (parterre, main floor seating in auditorium or opera house)  ima cavea, orchêstra, ae f. (most appropriate for front part of main floor seating)

19 ensembles: orchestra member, musician in an orchestra  symphoniacus, i (EGGER S.L. 34)

19 ensembles: orchestra pit

19 ensembles1: solo  monôdia, ae f. (ISID. Orig. 6, 19, 6)  ► si(n)cinium, i n. (ISID. Orig. 6, 19, 6: "cum autem unus canit, Graece monodia, Latine sicinium dicitur")

19 ensembles1: soloist  monôdiârius, i* m., monôdiâria, ae f. (Inscr. Orell.)

19 ensembles2: duet  bicinium, i n. (ISID. Orig. 6, 19, 6: "cum vero duo canunt, bicinium appellatur")

19 ensembles3: trio  tricinium, i n. (Symm.)

19 ensembles4: quartet  quadricinium, i* n.

19 ensembles5: quintet  quinquecinium, i* n.

19 ensembles6: sextet  ? sescinium, i* n., ? hexôdia, ae* n.

19 ensembles7: septet  septicinium, i* n.

19 ensembles8: octet  octôcinium, i* n.

19 lyrics (words of song)  ► (cantici v. cantilênae) verba  |  Hammerstein wrote the lyrics, Rogers wrote the music  ► Hammerstein cantici verba scripsit, haec Rogers modis musicis aptavit.

19 movement (of work of classical music)  ► mômentum, i n.

19 note  (in musical notation)  nota mûsica (QUINT. 1, 12, 14)

19 piece (of music)

19 play (a musical instrument)  ► (instrumento) sonare (v. canere v. cantare)  ► (instrumento) modulari  ¶ Ov. M. 11, 154: "Leve ceratâ modulataur harundine carmen."  ►(instrumentum) pulsare (of percussion or string instrument)  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 367: "Tunc inceperunt pulsari multa instrumenta."

19 trill  vocem crispare (1540 VIVES Exer. 328)

19 tune  vb.

19 types: classical music

19 types: Gregorian chant  cantus Gregoriânus (DUCANGE s.v. cantus ecclesiasticus: "inde cantus ecclesiasticus, a Gregoria renovatus et in meliorem redactus ordinem, passim 'Gregorianus' appellatus est," quoting several medieval authors for the expression)

19 works: concerto  concentus concertatus (Andreas Rauch, Missa, vespera et alii sacri concentus concertati, duabus vocibus vivis, adhibito clavicymbalo, chely et fidibus majoribus, decantandi, Nürnberg 1641)

19 works: étude

19 works: impromptu

19 works: minuet

19 works: motet

19 works: nocturne

19 works: opera  ► fabula melica  ► drâma mûsicum  ¶  F. H. Bothe, ed., Aristophanes, Ranae (Leipzig, 1828), 28, in annotation: "quem ad modum servus vetulus in dramate musico Mozartii inscripto Die Entführung aus dem Serail," etc.  EGGER S.L. 39.  EGGER L.D.I. 109.  ► drâma melicum  ►► Melodrama (EGGER R.A. 50) perperam confictum videtur.  Quo modo distinguendum musical (e.g. Broadway musical) et opera?

19 works: rhapsody

19 works: scherzo

19 works: sonata

19 works: suite

19 works: symphony

19 works: tone poem

192

192    SING

192 a cappella, without instrumental accompaniment  assâ voce (VARR. in Non. 77)

192 choirboy  ► puer chorista+  ¶ Ducange: "MAGISTER SCHOLARUM DE CANTU, Choristarum puerorum praepositus."  ► puer symphôniacus  ¶ CIC. Mil. 21, 55.  |  boys' choir  ¶pueri symphôniaci (m. pl.)

192 chorus  canentium chorus (EGGER D.L. 15; EGGER S.L. 99)

192 chorus: choir  (group of singers)  (sacer) canentium chorus;  (section of church)  chorus, i (GOELZER citing ISID.)

192 folk-singer  ► Cf. citharoedus, i m. (one who sings while playing guitar or similar instrument)  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 13, of entertainment at Kublai Khan's court: "Terminato prandio surgunt citharoedi omnes et suaves faciunt melodias."

192 lip-sync

194

194    ORCHESTRA

194 bell  ► campâna, ae f.  ¶ DIG. 41, 1, 12.  1784 DUCRUE 218.  ► campânula, ae+ f.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 43, in a description of Burmese pagodas with canopies of tinkling bells: "Super cacumine vero turris erant multae campaunlae aereae quae a vento flante redderent sonitum."  ► campânella, ae+ f.  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 409 (in a passage parallel to the preceding one): "Turris est tota de lapidibus ... et desuper est rotunda, et illa rotunditas est plena campanellis de auro, et quotiens ventus percutit illas campanellis facit eas pulsari."  ► nôla, ae f.  ¶ Souter citing Avian.  DUCANGE.  LATHAM.  NIERMEYER.  ► cloc(c)a, ae+ f.  ¶ DUCANGE.  LATHAM.  NIERMEYER.  ► tintinnâbulum, i n. (small bell, as door-bell or cowbell)  ► sonâculum, i+ n. (esp. of a jingle-bell, a small, spherical bell containing a jingling piece of metal)  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 23, of Kublai Khan's post runners: "Quilibet habet cinctorium grossis bullis, id est sonaliis sonantibus, circumquaque repletum, quas bullas sonacula vel sonalia dicimus."  ► sonâlium, i+ n. (variant of preceding) \ Ducange, defining as "tintinnabulum orbiculare."  1315 MARCO POLO B2, 23, quoted above.   ►► aes sonans (LRL; cf. MART. 14, 163: "tintinabulum: redde pilam; sonat aes thermarum." aes, aeris n. (EGGER R.A. 23: "turris cuius aes tinnit perraro."  aes sacrum (of church bell) (EGGER R.A. 128: "dum sacra aera omnium concinunt Urbis ecclesiarum").

194 bell: ring a bell  ► tintinnabulum pulsare  ¶ JUV. 6, 441.  ► campânam pulsare  ¶ 1784 DUCRUE 218.

194 brass: French horn  cornu, ûs n.

194 brass: saxophone  saxophônum, i* n.

194 brass: trombone  tuba diductilis

194 brass: trumpet  tuba, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 49)

194 brass: tuba  tuba gravisona (v. barytona)

194 guitar  ► cithara (Hispanica)  ¶ Cf. Erasmus Epist. IV. 19, probably referring to the Renaissance cithern, closely related to the guitar: "Effecit ut mulier iam ad senium vergens ... citharâ, testudine, monochordo, tibiisque canere disceret."

194 guitar: banjo  ► cithara Americâna

194 guitar: lute  ► lautus, i+ m.  ¶ LATHAM.  Ducange, quoting a criminal statute: "Nulla persona audeat ire per civitatem Cumanam ... cum violâ nec lauto nec aliquo instrumento sonandi."  ►leutum, i+ n.  ¶ Petrarch in his will, quoted by Ducange s.v. laudis: "Thomae Bombasiae de Ferraria lego leutum meum bonum, non ut eum sonet pro vanitate saeculi fugacis, sed ad laudem Die aeterni."  ► lutina, ae f.  ¶ LLN.  ► lutinum, i n.  ¶ LLN.  ► testûdo, inis (*) f.  ¶ In antiquity, any arch-shaped string instrument.  Since the Renaissance, with specific reference to the lute: Erasmus Epist. IV. 19: "Effecit ut mulier iam ad senium vergens ... citharâ, testudine, monochordo, tibiisque canere disceret."  1540 VIVES Exer. 384: "Cape testudinem hanc et aliquid nobis cantilla."  Ducange s.v. lautus in definition.

194 guitar: play the guitar (or similar instrument)  ► citharâ canere (v. cantare v. sonare)  ► citharoedare  ¶ Souter citing Fulg.  ► citharizare+  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 28: "Doctae erant saltare, citharizare, et canere in omni genere musicorum."

194 guitar: sitar  ► cithara Indica

194 guitar: ukulele  ► cithara Havaiâna

194 key (of musical instrument)  ► pinn(ul)a tactilis  ► pinna, ae f.  ¶ Vitr. 10, 8, 4: of keys of a water-organ: "Haec regulae habent ferrea choragia fixa et iuncta cum pinnis, quarum pinnarum tactûs motiones efficit regularum continenter."  Idem 10, 8, 6: "Itaque cum pinnae manibus tactae propellunt et reducunt continenter regulas, alternis obturando foramina, alternis aperiundo, e musicis artibus multiplicibus modulorum varietatibus sonantes excitant voces."  \ Cf. Callebat 256, on Vitrivius' use of the word in this sense: "PINNA ... At 10, 8, 4 and 10, 8 6, it designates the keys of an intrument."  Idem 264: "PINNA: Key ... part of the water-organ." \  ► palmula, ae (*) f.

194 key (of musical instrument): plectrum or quill (of harpsichord), tangent (of clavichord), hammer (of piano), plectrum or pick (of guitar, banjo, etc.)  ►plectrum, i n.  ¶ SCALIGER Poetices 1, 48, quoted at length below.  ► malle(ol)us, i m. (of hammers of piano)  ¶ Cf. c.1300 MARCO POLO A 427, using malleus of a mallet for striking a sort of wooden gong.  ►► Scaliger, Poetices 1, 48: "Aristoteles trigoni psalterii meminit, cuius chordae essent aeque intentae omnes.  Epigonus autem ... construxit instrumentum in quo essent chordae quadraginta, quod epigoneum ab se appellavit.  Ab hoc quidem scribunt omissum plectri usum, non a Demopoeeto, sicuti dicebamus.  Fuit et Simi commentum illud, quod ab eo simicum appellatum quinque et triginta constabat chordis; a quibus eorum origo quos nunc monochordos vulgus vocat, in quibus ordine digesta plectra subsilientia reddunt sonos.  Additae deinde plectris corvinarum pennarum cuspides; ex aereis filis expressiorem eliciunt harmoniam.  Me puero clavicymbalum et harpichordum, nunc ab illis mucronibus spinetam nominant.  Vetus monochordos unico nervo contentus erat: Arabum inventum.  Trichordos autem Assyriorum, quod panduran appellabant.  Pentachordos Scytharum fuit; ex cruda pelle bubula confectas chordas pulsabant plectro, quod ex ungula caprina optimum habebatur.  Durat etiam nunc plectri usus in Hispania, et psalterii, cuius sonum miscent cum sono tibiae, loco tympani; quod idcirco tympanum chordatum vocant; Itali me puero tabasium."  In this summary by Scaliger of the evolution of keyboard instruments (a key passage for historians in the field), "plectrum" refers not to the key of a keyboard instrument, but to (1) a hand-held pick or plectrum, used for playing non-keyed string instruments, such as the psaltery or guitar, and (2) the quill or plectrum (in a harpsichord) or tangent (in a clavichord) that actually strikes the string inside a keyboard instrument (or perhaps the jack and plectrum taken as one – a meaning suggested by the expression "ordine digesta plectra subsilientia").  The "corvinarum pennarum cuspides" (later in the passage called "mucrones") are the quills of the harpsichord (they were in fact crow quills in Scaliger's time).  The "monochordos" (in the phrase "quos nunc monochordos vulgus vocat") appears to be here, as often, a term for the clavichord or a similar instrument.  This non-etymological application of the term to multi-stringed instruments is mentioned in the OED (s.v. monochord, sense 2.a.); Erasmus uses the Latin word in the same way in referring to an instrument Thomas More had his wife learn to play: "Effecit ut mulier iam ad senium vergens ... citharâ, testudine, monochordo, tibiisque canere disceret" (Epist. 4, 19).

194 keyboard (of musical instrument)  ► abacus, i m.  ► abacus claviarius  ¶ Kircher  ► claviarium, i n. /

194 keyboard: clavichord  piano  ► clavichordium, i+ n.  ¶ LLN.  ► clavichordium+ pristinum (v. mensâle v. epitrapezium)

194 keyboard: harpsichord  ► clavicymbalum, i+ n.  ¶ LLN.  DUCANGE.  SCALIGER Poetices 1, 48, quoted at length under plectrum.  ► harpichordum, i+ n.  ¶ SCALIGER Poetices 1, 48.

194 keyboard: pianist  ► clavichordista, ae* m.  ►► plectrocymbalista* (EGGER S.L. 34)

194 keyboard: piano  ► clavichordium, i+ n.  ¶ Desiderius Démeny, Ave Maria, pro voce ab acuta altera vel gravi sola, organo vel clavichordio iuncto (Budapest 1922).  [see also, in C-drive google.books file, Weber De Pulsu, Voetius]  ►► plectrocymbalum* (EGGER S.L. 33).  polychordium lenius idem et acrius (Riddle s.v. piano-forte).

194 organ  (musical instrument)  organum, i n. (SUET.; AUG.; Cass.)  ► ? organum mûsicum (EGGER R.A. 61)

194 organist  organista, ae+ m. (DANTE Vulg. El. 345; LATHAM; NIERMEYER)

194 organ-maker  organopoeus, i* m.

194 percussion: cymbal  acitabulum, i n. (DUCANGE)

194 percussion: drum  tympanum, i n.

194 percussion: drum: drumstick

194 percussion: drum: kettle drum, tympani

194 percussion: rattle (toy, instrument)  ► crepitâculum, i n.  ¶ Quint.  Mart.

194 string (of musical instrument)  nervus, i m.

194 strings: bow (of string instrument)  ► plectrum, i n.

194 strings1: violin  ► violînum, i* n.  ¶ Evan Evans, Dissertatio de Bardis (London, 1764), quoted in Report of the Committee ... Appointed to Inquire into the Nature and Authenticity of the Poems of Ossian (Edinburg, 1805), 268, in description of a Welsh folk instrument: "Hoc instrumenti genus fere in desuetudinem abiit, et violino cessit; sex chordis felinis constat, nec eodem modo quo violinum modulatur."   ► violîna, ae* f., fidicula, ae (*) f. (cf. fidicula violina, EGGER D.L. 45; cf. minoris modi fides, Noël)  ► chelys, yis (*) f.  ►► WC title: Andreas Rauch, Missa, vespera et alii sacri concentus concertati, duabus vocibus vivis, adhibito clavicymbalo, chely et fidibus majoribus, decantandi (Nürnberg, 1641).

194 strings1: violinist  fidicen, inis m. (Noël)

194 strings2: viola  ► viôla, ae* f.  ¶ Ducange, of a medieval viol, quoting a criminal statute: "Nulla persona audeat ire per civitatem Cumanam ... cum violâ nec lauto nec aliquo instrumento sonandi."

194 strings3: cello  viôloncellum, i* n., fides crurales, fides maiores  ►► WC title: Andreas Rauch, Missa, vespera et alii sacri concentus concertati, duabus vocibus vivis, adhibito clavicymbalo, chely et fidibus majoribus, decantandi (Nürnberg, 1641).

194 strings4: double-bass  contrabassus, i* m., fides statâria

194 winds: reed (of wind instrument)  li(n)gula, ae f. (PLIN. 16, 171)

194 winds1: flute  tibia oblîqua

194 winds2: recorder  (musical instrument)  tibia recta (v. pristina)

194 winds3: clarinet  clarinêta, ae* f., tibia unicalama 

194 winds4: oboe  tibia Gallica (cf. LRL: tibia altisona Gallica)  ► tibia bicalama* (for the formation of bicalamaus, cf. the ancient unicalamus)  ||  EB s.v. oboe: "Hautbois (French: 'high [i.e., loud] wood')  ► or oboe, was originally one of the names of the shawm, the violently powerful instrument of outdoor ceremonial.  The oboe proper (i.e., the orchestral instrument)  ► however, was the mid-17th-century invention of two French court musicians."  EB s.v. bassoon: "The development of the bassoon, which is the bass voice of the woodwinds, is believed to have closely followed the reconstitution of the shawm as an oboe."

194 winds5: bassoon  fagottum, i* n., tibia gravisona (v. barytona)

194 winds6: piccolo  tibia oxyphôna*

194 winds7: fife  tibia militâris (v. campestris)

194 winds8: whistle  (device)  ? fistella, ae f.  ►► cf. fistula sibilatrix, MART. Cap. 9, 906

20

20    BODY

20 abdomen  abdomen, inis n., venter, tris m.

20 actions: count on one's fingers  in digitos supputare (ERASMUS Coll. 159-60)

20 actions: cross one's fingers  digitos decussare

20 actions: cross-legged  crûribus decussâtis (v. complicâatis)  |  sit cross-legged  crûra decussâtim complicare, crûribus decussâtis (v. complicâtis) sedêre

20 actions: hold one's breath  animam continere (CIC. de Or. 1, 61, 261 et passim)

20 actions: hold one's nose  nares comprimere (1784 DUCRUE 251)

20 actions: pick one's nose  nares fodere

20 actions: posture  \\ status, ûs m.  \ PLAUT. Pseud. 458: "Statum vide hominis, Callipho, quasi basilicum."  \ CIC. Or. 59, on the motions and posture of the ideal orator: "Motu sic utetur nihil ut supersit; in gestu, status erectus et celsus."  \ QUINT. 1, 11, 16, on the sort of physical training that produces good posture and decorous gestures: "Sed nomen est idem [scil. palaestricus] iis a quibus gestûs motûsque formantur, ut recta sint bracchia, ne indoctae rusticae manûs, ne status indecorus, ne qua in proferendis pedibus inscitia."

20 actions: shake hands  dextras iungere

20 actions: shift one's weight from one leg to another  alternis tibiis vacillare (ERASMUS Coll. 161)

20 actions: smile  (be smiling)  ridêre, arridêre, subridêre, renidêre;  (begin to smile, break into a smile)  frontem exporrigere (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 379: "quid sibi vult contractio istaec frontis? exporrigite istos vulticulos")

20 actions: snap one's fingers  digitis crepare, digitis concrepare (PLAUT. Mil. 206)  |  a snap of the fingers, a finger-snap  digitorum crepitus (1540 VIVES Exer. 388)

20 actions: stand on tip-toe  in digitos erigi (QUINT. 2, 3, 8)

20 actions: stand up straight  se in rectum corporis statum componere (ERASMUS Coll. 161; cf. QUINT. 11, 3, 159: "status rectus sit."

20 actions: stop up one's ears, plug one's ears  aures obturare

20 actions: stretch  v.i.  (as on waking, or before exercising)  pandiculari (PLAUT.)  ► nervos distendere (ERASMUS Coll. 158, of a late-rising servant: "dum distendit nervos, dum oscitat, tota abit hora")

20 actions: stub one's foot or toe, stump one's foot or toe  pedem (v. pollicem) (ostio v. parieti v. rei alteri) offendere (v. incutere) (PLIN. 7, 181: "[obiit] Lepidus iam egrediens incusso pollice limini cubiculi")

20 actions: thumbs-down: give someone the thumbs-down  pollicem (con)vertere  ►► inspiciendi loci a LS citati

20 actions: wipe one's nose  emungi (VARR.; JUV.)  ► nares emungere (1540 VIVES Exer. 285)

20 alimentary canal  canalis alimentarius (1811 PALLAS 12)

20 appendectomy  appendicis coli excisio

20 appendicitis  appendicîtis, idis f. (HELFER citing 19th c. source)  ►► appendicis colicae inflammatio (LRL)

20 appendix  appendix coli (Lev.)  ► appendix vermiformis* (see OED s.v. appendix)  ►► appendix colica (LRL)

20 arterial  artêriacus, a, um

20 birthmark  ► nota genetîva  ¶ Suet. Aug. 80: "Corpore traditur maculoso, dispersis per pectus atque alvum genetivis notis in modum et ordinem ac numerum stellarum caelestis ursae."

20 birthmark  nota genetiva (SUET. AUG. 80)

20 bladder  vêsîca, ae f. (Cic.; Plin.)  ► vêsîca ûrînâria* 1843 TRAPPEN 106)

20 blood flow  sanguinis cursus (EGGER S.L. 32)

20 blood plasma  plasma sanguinis (v. sanguineum)  ►► Mod. Gr. πλάσμα

20 blood vessel  ► vas sanguiferum*  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 118)  ► vasculum sanguiferum*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 12: "Carnosam gingivae partem, quae cutis est, infinita vasculorum sanguiferorum copia interpungit, de quâ vel ipse intense rubicundus color testaur."  1752 STUMPF 24: "propter infinitam exilissimorum vasculorum sanguiferorum copiam."  ► vâs, vâsis (*) n.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI487: "vasorum infarctûs" ("blockages of blood vessels").  1752 STUMPF 10: "Per peculiare foramen in singulis radicum apicibus vasa nervulusque introeunt 1846 GROSSE 23: "systema vasorum." ► vasculum, i (*) n.  ¶ Bonon. Acad. I, 310: "Sanguinis circulum per tenuissima peripheriae vascula ... peragi."  1752 STUMPF 11: "vasculorum nervorumque surculos."

20 blood vessel: artery  ► artêria, ae f.  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.  ► vas artêriôsum*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 10  ► vasculum artêriôsum*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 24: "vascula illa minima arteriosa, quae se dentium radicibus insinuant."

20 blood vessel: artery: carotid artery  ► carôtis, idis* f.  ¶ Anc. Gr.  1752 STUMPF 10: "superius ab anteriore carotidis externae surculo."  ► artêria carôtis  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 42: "vasculos ex arteriis carotidibus et venis iugularibus ... ad dentes deduci."

20 blood vessel: capillary

20 blood vessel: vein  ► vêna, ae f.  ¶  ► vas vênôsum  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 10

20 blood vessel: vein: jugular vein  ► vêna iugulâris*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 11: "vasa ... ad internae iugularis venae surculos deducta."

20 blood: antibody  antisôma, atis* n. (Mod. Gr. αντίσωμα) 

20 blood: circulation of the blood  ► sanguinis circulâtio  ►  circulatio, ônis f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 82.  Ibid. 135: "ex vitâ sedentariâ indeque vitiatâ circulatione."  ► sanguinis periodus |  speed up the circulation  ► circulationem accelerare  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 82.

20 blood: circulatory system, cardiovascular system  vasorum systema (1846 GROSSE 23: "systema vasorum cannabis usu excitatur")

20 blood: hemoglobin  haemoglobina, ae* f., haemosphaerina, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. αιμοσφαιρίνη)

20 blood: platelet, thrombocyte  haemopetalium, i* m., thrombocytus, i* m.  ►► Mod. Gr.  αιμοπετάλια , θρομβοκύτταρο

20 blood: red blood cell, erythrocyte  haemosphaerium* rubrum, erythrocytus, i* m.  ►► Mod. Gr.  ερυθρά αιμοσφαίριαερυθροκύτταρο

20 blood: white blood cell, leukocyte  haemosphaerium* album, leucoocytus, i* m.  ►► Mod. Gr.  λευκά αιμοσφαίριαλευκοκύτταρο 

20 bone (vb.), debone, fillet (vb.), filet (vb.)  \\ exdorsuare (a fish)  \ Plaut. Aul. 399: "Murenam exdorsua quantum potest."

20 bump (on surface of body), protuberance, tubercle  ► tuberculum, i n.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 13: "Initio morbi tubercula plerumque sese ostenderunt in vaccarum uberibus et papillis globata, haud valde dolentia, magnitudine nucis avellanae, durissima et sub cute mobilia."

20 cardiovacular  cordivascularis, e, cardiangîacus, a, um* (Mod. Gr. καρδιαγγειακός)

20 cartilage, gristle  ► cartilâgo, inis f.  ¶ Cels.  Plin.

20 dimple  ► gelasînus, i m.  ¶ Mart. 7, 25, 6: "Nec grata est facies cui gelasinus abest."  \ 1752 STUMPF 41: "Quorum [scil. dentium] candor cum praesertim subridendo manifestetur, gelasini inde dicti sunt; a quorum absentiâ ingratam iudicat faciem leporum facetissimus magister Martialis."  \\ laculla, ae f.  \ Cf. Apul. Flor. 15, describing a statue of Bathyllus, a famous dancer: "Adulescens est visendâ pulchritudine ... malae uberes, genae teretes, at medio mento lacullatur" ("he has a dimple in the middle of his chin").

20 duct (channel within the body)  ► ductus, ûs m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 38: "per ductûs lacteos chyliferosque."

20 ear wax  sordes aurium

20 ear-doctor  medicus auricularius (DIG. 50, 13, 1)

20 epigastric  epigastrius, a, um* (1846 GROSSE 17: "in regione epigastriâ")

20 eye: bloodshot eyes  ► sanguis oculis suffusus  ¶ PLIN. 20, 142: "Radix rutae sanguinem oculis suffusum ... inlita emendat."  ► oculi sanguine opplêti  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 14.  ►oculorum suffûsio  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 42.  ► opplêtio vasorum oculi  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 8, of effects of cannabis use. 

20 eye: cornea  tunica cornea

20 eye: optic nerve  nervus opticus (Bonon. Acad. I, 304)

20 eye: pupil (of eye)  pûpula, ae f. (CIC.; HOR.; Ov.)  |  dilated pupils  pupillae dilatatae erant (1846 GROSSE 11)  |  constricted pupils  pupillae coartâtae (1846 GROSSE 25)

20 eye: retina  retina, ae+ f. (LATHAM citing 13th c. source; BADELLINO)  ► têla retina (LATHAM citing 13th c. source)  ► retina nervosa (1811 PALLAS 14)  ► retiolum oculi (GOELZER) ►► Mod. Gr.  αμφιβληστροειδης  (χιτώνας)

20 eye: stye (inflammation on edge of eyelid)  ► hordeolus, i n. ¶ MarcEmp.  ISID.

20 eye: stye: chalazion, cyst on the eyelid  ► chalazia, ae* f. ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 122.  ► grandino palpebrae ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 122: "chalaziam sive grandinem palpebrae discussam se vidisse."

20 eyebrow  supercilium, i n.

20 eyelash  palpêbrae pilus (CELS. 6, 6, 15; cf. CIC. N.D. 2, 143: "munitaeque sunt palpebrae tamquam vallo pilorum."  ►► For the sake of clarity, cilium is best avoided for "eyelash," as its classical meaning is "eyelid"; cilium for "eyelash" is not attested before the 4th century (see AndréAnatomie 47).

20 eyelid  palpêbra, ae f. (CIC.; CELS.)  ►► The ordinary meaning of palpêbra is "eyelid"; its use for "eyelash" is rare (see AndréAnatomie 46).

20 finger: give (someone) the finger, flick or flip (someone) off  ► (alicui) medium unguem ostendere  \ JUV. 10, 53: "cum Fortunae ipse minaci mandaret laqueum mediumque ostenderet unguem."  \ ERASMUS.  ► (alicui) digitum impudîcum ostendere  \ MART. 6, 70, 5.

20 finger2: index finger, forefinger  digitus index (CELS. 7, 19, 2; HOR. Sat. 2, 8, 26; 1540 VIVES Exer. 394)  ► digitus salûtâris (SUET. AUG. 80, 3)

20 finger3: middle finger, third finger  digitus medius (CELS. 2, 10, 13; MART. 2, 28, 2)  ► digitus impudîcus (MART. 6, 70, 5)  ► digitus infâmis (Pers. 2, 33; 1540 VIVES Exer. 394)

20 finger4: ring finger, fourth finger  digitus ânulâris (ISID. Etym. 11, 1, 70; 1540 VIVES Exer. 394)  ► digitus medicus (PLIN. 30, 108; ISID. Etym. 2, 63)  ► digitus minimo proximus (PLIN. 11, 251; Gell. 10, 10, 1; 1540 VIVES Exer. 394)

20 finger5: little finger, pinky  digitus minimus (PLIN. 11, 251; 1540 VIVES Exer. 394; cf. PLAUT. Rud. 3, 4, 15: minimus digitulus)

20 foot: arch of the foot  vola, ae f. (PLIN. 11, 254: "vola homini tantum," "only man has an arched foot."  ► vola pedis, plantae cavum (CaelAur. Chron. 3, 66)

20 freckle  lenticula, ae f. (CELS.; PLIN.)  ► lentîgo, inis f. (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 152: "lentigines in facie emendant")

20 genitals, genitalia  ► genitâlia, um n. pl.  ¶ PLIN.  QUINT.  JUV.   ► nâtûra, ae f.  ¶ CIC.  VARR.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 452, in a description of a region of southern India: "Vadunt omnes nudi, salvo quod cooperiunt sibi naturam cum modico panno; et sic vadit rex sicut alii, salvo quod rex ... portat ad naturam pulchriorem pannum quam aliquis alius."  Ibid. 471, of the inhabitants of Zanzibar: "Vadunt omnes nudi, sed cooperiunt suam naturam, et faciunt magnum sensum quando eam cooperiunt, eo quod habent eam multum magnam et turpem, et horribilem ad videndum."  ► pudenda, orum n. pl.  ¶ Aus.  AUG.  Vulg.  ► verêcunda, orum (+) n. pl.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 22 (in a passage parallel to the one quoted above for natura): "Omnes nudi ambulant mares et feminae, sed quilibet verecunda operit panno uno."  ► verenda, orum (+) n. pl.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 31: "Nudi omnes ambulant mares et feminae ... Verenda tamen pulchro panno tegunt."

20 genitals: circumcised  recutîtus, a, um (PETR.; MART. ) 

20 genitals: clitoris  \\ clîtoris, idis f.  \ Anc. Gr.  \\ landîca, ae f. (obscene in classical Latin)  \ Cael. Aur. Gyn. 2, 112: "Quibusdam landicis horrida comitatur magnitudo, et feminas partium foeditate confundit, et, ut plerique memorant, ipsae, affectae tentigine, virorum similem appetentiam sumunt et in venerem coactae veniunt."  \\ tentîgo, inis (+) f.  \ Latin trans. of Albucasis, mentioned by Duval 68.

20 genitals: female circumcision, clitorectomy  clîtoridis* excisio

20 genitals: foreskin  \\ praepûtium, i n.

20 genitals: penis  \\ membrum vîrîle  ► pênis, is m.  ► verêtrum, i n.  \ Suet.  \ Phaedr.  \\ mentula, ae f. (obcene in classical usage)  \ Cat.  \ Mart.  ► priâpus, i (*) m.  \ Falloppius 149: "licet vino, lotio vel aquâ detergamus priapum."

20 genitals: penis: phallus  \\ fascinum, i n.  \ Hor.  \ Petr.  \\ Priâpi simulâcrum  \ 1652 TURS. 23: "foedissimo Priapi simulacro ad Cedronem torrentum exusto."  \ Cf. Vulg. 1 Reg. 15, 13.

20 genitals: pubic hair  pûbês, is f. (PLIN.; CELS.)  ► pecten, inis m. (region covered by pubic hair, pubic region) (PLIN.; JUV.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 395)

20 genitals: uncircumcised  praepûtiâtus, a, um (TERT.)

20 gland  ► glandula, ae (*) f.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 13.  \ 1771 WAY 10-11: "vis glandulas salivales stimulandi."

20 hand: hollow of the hand  vola, ae f. (Fest. 551, 3; 1540 VIVES Exer. 395: "quae est vola?  – cavum manûs")

20 hand: left-handed  sinistrâ manu agiliore (abl.) (SUET. Tib. 68: "corpore fuit amplo atque robusto ... sinistrâ manu agiliore ac validiore"; Paulus Wulffius, Quaedam de viscerum inversione laterali, Dorpati Livonorum, 1855, p. 17: "puella optimâ valetudine gaudebat, neque manu sinistrâ agiliore ac validiore erat."  ► sinistrâ manu agilior, sinistrâ manu promptiore (abl.) (GOELZERciting Livy; Wulffius, op. cit., p. 18: "in tribus his casibus curvaturae columnae vertebralis convexitas sinistrorsum conveersa fuisse perhibetur, nullo tamen hominum lioorum ... manu sinistrâ promptiore quam dexterâ."  ► sinistrâ manu promptior (BADELLINO)  ► qui sinistrâ validius utitur (DIG. 21.1.12.3)  ► qui sinistrâ manu utitur pro dextrâ (SCHELLER)  |  a left-handed man  scaeva, ae m. (SEN. Rh. Contr. 3, 10: "quidam sic cum scaevâ componi cupiunt, quomodo alii timent"; DIG. 21.1.12.3: "sciendum est scaevam non esse morbosum vel vitiosum, praeterquam si inbecillitate dextrae validius sinistrâ utitur: sed hunc non scaevam, sed mancum esse."  ►► Noël: qui laevâ vulgo utitur.  Cf.  αριστεροχειρ  (Anc. Gr.).

20 hand: left-handed: ambidextrous  ambidexter, tra, trum (Itala Jud. 3, 15; Cassian Coll. 6, 10, in P.L. vol.  p. 659: "recte ambidextri nuncupantur, utrâque enim manu utuntur pro dextrâ"; 1652 TURS. 12: "Eudus ambidexter"; Peter of Blois, Sermons, in P.L. vol. 207, pp. 760, 814: "legitur quod Aod, filius Gera, ambidexter, utrâque manu pugnabat, cuius expressam similitudinem Iob gert, quia non minus sinistrâ pugnabat quam dextrâ"; Luther, Sermons, in Werke [Weimar, 1886], IV. 547: "dux ambidexter Eglon"; Sir Thomas Browne, Works [ London, 1835], IV. 301: "Graecae Latinaeque linguae peritum Laurentium Asteropaeum sive ambidextrum dixit Athenaeus."  ► qui utrâque manu pro dexterâ utitur (Vulg. Jud. 3, 15: "Ahoth, filium Gera, filii Iemini, qui utrâque manu utebatur pro dexterâ")

20 hand: left-handed: right-handed  dexterâ manu agiliore (v. promptiore)  ► dexterâ manu agilior (v. promptior)  ► qui dexterâ validius utitur

20 hand: line on the palm of the hand (as the life line, important in palm-reading)  incîsûra, ae f. (PLIN. 11, 274; 1540 VIVES Exer. 395)

20 head: back of the head  occipitium, i n. (PLAUT.; SUET.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 392)

20 heart  (fig., as seat of emotions)  pectus, oris n.;  to have a heart of stone  ferrum in pectore gerere (OV. M. 9, 615)

20 heart  adj.  cardiacus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 80)

20 intestinal tract, gastrointestinal tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal  tractus intestinâlis (1846 GROSSE 24)

20 intestines  intestîna, orum n. pl. (CIC.; CELS.)  ► interânea, orum n. pl. (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 124)

20 intestines: large intestine: caecum  intestînum caecum (CELS. 4, 1, 8)

20 intestines: large intestine: colon  colon, i n. (PLIN.; Pallas12)  ►► The first o is short (OED: "The form  found in MSS. is metrically incorrect ... and arose from confusion with a limb or member"; Lidell-Scott s.v.  κωλον : "incorrect form for  κολον ").

20 intestines: large intestine: rectum  intestînum rectum (CELS. 4, 1, 9; 1811 PALLAS 60)

20 intestines: small intestine  intestînum tenuius (CELS. 4, 1, 8)

20 intestines: small intestine: duodenum

20 intestines: small intestine: ileum

20 intestines: small intestine: jejunum  intestînum ieiunum (CELS. 4, 1, 7)

20 jawbone  ► os maxillâre  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 10: "anatomê ipsorum dentium, et quibus comprehenduntur ossium maxillarium."

20 knuckle, finger-joint  nodus digiti, condylus, i m. (MART. Cap. 1, 88: "complicatis in condylos digitis"; C.G.L. 5, 617, 9: "condylus est nodus digitorum"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 395: "nodi digitorum sunt condyli, et pro pugni percussi vox ea usurpater," explaining the passage in MART. Cap.)

20 membrane (in living things)  ► membrâna, ae f.  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.  1752 STUMPF 12, of tissue membrane covering root of teeth.

20 nail clippings  \\ (unguium) praesegmina (pl.)  \ Plaut. Aul. 312-313, of a miser: "Quin ipsi pridem tonsor unguis dempserat; / collegit, omnia abstulit praesegmina."  \ Non. 151, 33: "'Praesegmina' proprie Plautus in Aululariâ ea dici voluit, quae unguibus eminulis praesecantur."  \ Apul. Met. 2, 20, on witches' wiles: "Ex bustis et rogis reliquiae quaedam et cadaverum praesegmina ad exitiabiles viventium fortunas petuntur." 

20 nail, fingernail, toenail  \\ unguis, i m.  \ Hor.  \ Ov.  \ Plin.  \\ unguiculus, i m.  \ Plaut.  \ Cic.  \ Sen.

20 nerve  ► nervus, i m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 12.  ► nervulus, i m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 10 (of the nerves in tooth pulp)

20 nerve: olfactory nerve  nervus olfactûs 1843 TRAPPEN 4)

20 nervous system  ► systêma nervorum  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 15.  ► systêma nervôsum  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN  134: "Quando systema nervosum nimis actuosum vel inordinate agens se monstrat, mala quae hinc proveniunt coffeae usu ulterius pessumdari constat."  1846 GROSSE 16.  ►► nerveum systema (1811 PALLAS 14)

20 oesophagus  oesophagus, i m. (Pallas12)  ► stomachus, i m.

20 ovary (egg-producing organ)  ► ovârium, i n.  ¶ 1810 BROWN vi.  Krafft-Ebing 36.  ►► Mod. Gr. ωοθήκη.

20 pore  \\ (cutis) meâtus  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 37: "Quae vero post balnea adhibebantur unctiones, nemo dubitat inservisse ne ... reseratis a balnei calore meatibus, nativa caliditas exspiraret."

20 scalp  subst.  (skin covering skull)  (detached as battled trophy)  vb.

20 skeleton  sceletus, i m. (APUL.)

20 skin: epidermis, outermost layer of skin  ► epidermis, idis f.  ¶ VEG. Vet.  PELAGON.  1752 STUMPF 12: "Gingivam ... communia, quae anatomici vocant, integumenta compoununt, epidermis nimirum, corpus reticulare Malpighianum, et cutis, singula ad mandibulas reflexa."

20 skull  calvaria, ae f. (CELS.; Vulg.)  ► testa hominis (Aus. Epigr. 72)

20 speech organs, organs of speech  ► loquêlae organa  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 39.

20 spine, backbone, vertebral column  \\ spîna, ae f.  \ Verg. \ Plin.  \ Cels.  ► spîna dorsi  ¶ AUG. Civ. Dei 19, 4, describing curvature of the spine, in a list of deformities: "Quid si usque ad ponendas in terra manûs dorsi spina curvetur et hominem quodam modo quadrupedem faciat?"  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 65, of the posture of the ancients on their dining couches: "Ubi edebant, capite erecto ac humeris, spinâ vero dorsi modice reflexâ ... manebant."   ► spîna vertebralis  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 12.

20 spine: spinal cord  ► medulla spînâlis  ¶ Macr.  1752 STUMPF 11: "a quintâ medullae spinalis coniugatione."  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 15.

20 spine: vertebra  ►

20 stomach  ► venticulus, i m.  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 361.  1752 STUMPF 37: "Molares ... totum manducationis negotium absolvunt, viribusque ventriculi digerentibus atque solventibus alimenta reddunt obsequentiora."  1771 WAY 9.  1811 PALLAS 12. 

20 stomach: it shouldn't be taken on an empty stomach  iêiûnis non est sûmendum (cf. 1571 MATTIOLI 150, of walnuts: "praesumptae a ieiunis, venenis resistunt")

20 stomach: my stomach's growling  mihi prae fame intestina rugiunt  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 349,

20 taste buds

20 thorax  (trunk of body from neck to diaphragm)  thôrâx, acis m. (CELS.; PLIN.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 395)

20 thyroid gland

20 tonsilectomy  tonsillarum excisio

20 tonsils  tonsillae, arum f. pl. (CIC.; PLIN.)

20 torso, trunk  (body apart from head and limbs)  truncus, i m. (CIC.; Verg.)

20 trachea, windpipe  arteria aspera (CIC.)

20 umbilical chord  nervus umbilîcâris (TERT.; EGGER S.L. 65)

20 urethra  via ûrînâlis (Cael. Aur.)  ► mictûalis (Cael. Aur.)

20 urinary tract

20 vertebra  vertebra, ae f.

20 vesicle, sac \\ vêsîcula, ae f.

20 vocal chord

20: nail: clip one's nails, pare one's nails, trim one's nails  \\ ungues praesecare  \ Hor. Ars Poet. 292-294: "Carmen reprehendite quod non / multa dies et multa litura coercuit atque / praesectum deciens non castigavit ad unguem [has not corrected ten times by the test of the trimmed fingernail]."  Sculptors checked their works for smoothness "ad unguem" – by running a fingernail over the surface.  \ Cf. Non. 151, 33, quoted under "nail clippings."

201

201    BODY1

201 amino acid  acidum aminatum* (cf. Fr. acide aminé)  ► aminoacidum, i* n. (LRL)  ►► Mod. Gr. αμινοξύ

201 blood sugar, blood glycose  glycôsa sanguinis (v. sanguinârius)

201 cellulose  cellulôsa, ae* f.

201 cholesterol  cholêsterina, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. χοληστερίνη, χοληστερόλη)  ► ? cholêstereol, is* n.  ►► In cholestereol the desinence proposed is that of alcohol in Latin, as the ending comes from that word, cholesterol being an alcohol in the broader sense (see OED s.v. "-ol, suffix."  |   στερεος , source of the middle part of the term, retains the second epsilon in compounds.

201 chromasome  chrômatosôma, atis* n. (Mod. Gr. χρωμόσωμα, χρωματόσωμα)

201 collagen  collogonum, i* n. (Mod. Gr. κολλαγόνο, κολλογόνο)

201 endorphin  endorphina, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. ενδορφίνη)

201 enzyme  enzymum, i* n. (Mod. Gr. ένζυμο)

201 estrogen  oestrogonum, i* n. (Mod. Gr. οιστρογόνο)  ► oestrogenum, i* n. (Bacci; HELFER) ►► For the ending -gonum, see oxygen.

201 glyerine  glycerina, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. γλυκερίνη)

201 hormone  hormona, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. ορμόνη)

201 hormone: growth hormone  ►► EL: hormone de croissance; hormonas de crecimiento; Waschstumshormonen; αυξητικη ορμονη

201 insulin  insulina, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. ινσουλίνη)

201 melatonin  (Mod. Gr. μελατονίνη)

201 metabolism  metabolismus, i* m. (Mod. Gr. μεταβολισμός)

201 testosterone  testosterona, ae* f., androsterona, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. τεστοστερόνη, ανδροστερόνη)

202

202    HAIR

202 bald spot  area calva (in capite summo) (cf. MART. 5, 49: "sunt illinc tibi, sunt et hinc capilli ...  ¶ nudumst in medio caput nec ullus  ¶ in longâ pilus areâ notatur"; CELS. 6, 4: "arearum quoque dum genera sunt; commune utrique est quod emortuâ summâ pelliculâ pili primum extenuantur, deinde excidunt")

202 bald: hair loss  capilli (v. capillorum) dêfluvium (PLIN.)  ► capitis dêfluvium (PLIN. 11, 230)  |  prevent hair loss  capillorum dêfluvium continêre (PLIN. 29, 108: "lacertae quoque, ut docuimus combustae ... capillorum defluvia continent."  ► defluentes capillos retinêre (1571 MATTIOLI 92: "oleum silvestris olivae ... defluentes capillos retinet")

202 bald: having a receding hairline  recalvaster, tri m. (Vulg.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 332)

202 balding: I'm balding, I'm losing my hair  capilli mihi defluunt (Plin. 11, 230; cf. 1571 MATTIOLI 92: "oleum silvestris olivae ... defluentes capillos retinet; tardius canitiem sentiunt qui eo cottidie perunguntur")

202 bangs (US), fringe (Br.)  (hair hanging over forehead)  antliae, arum f. pl. (APUL. Flor. 3: "crines eius praemulsis antiis et promulsis caproneis anteventuli et propenduli"; TERT.)  ► capronae, arum f. pl. (Lucil. ap. Non. p. 22: "capronae dicuntur comae quae ante frontem sunt")

202 barber, hair-stylist, hairdresser  tonsor, ôris m., tonstrix, îcis f., capillorum concinnator (Col. 1, prooem. 5)

202 braid, pony-tail, etc.  ? capillus pactilis

202 color: blond  ► flavus, a, um (of hair or person)  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 481, on Russians: "Homines et mulieres illius provinciae sunt omnes albi, et sunt multum pulchri, et omnes habent capillos flavos et pulchros."

202 color: dark-headed, brunette  ►

202 color: gray-haired, white-haired  cânus, a, um (Plaut.; Ov.; Hor.)

202 color: gray-haired: salt-and-pepper hair  nigri capilli primâ canitie aspersi (Erasmus Epist. III. 145: "vix prima canities coeperat capillorum nigrorem aspergere")

202 curl one's hair  capillum crispare (PLIN.)

202 dandruff  furfures capitis (PLIN. 20, 101)

202 hair gel, gel  unguentum capillâre  ► capillâre, is n. (MART. )

202 hair gel: hair spray, hair lacquer

202 hair removal, epilation   \\ pilorum eviratio  \ PLIN. 29, 26.  ► pilorum evulsio

202 hair removal: depilatory, hair-removal product  \\ psîlôthrum, i n.  \ PLIN.  \ MART.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 94.  \ 1571 MATTIOLI 921.  \ 1843 TRAPPEN 10.  ► dêpilâtôrium, i* n.  \ 1843 TRAPPEN 10.

202 hair removal: get a wax, have (part of the body) waxed  \\ pilos cêrâ vellendos praebere (v. cûrare)  \ Cf. Plin. 14, 123: "Resina omnis dissolvitur oleo ... pudetque confiteri maximum iam honorem eius esse in evellendis virorum corpori pilis."  \ Cf. also  1569 MERCURIALE 94: "quod Iuvenalis certo testatum faciat fuisse in thermis qui ab alis pilos avellerent ... atque hos modo volsellis ad id obeundum usos esse, nunc resinâ (hanc enim in evellendis virorum corporibus pilis maximum honorem obtinuisse confitetur Plinius), nunc psilothris."  \\ get a leg wax, have one's legs waxed  \\ crûra cêrâ vellenda praebere (v. cûrare) 

202 hair removal: remove body hair, pluck body hair  \\ pilos vellere  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 94: "Alipili [aderant], qui, ut refert Seneca, ad vellendos ab aliquibus corporis partibus et praesertim alis pilos adhibebantur."  |  pluck one's underarms, remove underarm hair  \\ alas vellere  \ Sen. Ep .56: "Alipilum cogita, tenuem et stridulam vocem, quo sit notabilior, subinde exprimentem, nec umquam tacentem nisi dum vellit alas."  \ Juv. 11, 157: "Nec vellendas iam praebuit alas."  \\ ab alis pilos avellere  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 94: "quod Iuvenalis certo testatum faciat fuisse in thermis qui ab alis pilos avellerent."

202 hair removal: tweesers  \\ volsella, ae f.  \ PLAUT.  \ MART.  \ 1540 VIVES Exer. 392: "Tu ipse vulsellis pilos detrahito."  \  1569 MERCURIALE 94: "quod Iuvenalis certo testatum faciat fuisse in thermis qui ab alis pilos avellerent ... atque hos modo volsellis ad id obeundum usos esse, nunc resinâ ... nunc psilothris." 

202 haircut: cut (someone's) hair very short, trim the hair close to the skin  capillum strictim attondêre (cf. PLAUT. Capt. 266-68: "Nunc senex est in tostrina, nunc iam cultros attinet ...  ¶ sed utrum strictimne adtonsurum dicam esse an per pectinem,  ¶ nescio," referring to two ways of shaving the beard)  ► ad cutem attondêre (Scrib. Comp. 10)

202 haircut: cut someone's hair, give someone a haircut  (alicuius) capillum tondêre (CIC. Tusc. 5, 58)

202 haircut: get a haircut (or shave)  tondêri (LIV. 27, 34, 6: "M. Livius ... erat veste obsoletâ capilloque et barbâ promissâ ...  Censores eum tonderi et squalorem deponere ... coegerunt";QUINT. 1, 6, 44)

202 haircut: skin-head, having a shaved head  \\ raso capite calvus  \ PLAUT. Am. 1, 1, 306.

202 haircut: style someone's hair  capillum (v. comam v. crines) (alicuius) compônere (v. comere)

202 hairless  depilis, e (APUL.; 1811 PALLAS 58, of a breed of dog)

202 hairstyle, hairdo  comae (v. crinium) ortanus, oppexus, ûs m. (APUL. M. 11, 9: "mulieres ... quae pectines eburnos ferentes gestu brachiorum flexuque digitorum ornatum atque oppexum crinium regalium [sc. deae] fingerent")

202 layer (someone's) hair, give (someone) a layered hairstyle  comam in gradûs frangere (QUINT. 1, 6, 44)  ► comam in gradûs formare (SUET. Ner. 51)

202 moustache  mystax, acis* m. (HIER., in Greek; DUCANGE)  ► grani, orum m. pl. (ISID.)  ► superioris labri barba (EGGER R.A. 24)  ►► Subium, i n. (EGGER S.L. 66)  ► found only in a word-list in the grammarian Charisius.  ThLL: "mystacia, granae (anglosax.) Gloss.L corp. M. 334, cf. gr.  μυσταξ ."

202 mustache: goatee  ► barba hircîna /

202 nose-hairs  vibrissae, arum f. pl. (Fest. p. 370: "vibrissae pili in naribus hominum"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 392, of an overly realistic portrait: "vibrissae extantes extra nares")

202 shave  barbam radere

203

203    TEETH

203 care: brush (one's) teeth  ► dentes infricare  ¶ 1752 STUMPF Plin. 28, 178: "Dentes mobiles confirmat cervini cornûs cinis ... sive infricentur sive colluantur."  ► dentes dêfricare  ¶ Catull. 37, 20: "dens Hiberâ defricatus urinâ."  1752 STUMPF 30.  ► dentes fricare  ¶ Scrib. Comp. 58.  ► dentes mundare  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 28 (outburst of a scolding dentist): "Enimvero qualem illis statuemus animadversionem, qui dentes ab inquinamentis sordidis atque squalentibus, a ciborum potulentorumve assumptione aut a somno residuis mundare, atque os sufficienter colluere negligunt?"  ► dentes purgare  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 33: "si gingivae aeque ac dentes non satis curato a squalore adhaerente purgantur."

203 care: dental floss  filum dentârium  |  floss (vb.)  ►

203 care: tooth powder ¶ pulvis dentifricius*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 30.  Pharm. Austr. 291-292.

203 care: toothbrush  ► penicillus dentârius  ¶ Cf. 1752 STUMPF 30: "Myrrham commendamus ... ad linimenti formam inspissatam gingivisque penicilli ope illitam."

203 care: toothpaste  ► dentifricium, i n. (in antiquity, used of powders)  ¶ PLIN. 28, 178: "Dentes mobiles confirmat cervini cornûs cinis ... sive infricentur sive colluantur. Quidam efficaciorem ... crudi cornûs farinam arbitrantur. Dentifricia utroque modo fiunt."  Scrib. Comp. 59 et passim.  1752 STUMPF 29: "Nigerrimo pleraque dentifricia, quorum communis inter omnes usus est, calculo sunt notanda."  EGGER L.D.I. 105. 

203 care: toothpick ¶ dentiscalpium, i n.  ¶ MART.  1540 VIVES Exer. 301: "Ne scalpes dentes scalpello ... Conficito tibi dentiscalpium pennulâ, vel bacillo tenui acuminato."  1571 MATTIOLI487.  1752 STUMPF 28.  \\ pinna, ae f.  \ Petr. 33: "Deinde pinnâ argenteâ dentes perfodit."

203 care: whiten the teeth ¶ dentes dealbare  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 34, on harmful tooth-whitening agents.

203 dental hygiene, oral hygiene  ► dentium cûra  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 7: "exemplis medicorum commendandae dentium curae curiosiorum."  Ibid.: "si de dentium curâ ad sanitatem proficuâ commentaremur."  1752 STUMPF 27: "providae dentium curae speciem."  1752 STUMPF 34: "de rectâ hac diaetetica dentium curâ."  ► dentium cûrandorum methodus (v. ratio)  ¶ 1752STUMPF 7: "Quotus quisque eorum qui de optimis diaetae instituendae rationibus praeceperunt, cuius institutiones rectam dentium curandorum methodum simul exposuerint?"  1752 STUMPF 8: "recte curandorum dentium rationes."  ► dentium mundities  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 34: "neglectae dentium munditiei."

203 dentist  medicus dentârius (EGGER S.L. 32)

203 dentist: orthodontist  medicus orthodonticus*

203 dentist: orthodontist: braces (US)  apparatus orthodonticus*

203 dentist: periodontal  ► periodonticus, a, um*

203 dentist: periodontist  ► medicus periodonticus*

203 dentistry  medecîna dentâria

203 disease: plaque (on teeth)

203 disease: plaque: tartar (on teeth), dental calculus  ► (dentium) tartarum+  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 15: "excrescentia illa lapidea, quam tartarum vocant."  ► tartarea* (dentium) excrescentia  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 20.  1752 STUMPF 29: "Abradendis excrescentiis tartareis, arcte circa dentium atque gingivae commissuram adhaerentibus, huius generis dentiscalpia inserviunt." ► tartarea* (dentium) inquînâmentum  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 26: "Praecipua ratio est habenda evitandorum eorum quae dentes squalore et ipsis dehinc lapideis tartareis inquinamentis obducunt."  ►lapidea (dentium) excrescentia  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 15, quoted above.  ► lapidea (dentium) inquînâmentum  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 26, quoted above.

203 disease: tooth decay, cavities  ► (dentis) caries  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 15: "si [dentes] carie aut aliis huius modi vitiis ... caruerint."  1752 STUMPF 20: "cum caries dentium maximum et ultimum corruptionis dentibus infestae sit genus."  1752 STUMPF 23, on dangers of sugar consumption: "Ipsa ossea interior radicis compages facilius inficitur et vitiosâ carie infestatur."  1752STUMPF 27: "Dentes ... carie demum exeduntur."  1752 STUMPF 32: "Dentes ... livore etque nigredine inficiuntur et dumum passim carie arroduntur."  ► cariôsa (dentis) corruptio  ¶ 1752STUMPF 17: "si interiorem dentium cavitatem ... cariosa quaedam corruptio incipiens, necdum intuitu observanda, fuerit aggressa."  1752 STUMPF 22: "A nimio sacchari sive cupediorum saccharatorum usu abstinendum est, ne dentes exinde nigredinem et pressis vestigiis insecuturam cariosam contrahant corruptionem."  1752 STUMPF 41: "illa mala quae dentium dolores ... et ipsae saepius cariosae eorum corruptiones in reliquas corporis partes ... inferre solent."  ► cariôsa (dentis) êrôsio  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 20: "duplici autem causae ... cariosam dentium erosionem deberi." ► cariôsa (dentis) putrêdo ¶ 1752 STUMPF 26: "quod exinde gingivae molles atque laxae, dentes vero in putredinem cariosam summe proni reddantur." 

203 disease: tooth decay: cavity  ► dentis forâmen  ¶ CELS. 6, 9, 6. |  fill a cavity  |  filling

203 disease: tooth decay: decayed tooth  ► dens exêsus  ¶ Col. 6, 9, 5.  ► dens carie exêsus  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 37: "Ad legitime perficiendam masticationem ... requiritur ut dentes sint firmiter alveolis suis infixi ... nec carie diffracti vel exesi."

203 grind one's teeth  ► dentes inter se arietare  ¶ Sen. Ira 3, 4, 1, of outward signs of anger: "adice dentium inter se arietatorum ... sonum."

203 gum disease, gingivitis  ► 

203 gum: loose or receding gum  ► gingîva relaxâta  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 21: "relaxatâ vel exesâ gingivâ, inferior dentis pars magis ossea denudatur."► gingîva laxâta  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 29. Cf. 1752 STUMPF 33, on effects of smoking: "Gingivae mirum in modum laxantur."  ► gingîva laxa  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 33.

203 loose tooth  ► dens mobilis  ¶ PLIN. 28, 178.  Cf. 1752 STUMPF 16: "ad firmitatem dentium infringendam et mobilitatem iis inferendam."  |  be loose (of a tooth)  ► vacillare  ¶ 1752STUMPF 15: "si firmius alveolis infixi sint, neque vacillent."  Cf. 1752 STUMPF 16: "dentium vacillatio."  ► alveolo suo laxe inhaerêre  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 14.

203 parts: crown  ► 1752 STUMPF 11: "Superiorem enim dentium partem, candidam et velut nitide politum, supra gingivas constitutam, cui coronae sive corporis numen dederunt ... peculiaris fabrica componit, ex fibris rectis."  1752 STUMPF 13, of the front teeth: "quorum coronae ... cunei instar, anterius convexi, posticâ vero parte subcavi, acieque rectilineâ terminati, sunt formatae."

203 parts: enamel  ► crusta (dentis) vitrea  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 11-12: "Haec pars, durissima quidem, sed simul fragilis et in fissuris prona, totam internam radicis osseam partem, quae alias supra gingivas nuda emineret, undique circumvolvit."  ► involûcrum (dentis) vitrea  ¶ "Eo loco quo vitreum hoc dentium involucrum tenuissimum ... observamus – hoc est, circa coronae radicisque commissuram, quâ gingiva annectitur – penitus peresâ atque corruptâ vitreâ parte, ipsa ossea interior radicis compages facilius inficitur et vitiosâ carie infestatur."  ► portio (dentis) vitrea  ¶ 1752STUMPF 17: "[Dentes molares] fractâ portione vitreâ saepe numero dissiliunt suaeque coronae particulam perdunt."  1752 STUMPF 24: "vitrea dentium portio, utpote fragilis."  ► pars (dentis) vitrea  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 20: "ipsam eius [scil. dentis] partem vitream insigniter laedi."  ►  ► fabrica (dentis) vitrea  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 22.  ► fabrica vitrea corônâlis  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 11, of tooth pulp: "cui dentium nutritio ipsiusque fabricae vitreae coronalis reparatio deberi videtur."  ► pars (dentis) crystallina  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 21: "Ad externam cariei causam inducendam, omnes ii valent errores a quibus ... laesio duriori crystallinae sive vitreae parti dentis infertur."  1752 STUMPF 26: "fissuras in crystallinum hanc dentium partem induci posse."  ► alba dentium crusta  ¶GOELZER.  ► candida dentium crusta  ¶ BADELLINO.

203 parts: pulp  ►   Cf. 1752 STUMPF 11: "Ipsam vero dentium cavitatem ... materia quaedam explet mucosa, e finibus tenuissimarum periostii interni arteriolarum exhalata, et velut in folliculum collecta, cui dentium nutritio ipsiusque fabricae vitreae coronalis reparatio deberi videtur."

203 parts: root  ► dentis radix  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 10: "unum quemque dentem esse diversum: inferiore nimirum parte, quam radicem vocamus, plane osseum, cono simplici, duplice, triplice, quadrupliceve, pro generis sui diversitate, desinentem."  1752 STUMPF 10: "vasa ... in radices dentium disseminata."

203 parts: tooth socket, dental alveolus  ► alveolus maxillâris  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 30.  ► maxillae (v. dentis) alveolus  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 11.  Cf. 1752 STUMPF 10: "Dentes sunt singulares corporis nostri partes ... margini utriusque maxillae alveolato ... infixae."  ► (dentis) fovea alveolâris  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 14.  ► (dentis) fossula  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 12: "Ex anatome perspectum habemus singulas dentium radices in exacte cum ipsis congruentes alveolos, quos praesepiola quoque et fossulas appellant, untrinque maxillaribus ossibus incisos, et periosteo quoque vestitos, clavorum instar firmisse esse infixas."  ► (dentis) praesepiolum*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 12, quoted above.

203 pull a tooth  dentem eximere (CELS. 6, 9, 5)  ► dentem extrahere (v. evellere)

203 teething, cutting teeth (process by which infant's teeth grow in)  ► dentîtio, ônis f.  ¶ Plin. 28, 258: "Dentes, qui equis primum cadunt, facilem dentitionem praestant adligati infantibus." 1752 STUMPF 15: "infantum dentitionem."

203 treatment: bridge  ►

203 treatment: crown  ►

203 treatment: denture  ►

203 treatment: implant  ►

203 types: baby tooth, milk tooth, deciduous tooth  ► dens infantilis (v. deciduus v. cadûcus) /

203 types: canine (tooth)  ► dens canînus  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 13; 37.  1811 PALLAS 40.  ► dens laniârius  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 12. 

203 types: incisor, front tooth  ► dens incîsor  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 16.  1811 PALLAS 12.  ► incîsor, ôris (*)  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 13.  ► dens primôris  ¶ PLIN. 7, 70.  1811 PALLAS 12. ► dens incîsôrius  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 14.  ► dens incîsîvus*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 16; 37.

203 types: molar (tooth)  ► molâris, is m.  ¶ Juv.  Col.  1752 STUMPF 13; 37.  ► dens molâris  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 12.  ► dens maxillâris  ¶ CELS. 6, 9, 5.  Plin. 11, 166. 

203 types: wisdom tooth  dens sapientiae (Johann Christian Weiss, De anginosis juvenum passionibus ex tarda et difficili eruptione dentium sapientiae, Lipsiae, 1776)

205

205    HYGIENE

205 /hygiene, personal hygiene  ► munditiei cura (quae corpori debetur)  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 28: "Haec minime ad necessariam munditiei curam, quam corpori nostro debemus, pertinerent." Cf. 1752 STUMPF 28: "cum huic munditiei curandae simplex atque pura aqua ... apprime sit accomodata."

205 complexion: improve the complexion  faciei nitôrem conciliare (1571 MATTIOLI 128: "aqua distillata e limonum acidâ pulpâ expetitur mulieribus ad faciei nitorem conciliandum."  | protect the complexion  cutem in facie a vitiis custodire (PLIN. 28, 89)

205 cosmetics, make-up  ► faciei medicamenta  ¶ EGGER L.D.I. 105.

205 cosmetics: eyeshadow  \\ calliblepharum, i n. \ VARR.  \ PLIN.

205 cosmetics: lipstick, lip gloss  cêrâtum labiâle (Pharm. Helv. [1907] 89, defining as "pommade pour les lèvres")

205 cosmetics: personal appearance (dress, adornment, hairstyle, etc.) ¶  ||  adj. (concerning personal appearance)  ► cosmêticus, a, um*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 34, of use of harmful teeth-whitening agents: "quem [usum] passim puellas aliosque inconcinae elegantiae studiosos scopo cosmetico sectari observamus."

205 cosmetics: remove or reduce wrinkles  \\ cutem erugare ¶ Plin. 21, 127: "Lilii radices ... furfures in facie emendant, erugant corpora, cutem."  Plin. 28, 123: "Cutem in facie erugari et tenerescere candore lacte asinino putant."

205 defecate, have a bowel movement  alvum exonerare (PLIN.)  ► alvum inanire (PLIN.)  ► alvum solvere (CELS.)  ► alvum seponere (1846 GROSSE 13)

205 defecate: defecation, bowel movement  alvi secessus (1846 GROSSE 16)  ► alvi sepositio (1846 GROSSE 16)  ► alvi dêpositio 1843 TRAPPEN 94)  ► sedes, is f. (1846 GROSSE17: "cottidie quinque vel sex sedes aquosae efficiebantur."  ► alvi evacuatio (1846 GROSSE 28)

205 gargle  gargarîzare (CELS.; PLIN.)  ► guttur (v. fauces) colluere

205 gargle: gargling agent, fluid for gargling, throat wash  gargarisma, atis n. (Cael. Aur.; Theod. Prisc.; 1843 TRAPPEN 121: "qui infuso coffeae praecipue gargarismatic instar uti suaserit")

205 gargle: mouthwash, mouth rinse, fluid for rinsing one's mouth  ► collutôrium, i* n.  ► collûtio, ônis (*) f.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 28: "Neque tamen volumus ut operosiore aut studiose compositâ collutione sordes abstergantur, cum huic munditiei curandae simplex atque pura aqua ... apprime sit accomodata."

205 gargle: use a mouthwash, rinse out one's mouth  ► ôs colluere  ¶ PLIN. 23, 77.  1571 MATTIOLI 487: "ubi hôc decocto calido os colluatur."  1752 STUMPF 28: "Qualem illis statuemus animadversionem qui ... os sufficienter colluere negligunt?"  Cf. 1571 MATTIOLI 142: "Folia pruni in vino decocta collutione et gargarizatu ... gingivas tonsillasque fluxione laborantes reprimunt."

205 ointment, body lotion, skin cream, liniment  ► linîmentum, i n.  ¶ Pall.  Cael. Aur.  1752 STUMPF 30: "Myrrham commendamus, simplici vino per digestionem solutam, et dein leni coctione et evaporatione ad linimenti formam inspissatam, gingivisque penicilli ope illitam."

205 ointment, body lotion: rub on, rub in, smear on  infricare (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 130: "poma Adami [pomeloes] ... scabiosis corporis partibus infricentur."  ► inunguere (1571MATTIOLI 125: "oleum e nucleis [praecociorum] expressum mirifice valet ad inflammatas haemorrrhoidas inunctum")

205 ointment: after-shave

205 ointment: shower gel

205 pass gas, break wind, fart (vb)  ► crepitum ventris edere  ¶  ► crepare  ¶ Mart.  ► pêdere  ¶ Hor.  Mart.  ► bombizare+  ¶ DUCANGE citing Papias and glosses, and quoting this passage in a 14th-c. church document: "Idem presbyter coram omni populo, qui astabat ibidem, bis bombiziavit dicendo, 'Ecce unum bombum pro rege tuo, et alium pro capitulo Lugdunensi.'"  1523HUTTEN Ep. Obscur. Vir. 97, in which Master Ortvinus details the defects of the lovesick Master Mammotrectus's new Dulcinea: "Vos estis caecus ex illo diabolico amore quod non videtis eius vitia. Ipsa multum bibit et comedit, ac bis nuper bombisavit quando sedit apud me in mensâ, et dixit quod fecit cum scamno."  ► vissire  ¶

205 passing of gas, breaking of wind, fart (subst.)  ► crepitus ventris  ¶  ► crepitus, ûs m.  ¶ Cic.  Sen.  Plin.  ► pêditum, i n.  ¶ Catul. 54, 3.  ► bombus, i (+) m.  ¶ DUCANGE:"BOMBUS, BOMBULUS, Crepitus.  Ioannes de Ianua: 'Bombus, sonus ... invenitur etiam pro sono culi.'  Alibi: 'Trulla, bombus vel sibilus ani.' ... Vetus charta hominii, apud Camdenum in Britannia, et Spelmannum, de quodam Baldino, qui tenuit terras in Hemingston in comitatu Suffolciensi per serianciam, pro quâ 'debuit facere die Natali Domini singulis annis coram domino rege unum saltum, unum suffletum, et unum bombulum.' Id est, ut idem Camdenus interpretatur, 'ut saltaret, buccas inflaret, et ventris crepitum ederet.'  Spelmannus habet 'saltum, sufflum, et pettum.'  Atque inde eidem Baldino cognomen inditum 'le pettour.'"

205 razor  ► novacula, ae f.  ► râsôrium, i n.  ¶ Souter.  Ducange.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 403: "rasorius."

205 razor: scraper, scraping device  ► râdula, ae f.  ¶ Col.  ► râsôrium, i n.  ¶ Souter.  Ducange, explaining rasoria as "instrumenta scilicet ferrea acuta et curva, quibus incaute scripta aut delineata e pergameno vel charta eraduntur, Gallice grattoir."

205 sweat: be sweaty  \\ sûdôre madêre

205 talcum powder, baby powder, powder applied to body to absorb moisture (esp. for babies, athletes) \\ diapasma, atis n.  \ Plin. 21, 125, on uses of rose leaves: "Et aridis aut expressis [rosae foliis] aliquis usus: diapasmata inde fiunt ad sudores coercendos, ita ut a balineis inarescant corpori, dein frigida abluantur."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 34, describing the application of oils or powders by the ancients after bathing: "Egressi [e balneis] denuo ungebantur, modo simplici oleo, modo variis odoribus condîto, modo diapasmate ad coercendos sudores, ut scribit Plinius." \ See Liddell-Scott: "a scented powder to sprinkle over the person."

205 tattoo  subst.  ► notae Thraciae (f. pl.)  ► CIC. Off. 2, 7, 25.  ► stigmata, um n. pl.  ¶ Isid. 19, 23, 7, of ancient Britons: "Nonnullae etiam gentes non solum in vestibus sed et in corpore aliqua sibi propria quasi insignia vindicant: ut videmus cirros Germanorum, granos et cinnibar Gotorum, stigmata Brittonum."  Cf. Anc. Gr.  στίγμα , "tatto-mark" (Lidell-Scott);  στιγματίας , "one who bears tattoo-marks (Lidell-Scott).

205 tattoo  vb.  ► notis Thraciis compungere  ¶ CIC. Off. 2, 7, 25: "Barbarum ... compunctum notis Thraciis destricto gladio iubebat anteire."  ► notis compungere  ¶ Bekker 2, 267, explaining a line from a lost comedy of Aristophanes: "Huic fabulae nomen fuit a servis Babyloniis molitoribus, qui inducebantur ora notis compuncti ... Hos cum Bacchus, cuius praecipuae erant partes, videret, vel quivis alius, exclamabat, 'Samiorumne video populum? Quam multis notis compuncti sunt,' salse adludens ad Periclis crudelitatem erga Samios, quos sex ante annos praelio vicerat, quorumque captivos inustis notis signaverat."  Bentley 1, 471 (in Hor. Serm. 2, 246): "ut allusum sit ad celebrem Aristophanis versum [ βαβυλ . fr. 2 Mein.], ubi conspiciens quis Babylonios e pistrino prodire notis compunctos, Samios eos appelavit, quia Samii captivi ab Atheniensibus notis inuri in fronte solebant."  EGGER R.A. 17: "Brachia sunt notis compuncta."  ► notis interstinguere  ¶ AMM. 31, 2, 14: "Gelonis Agathyrsi collimitant, interstincti colore caeruleo corpora simul et crines, et humiles quidem minutis atque raris, nobiles vero latis, fucatis et densioribus notis."  ► notis persignare  ¶ EGGER D.L. 9.  ► ferro pingere  ¶ Claud. Laud. Stil. 2, 247-48: "Inde Caledonio velata Britannia monstro,  ¶ ferro picta genas."  Iord. Get. 14, of ancient Britons: "Ob decorem nescio an aliam ob rem, ferro pingunt corpora."  Oberlin 2, 1088 (ad Caes. B.G. 5, 14): "Ubi audacter dicerem scribendum esse vitro, nisi scirem Britannos non vitro tantum sed et ferro prius pingere corpora solere, ut facilius cicatrices imbiberent colorem caeruleum."  ► acubus pingere  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 46, of a people of southeast Asia: "Viri et mulieres cum acubus pingunt suas fauces, collum, manûs et ventrem ac crura, faciuntque ibi imagines leonum, draconum et avium subtiliter valde, quae etiam sic firmantur in pelle ut numquam discedant. Qui autem plures de huius modi imagines habet, pulchrior reputatus."   ►► Cf. Solin. 25 fin.: "Regionem partim tenent barbari, quibus per artifices ... iam inde a pueris variae animalium effigies incorporantur, inscriptisque visceribus hominis incremento pigmenti notae crescunt. Neque quidquam magis patientiae loco ferae nationes ducunt quam ut per memores cicatrices plurimum fuci artûs bibant."  ► pingere  ¶ Verg. G. 2, 115.  Verg. Aen. 4, 146.

205 tattoo: body piercing  Cf. Vulg. Exod. 21, 6: "perforabit aurem eius subulâ."  VulgDeut. 15, 17.  PETR. 102: "Pertunde aures, ut imitemur Arabes."

207

207    REST AND RELAXATION

207 dream: daydream  ► vigilantis somnium  ¶ QUINT. 6, 2, 30.

207 dream: prophetic dream  somnium praedîvînum (PLIN. 37, 167)

207 insomnia  ► vigilia, ae f.  ¶ CELS.  Bonon. Acad. I, 308, listing symptoms of a disease: "somnus perturbatus, vel vigiliae, etiam continuae."  ► pervigilium, i n.  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 718, of poppyseed: "fronti quoque in pervigiliis illinitur."  1843 TRAPPEN 81.  ► insomnia, ae f.  ¶ SUET.   ► insomnia, orum n. pl.  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.   ► agrypnia, ae f.  MART. CAP.  1752 STUMPF42.  1843 TRAPPEN 80.  1846 GROSSE 24.

207 nap  somnus insitîcius (VARR. R. R. 1, 2, 5)

207 nap: siesta, afternoon nap  meridiatio, ônis f., somnus meridianus (1540 VIVES Exer. 352)  |  take a siesta, take an afternoon nap  meridiare, meridiari 

207 nightmare  somnium terrificum (1571 MATTIOLI 189: "Phaseoli ... tumultuosa praeterea ac terrifica somnia repraesentant."  ►► Incubus and incubo refer to a monster or demon believed to descend on a sleeper, producing a feeling of suffocation (the historical meaning of "nightmare" and of equivalent terms in many languages).

207 relax (v.i.), take it easy  se relaxare (v. reficere) ex labore (EGGER L.D.I. 99)  ► animum relaxare, otium (v. otio) peragere (v. ducere)  |  cf. genio indulgêre, cuticulam curare

207 sleep aid, sleeping pill  sopor, ôris m. (SEN. Ep. 83, 27: "nec veneno poto moriturum, nec sopore sumpto dormiturum"; PLIN. 20, 198: "e nigro papavere sopor gignitur."  ► medicamentum somnificum (PLIN. 37, 57)  ► medicamentum sopôriferum

207 sleep late, oversleep  \\ somnum in multum diem prôdûcere  \\ in medios dormire dies  \ cûrare  \ Hor. Epist. 1, 2, 28-30: "sponsi Penelopae nebulones ... cui pulchrum fuit in medios dormire dies."

207 sleep: fight off sleep, keep oneself awake  \\ somnum dêcipere  \ 1843 TRAPPEN 75, of coffee: "Potûs huius efficaciam laudat ... ad somnum decipiendum."

207 sleep late, oversleep  somnum in multum diem prôdûcere; 1] diu dormire, dormire quam diu vis: Plautus, Poenulus 21: Diu qui domi otiosi dormierunt, decet Animo aequo nunc stent uel dormire temperent; Plinius, Epistulae 7.3.2: quousque regnabis? quousque vigilabis, cum voles, dormies, quam diu voles?; Ambrosius Mediolanensis, Explanatio psalmorum xii.1.24: unde dicitur: surge qui dormis - tu enim dormis et tempus tuum ambulat - et uide ne, dum diu dormis, praetereat tempus.; Ambrosius Mediolanensis, Expositio psalmi cxviii, 12.24: aut certe exsurge, aquilo hoc est: surge qui dormis et exsurge a mortuis; populus nationum, qui diu ante dormisti, euigila aliquando, et inlucescet tibi Christus.; Ambrosius Mediolanensis, De uirginitate, 12.69  Tardare uidetur, cum diu dormis; tardare uidetur, cum ab oratione uacas; tardare uidetur, cum uocem non excitas psalmis. [2]  perdormiscere: perdormiscin' tu usque ad lucem? Plaut. Men. 5, 5, 29. {Bradleius Ritter | 2013}

207 sleep: it helps you sleep, it makes you sleepy  somnum conciliat (PLIN. 21, 142; 1571 MATTIOLI 718)  ► sopôrem facit (1571 MATTIOLI 717, of poppy)

207 sleepy: be sleepy  dormitare

207 sleepy: I could hardly keep my eyes open, my eyelids were drooping  oculi mihi somno conivebant (CIC. N.D. 1, 82: "oculis ... somno coniventibus")

21

21    MEDICAL

21 /medicine (art or practice)  ► medicîna, ae f.  ¶ Cic.  Cels.   ► ars medica  ¶ Ov.  1771 WAY 19.  1843 TRAPPEN 83.  ► ars medicîna  ¶ Varr.   ► ars salûtâris  ¶ Hor.  1771 WAY19.  1843 TRAPPEN 106.  ► ars Apollinaris  ¶ 1771 WAY dedication page.

21 /physiological  ► physiologicus, a, um (*)  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 25: "ex demonstratis physiologicis aeque ac chemicis."

21 /physiologist  ► physiologus, i (*) m.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 36.

21 /physiology (study of living organisms)  ► physiologia, ae (*) f. 

21 acupuncture  ► acupunctura, ae* f.  ¶ Ann. Acad. Rheno-Tr. (1832-33), "Responsio ad quaestionem medicam," 4: "et acupuncturae quis nescit salutiferum usum?"  De acupunctura, Bonn, 1826.

21 ambulance  arcera (automata)  ►► arcera automataria (EGGER D.L. 10)

21 amputate  abscindere (1784 DUCRUE 240: "ut manus vel pedes ... paulatim intumescant ... ut abscindi necesse habeant")

21 anesthesia  narcosis, is f. (Pharm. Austr. 22: "aether pro narcosi"; Pharm. Helv. [1907] 28: "aether pro narcosi")

21 anesthetic 

21 antibacterial, sterilizing  cf. germicida*  (Pharm. Austr. xxviii: "sterilisatio medicaminum ne efficiatur additis substantiis germicidis ... Medicamina quibus aut a natura aut a praeparatione vires germicidae insunt, sterilefacere haud necesse est")

21 antiseptic  adj.  ? antisepticus, a, um* (Pharm. Austr. xxvii; EGGER S.L. 103: medicamentum antisepticum)

21 auscultation  auscultâtio, ônis f. (*) (1846 GROSSE 32)

21 auscultation: stethoscope

21 bandage

21 bandage: cast

21 bandage: sling (support for injured arm)

21 bandage: splint

21 blood pressure  ►► Mod. Gr. αρτηριακή πιέση

21 caesarean section  sectio caesarea (EGGER S.L. 79)

21 catheter

21 clinical   ►► cf. Pharm. Austr. ix: "in selectione medicaminum ... prae ceteris rationes scientificae et clinica experientia consulta fuerint"

21 colonoscopy  coloscopia, ae* f.  ►► cf. CELS. 7, 4, 1: explorare specillo; CELS. 7, 7, 6: inserere specillum

21 crutch  fulmentum subalare

21 diagnosis  ► diagnôsis, is (or eos) f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 6 et passim: "in diagnosi morbi nostri peritum."

21 doctor, medical doctor, physician  ► medicus, i m.  ¶ Cic.  Plin.  Suet.  ► medicae, ae f.  ¶ Apul.  |  doctors collectively, the medical profession  ¶ gens Aesculpia  ¶ 1826 LÜDERSiv.

21 doctor: head doctor, chief doctor  ► archiâtrus, i m.  ¶ Cod. Th.  1784 THUNBERG xix.  1794 RUIZ iii.  ► medicus prîmârius  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 4.

21 doctor's office  ► medicîna, ae f.  ¶ PLAUT.  Don.► taberna medica  ¶ Cf. Plin. 29, 12, calling a doctor's office a "taberna."

21 doctor's orders  medici praescriptum (PLIN. 14, 143)

21 emergency  subitus câsus (QUINT. 10, 3, 3)

21 emergency room  âtrium (v. oecus) subito casu periclitantium

21 emergency: critical condition  (summum) vitae perîculum (v. discrîmen)  |  be in critical condition  in (summo) vitae periculo (v. discrimine) versari (cf. 1652 TURS. 317: "rex... a quodam nobili Polono securi bis caput et humerum percussus, summum incurrit vitae periculum")

21 ether (diethyl ether, an anaesthetic)  aether, eris m. (Pharm. Austr. 22: "aether pro narcosi")

21 examination (of a patient), medical examination  \\ (aegrôti v. aegrôtantis) inspectio  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 74, of Galenus: "si interdum ob aegrotantium inspectiones tardius se lavandum dubitabat."

21 examine (a patient)  \\ (aegrôtum v. aegrôtantem v. morbum) inspicere  \ Plaut. Pers. 316, to a fellow-slave who appears to have a growth on his neck: "Inspicere morbum tuum lubet."

21 heart: angioplasty

21 heart: coronary-bypass surgergy

21 heart: open-heart surgery

21 heart: pacemaker  instrumentum cordis stimulandi (cf. EGGER S.L. 22:instrumentum cordi stimulando)  ► instrumentum excitatorium (EGGER S.L. 80).  EL: stimulateur cardiaque; marcapasos; βηματοδ ó της  (της καρδιας)  ► φλεβόκομβος

21 hospital  ► valêtûdinârium, i n.  ¶ Sen.  \ Tac.  \ Cels.  \ EGGER D.L. 10.  ► nosocomîum, i n.  ¶ Cod. Just. 1, 2, 19.  \ HIER. Ep. 77, 6.  \ 1652 TURS. 199.  \ 1826 LÜDERS v et passim. \ 1843 TRAPPEN 85-86: "In nosocomium exceptus est."  \ 1846 GROSSE 24: "in nosocomio caritatis."  \ EGGER D.L. 42. 

21 hospital: admit (a patient) to a hospital  ► in nosocomîum recipere  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS vi: "in illud nosocomium recepti sunt," etc.

21 hospital: clinic (medical facility treating outpatients), infirmary, outpatient center, urgent care center  ► ? iatrêum, i* n.  ¶ Cf. Anc. and  Mod. Gr.  ιατρε í ον , of a clinic or infirmary.  

21 hospital: university hospital, research hospital  ► nosocomîum acadêmicum  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS, title page.

21 immune (med.)  ► (ab aliquo morbo) immûnis  ¶ Hoeven 279, of the inventor of the smallpox vaccine: "Edward Jenner cum observaverat agricolas qui vaccas tractant vaccinâ laborantes ... a variolarum contagione immunes degere, anno 1798 hac de re librum edidit."  ► (aliquo morbo) immûnis  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 1, on smallpox immunity arising from exposure to cowpox: "In Holsatia hominum ante ... triginta et viginti annos vacciolis fortuito infectorum et per illas variolis immunium exstiterunt exempla."  Ibid. 2: "variolarum contagio immunes, quippe vacciolis iam antea infectos."  ►(alicuius morbi) immûnis  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 6: "Quem [morbum] veras fuisse vacciolas Woodvillius comprobavit insitione in pueros, qui postea insiti materiâ variolosâ, variolarum immines permanserunt."

21 inject  (aliquid) in venas (alicuius) immittere, in venas inicere (EGGER S.L. 70: "in eius venas iniectum 'serum veritatis,' id est sodium Thopalense").  ►► LS: "immitto: ... canalibus aqua immissa,CAES. B. C. 2, 10, 6; ... cloacam privatam in publicum, ib. 43, 23, 1; and: puram aquam in alvum, CELS. 2, 12."

21 inject: vaccinate or inoculate for smallpox  ► vaccîniam* inserere  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS iii: "vacciniae inserendae munere ... perfunctus."

21 inject: vaccinate, inoculate  ► inoculare (*)  ¶ 1771 WAY 6: "qui nolunt quemquam inoculari nisi duos perfecerit annos."  ► inserere (insêvi, insitus)  ¶ 1771 WAY 4: "Mox in regiam familiam haec nova variolas inserendi methodus est tentata."  1826 LÜDERS 6: "Quem [morbum] veras fuisse vacciolas Woodvillius comprobavit insitione in pueros, qui postea insiti materiâ variolosâ, variolarum immines permanserunt."

21 inject: vaccinate: be vaccinated or inoculated, get a shot  ► inoculâtiônem pati  ¶ 1771 WAY 5.  ► insitiônem pati  nbsp;¶ 1771 WAY 5.

21 inject: vaccination or inoculation for smallpox  ► variolarum* vaccînarum insectio  ¶ Ann. Acad. Rheno-Tr. (1823-24), "Oratio de nostra cognitione animi," 49: "Uberrima fuit occasio ... insectionem variolarum vaccinarum administrandi."  ► vaccîniae* insitio  ¶ iv et passim: "Demonstrare conatus sum hanc variolarum pestem non nisi vacciniae insitione rite instituta esse domitandam."  ► vaccînâtio, ônis* f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS iv: "Vaccinationis incrementa iisdem adhuc premuntur impedimentis quae tam diu iis obstiterunt."

21 inject: vaccination, inoculation, shot  ► inoculâtio, ônis (*) f.  ¶ 1771 WAY 1 et passim, of smallpox vaccine.  Hoeven 279, on the inventor of the smallpox vaccine: "Postquam inoculationem eo consilio [scil. ad variolarum prophylaxim] adhibere didicerant medici, Edward Jenner cum observaverat agricolas qui vaccas tractant vaccinâ laborantes ... a variolarum contagione immunes degere, anno 1798 hac de re librum edidt."  ► insitio, ônis f.  ¶ 1771 WAY 2: "Variolarum insitio hunc morbum, ex suâ naturâ exitialem, minus periculosum reddidit."  1826 LÜDERS 2: "historiam insitionis vacciolarum."  Ibid. 6: "quae ab experimento insitionis desumuntur."  Ibid.: "quem [morbum] veras fuisse vacciolas Woodvillius comprobavit insitione in pueros, qui postea insiti materiâ variolosâ, variolarum immines permanserunt."

21 injection (medical)  iniectio, ônis f. (1846 GROSSE 29, of a patient suffering from gonorrhea: "mercurio et iniectionibus curabatur." iniectio hypodermatica* (Pharm. Austr. xxvii: "liquores detinati ad iniectionem intravenosam aut hypodermaticam ne dispensentur nisi sterilefacti")

21 lifestyle (considered with respect to health), healthy lifestyle, healthy living, healthy habits  < diaeta, ae f.  ¶ CIC. Att. 4, 3, 3, in a figurative application of the term to politics, explaining why he did not arrange for the rampaging Clodius to be killed: "Sed ego diaetâ curare incipio, chirurgiae taedet."  \ 5th c. CAEL. AUR. Acut. 2, 12, 146, noting that treatments for hemorrhage ("fluore sanguinis") belong to the category of diaeta rather than chirurgia: "Thessalus secundo libro Diaetetico de fluore sanguinis scribens, nihil in Chirurgumenis memoravit. Et improprium, quod solâ diaetâ curetur, in adiutoriis adhibendis chirurgiae coenoteti ascribere" (where chirurgiae coenoteti means "the class of diseases [ κοινότης ] treatable by chirurgia").  On the opposition between diaeta and chirurgia (invoked in this quote and that from Cicero), see the comment for diaetetice under the entry health maintenance.  \ 1752 STUMPF 7: "Quotus quisque eorum qui de optimis diaetae instituendae rationibus praeceperunt, cuius institutiones rectam dentium curandorum methodum simul exposuerint?"  ¶ Ibid. 9: "dum omnis cura dentium, tam quae ab accuratâ diaetae atque vitae regendae methodo [an attentive approach to healthy living] dependet, quam quae pharmaceuticis potissimum medicationibus absolvitur."  ¶ Ibid. 21, introducing advice on diet and oral hygiene: "Quorum errorum adeo insignis in communi diaetâ vivendique genere animadvertitur numerus, ut saltem potiores hîc perstringere ... brevitatis intersit."  ► diaetae regimen  ¶1752 STUMPF 26: "In diaetae regimine ad dentium cariem praecavendam determinato, praecipua ratio est habenda evitandorum eorum quae dentes squalore et ... tartareis inquinamentis obducunt." ► vîtae regimen  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 27: "Haud pauciores in vitae regimine committuntur errores qui, ipsam sape providae dentium curae speciem habentes, nihil minus eosdem occulte laedunt."  ►diaetae vîtaeque regimen  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 33: "praecipua autem mala, quae a perverso diaetae vitaeque regiminis ordine in gingivas redundant."  |  adj.  ► diaetêticus, a, um  ¶ 5th c. CAEL. AUR. Acut. 2, 12, 145: "Diaetetices scriptores libris regularibus, quos diaeteticos vocant, de haemoptyicis scripserunt."  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 121: "Statum morbosum ... usu coffeae diaetetico minus frequentum redditum esse autumat."  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 26: "Ad quae tamen mala avertenda îdem [scil. Galenus] haud incongrua remedia diaetetica eodem loco commendavit."  ¶ Ibid. 31: "De externis cariosae dentium corruptionis causis, diaeteticis ex errore derivatis, haec ... sufficiant."  ►► Diaeta is a general mode of life recommended or prescribed for health reasons; it encompasses diet, exercise, habits of good hygiene, and environmental factors such as climate and air quality.

21 lifestyle: health maintenance, self-care, preventive medicine, field of science or study recommending lifestyle choices for staying healthy (as through exercise, diet, hygiene)  ►diaetêticê, ês (or a, ae) f.  \ 1st c. SCRIBONIUS 200: "Implicitas medicinae partes inter se et ita conexas esse ut nullo modo diduci sine totius professionis detrimento possint, ex eo intelligitur quod neque chirurgia sine diaeteticâ neque haec sine chirurugiâ ... perfici possunt."  \ 5th c. CAEL. AUR. Acut. 2, 12, 145, arguing that hemorrhage ("supradictis fluoribus") is the province of diaetetica, not chirurgia: "Omne enim adiutorium quod adhiberi videtur supradictis fluoribus est diaeteticae partis, non chirurgiae. Quapropter diaetetices scriptores libris regularibus, quos diaeteticos vocant, de haemoptyicis scripserunt (quos nos sanguinem spuentes nuncupamus); chirurgi vero in chirurgumenis hoc memorare non ausi sunt."  \ Scribonius and Caelius Aurelianus, in applying the dichotomy diaetetica-chirurgia, assign to diaetetica "not only diet and regimen but also the use of drugs" (Drabkin, note on Cael. Aur. Acut. 2, 12, 145, p. 659 n. 8) – a usage later writers on medicine appear not to have followed.  In understanding this division of medicine into diaetetica and chirurgia, it helps to know that chirurgia for the ancients embraced not only what we call "surgery," but all treatments requiring the practitioner to touch or manipulate in any way the patient's body (including the use of plasters and the dressing of wounds).  The treatments Caelius recommends for hemorrhage (and so ascribes to diaetetice) include matters of diet, rest, and exercise, and the external and internal use of medicinal plants (Acut. 2, 13).  ► medicîna valetûdinis conservâtôria+  \ Cf. 1569 MERCURIALE 2: "Atque hi fuere primi Herodicus Selymbrianus, et Hippocrates eius discipulus, qui curativae morborum medicinae conservatoriam valedudinis partem fere circa sana dumtaxat corpora satagentem addere visi sunt, arbitrantes non minus praeclarum atque artificiosum opus esse sanos homines a morbis praecavere, quam illos iam implicitos liberare. Unde medecina, quae antea semper quasi virgo fuerat, praegnans ab illis reddita fuit, quandoquidem prius solis curandis aegritudinibus, tum sanis etiam conservandis praefecta est."  \\ medicîna conservâtîva  \ Cf. 1569 MERCURIALE 5-6: "Inveterata permansit inter medicos consuetudo, ut omnes duas medicinae partes primarias efficiant, alteram curativam, alteram conservativam nuncupantes."  \ Ibid. 7: "cum igitur duae sint medicinae partes, una curativa, altera conservativa."  \\ medicîna prophylactica  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 5 (in Greek): "Ambae medicinae partes, sicuti diversae re verâ sunt, pariter varia nomina habuerunt, alteraque  προφυλακτική , sive  υγιεινή , altera  θεραπευτική  nuncupata fuit."  ►► The concept of health and health care transmitted from antiquity – and thus fundamental for Latin terminology – makes practices designed to preserve health and ensure fitness (especially matters of exercise and diet) an essential area of medicina.  That area of medicina concerned with treating the sick – what we generally have in mind today when speaking of "medicine" – can be distinguished as clinicêtherapeuticê, or medicina curativa.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 2: "An totam eam medicinae partem, quae ad sanos et ad victûs rationem pertinet, ex tabellulis aliisve donariis Aesculapii templo dicatis Hippocrates conflaverit, an vero solam in curandis morbis versantem, clinicem vocatam ... mihi plane compertum non est."

21 lifestyle: maintain one's health, stay healthy, take care of oneself  < sanitâtem custodire  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 8: "Omnesque fere testantur exercitationum artem et ad avertendos futuros morbos et ad custodiendam praesentem sanitatem ... incredibilem utilitatem afferre."  \\ sanitâtum tuêri  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 27, listing types of men who used the ancient gymnasia: "Quartum genus erant omnes illi, sive nobiles sive ignobiles, qui vel militaris disciplinae et fortitudinis, vel tuendae sanitatis et boni habitûs comparandi gratiâ variis exercitationium generibus incumbebant."

21 lifestyle: preventive, preventative, prophylactic  ► prophylacticus, a, um* \ 1843 TRAPPEN 83: "hunc potum febrium intermittentium prophylacticum aestimant."  ► praeservatîvus, a, um  ► vî tûtôriâ (in aliquam rem) praeditus  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 2, of cowpox matter as providing immunity from smallpox: "vi tutoriâ in variolas praeditum."  |  subst.  ► prophylacticum, i* n.  ¶1843 TRAPPEN 83.  ► tûtâmen, inis n.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 91: "infuso coffeae tamquam tutamine uti posse ne ipsi illâ [febri] afficiantur."

21 lifestyle: unhealthy habit, poor lifestyle choice  ► error diaetêticus  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 15, of improper care of teeth.  ► vitium diaetêticum  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 33, introducing a discussion of the effect of smoking on the teeth: "vitia diaetetica ipsis dentibus peculiariter infesta."

21 lobotomy  lobotomia, ae* f.

21 local (as anesthesia), topical, localized  topicus, a, um (Cass. Fel.; 1843 TRAPPEN 120-121: "ad topicas oris affectiones scorbuticas corrigendas")

21 medical exam 

21 mental hospital, insane asylum  manicomîum, i* n., phrênocomîum, i* n.

21 nurse  nosocomus, i m. (Cod. Just. 1, 3, 41, 13)  ► nosocoma, ae f., aegrotorum curatrix (1846 GROSSE 19)

21 nursing home (for elderly), retirement home  ► gerontocomîum, i* n.  ¶ Cod. Just. 1, 2, 19.  Greg. M. Ep. 12, 16.  DUCANGE.  EGGER D.L. 10. asylum senibus excipiendis (Bacci IOE 40)

21 operation (surgical), surgical procedure, a surgery  sectio chirurgica (EGGER S.L. 32)  ► operâtio chirurgica (1846 GROSSE 32)

21 pain: sharp or biting pain  dolor mordens (1846 GROSSE 21: "mordentes intestinorum dolores")

21 pathology  ► pathologia, ae* f.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 25: "Qui vero diagnoseos huius morbi difficultatum meminerit et tenebrarum quibus adhuc obtegitur eiusdam pathologia," etc.

21 patient  ► aegrôtus, i m.  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 21: "Aegrota nunc risum edebat, nunc ioco utebatur cum visitantibus medicis."  ¶ Ibid. 24: "in omnibus casibus in quibus aegroti congestiones non conqueruntur."  ► aeger, gri m.  ¶ 1771 WAY 6: "Scribunt aliqui inoculationem omni tempore peragendum esse, si tantum pro aetate et habitu aegri remedia demus."  ► patiens, ntis m. \ ►subiectum, i n. \

21 practice medicine  medicînam exercêre (Cic. Clu. 63, 178)  ► medicînam factitare (Quint. 7, 2, 26)  ► artem medicam factitare 1843 TRAPPEN 83)

21 practice: medical practice  ► praxis medica  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xii: "professori Burmanno, scriptis botanicis elegantissimis et praxi medicâ ... celebratissimo."  1843 TRAPPEN 99.

21 procedure (medical)  ► operâtio, ônis f.  ¶ 1771 WAY 6, of smallpox inoculation.

21 prognosis (medical)  ► prognôsis, is f.  ¶ Cael. Aur.  1771 WAY 17: "ut certam prognosin formare liceat."

21 prosthesis  ► prothesis, is f. ¶ EGGER D.L. 55: "prothesis cruralis."  ►► [[ potius "prosthesis"; at haud scio an neutrum accipiendum. ]]

21 pulse (throbbing of the arteries)  ► vênarum pulsus  ¶ QUINT.  TAC.  ► artêrârium pulsus  ¶ PLIN. 11, 210: "Arteriarum pulsus in cacumine maxime membrorum evidens, index fere morborum."  ► pulsus, ûs m.  ¶ CAEL. AUR.  1843 TRAPPEN 76, on effects of coffee: "Pulsus plenior, frequentior et simul mollior fit."  1846 GROSSE 13: "exiguam pulsûs incitationem," "a slightly faster pulse."  Ibid. 14: "Pulsus fecit ictûs septuaginta per minutam."  Ibid. 15: "Pulsus ... feriebat septuagies per minutam."  EGGER D.L. 56.  ► vênarum percussus  ¶ PLIN. 7, 171.  | (frequency of these throbbings, pulse rate)  ► pulsuum numerus  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 15: "Crevit pulsuum numerus ita ut paulatim octoginta, centum, et postremo centum viginti ictûs numerarentur."  ► pulsuum frequentia  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 16: "Pulsuum frequentia ... ictibus decem aucta erat, cum ipse pulsûs numerarem."

21 pulse: take (someone's) pulse  vênarum pulsum sentire (QUINT. 7, 10, 10)  ► vênarum pulsum attingere (TAC. A. 6, 50: "medicus ... [Tiberii] manum complexus pulsum venarum attigit."  ► vênam temptare (SUET. Tib. 72)  ► pulsûs numerare (1846 GROSSE 16)  |  irregular pulse  vênarum pulsus inaequabilis (PLIN. 7, 171)  |  a weak pulsus  pulsus parvus 1843 TRAPPEN 94) |  the pulse increased from 65 to 78  pulsuum ictûs a sexaginta quinque ad septuaginta octo augentur (1846 GROSSE 14)  |  stoppage or cessation of the pulse  asphyxia, ae* f. (Anc. Gr.)  |  having no pulse (of one whose pulse has ceased  asphycticus, a, um* 1843 TRAPPEN 120)

21 quarantine

21 recover, get better, get well  (ex morbo) convalescere (CIC.; SUET.), pristinum sanitâtis statum recuperare 1843 TRAPPEN 86)

21 recuperate, get better (after sickness), get well  a morbo recreari, convalescere, revalescere

21 respiratory  respîrâtôrius, a, um (1846 GROSSE 19)

21 respiratory rate, rate of breathing  respîrâtio (tardior v. citatior)  ► respîrâtiônis numerus (1846 GROSSE 11: "quo magis diminuebatur respirationum numerus"; 1846 GROSSE 12: "respirationum numerus minuebatur circiter triginta ductibus," "diminished by about 30 breaths [a minute]."  |  his respiratory rate is 15 breaths a minute  minutis singulis quindecies aerem trahit (cf. 1846 GROSSE 11, of a scientific experiment on a rabbit: "post quadrantem horae respiratio tardior fiebat, nam cum antea octogies per minutam traheretur aer, sensim dimidio raro exhalabatur')

21 scalpel, surgical knife  ¶ scalpellum, i n.  ¶ Cic.  Cels.  1771 WAY 16.  ► scalprum, i n.  ¶ Cels.

21 scalpel: lancet (surgical)  ► lanceola, ae f. /

21 specialist  (doctor)  medicus in speciali disciplinâ versatus (EGGER S.L. 79)

21 specialties: chiropractic  chîropraxia, ae* f., chîropractica, ae (or ê, ês)* f. (Mod. Gr.  χειροπρακτικη )  ►► For the formation of chiropraxia, cf. protopraxia (PLIN. Ep.)  ► Anc. Gr. δυσπραξια ευπραχια ισοπραχια , etc.

21 specialties: chiropractor  chîropractus, i* m.  ►► For the formation, cf. Anc. Gr.  δημοσιοπρακτος αυστηροπρακτος αυτοπρακτος , etc.

21 specialties: dermatologist  ► dermatiatrus, i* m.

21 specialties: hematology (scientific study of organic blood)  haematologia, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. αιματολογία)

21 specialties: histology (scientific study of organic tissues)  histologiae, ae f. (1846 GROSSE 31)

21 specialties: homeopathicus  homoeopathicus, a, um* 1843 TRAPPEN 101: "quomodo ceterum nonnulli coffeae facultatem ad ebriolos reficiendos actioni cuidam homöopathicae adscribant")

21 specialties: homeopathy  homoeopathica, ae* f. (cf. Mod. Gr. ομοιοπαθητική)

21 specialties: neurological  neurologicus, a, um* (EGGER S.L. 80)

21 specialties: obstetrician  medicus obstreticius

21 specialties: obstetrics  ars obstetricia (1846 GROSSE 32)

21 specialties: ophthalmological  ophthalmiatricus, a, um*  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 32.

21 specialties: ophthalmologist  ► ophthalmiatrus, i* m.  ► ocularius medicus (Bacci IOE); 

21 specialties: orthopedic (hospital), podiatrist, pediatric(ian)

21 specialties: osteology (scientific study of bones)  osteologia, ae f. (1846 GROSSE 31)

21 specialties: pathological  (involving the scientific study of disease)  pathologicus, a, um  ► 1752 STUMPF 24.  1846 GROSSE 32.

21 specialties: pathological, compulsive 

21 specialties: pathology (scientific study of disease)  pathologia, ae f. (1846 GROSSE 31)

21 specialties: physical therapist, physiotherapist  \\ iatralipta, ae m. \ CELS. 1, 1; "Sanus homo, qui et bene valet et suae spontis est, nullis obligare se legibus debet, ac neque medico neque iatraliptâ egere."  \ PLIN. Ep. 10, 5: "Proximo anno, domine, gravissimâ valetudine usque ad periculum vitae vexatus iatralipten assumpsi."  \ PETR. 28, 3)  ► cinêsitherapeuta, ae* m.  \ Cf. Fr. kinésithérapeute.  ►► The alipta was apparently a combination of masseur and personal trainer; the iatralipta (the first element of the compound being from  ιατρος , medical doctor), one who used similar techniques in treating the sick.  The term thus appears appropriate for today's physical therapists, who use massage and exercise for physical rehabilitation.  ||  EB s.v. physical medicine and rehabilitation: "also called Physiatry, Physical Therapy, or Rehabilitation Medicine, medical specialty concerned with the treatment of chronic disabilities and with the restoration of normal functioning to the disabled through physical modes of treatment, such as exercise.  This specialized medical service is generally aimed at rehabilitating persons disabled by pain or ailments affecting the motor functions of the body ... The therapeutic means most commonly employed include heat, massage, exercise, electrical currents, and functional training."  OED s.v. physiotherapy: " The treatment of disease, injury, or deformity by physical methods, such as massage, exercise, and the application of heat, light, fresh air, and other external influences." ||  Iatralipta: "masseur" (OLD)  | "surgeon who practices by annointment, friction and the like, PLIN. Ep.10.5(4), CELS. 1.1, Gal. 13.104; hence  ιατρ - αλειπτικη  (sc.  τεχνη ), practice of an  ιατρολειπτης , PLIN. H.N. 29.4" (Lidell-Scott)  |  "a physician who cures by anointing, an ointment-doctor, CELS. 1, 1; PLIN. Ep. 10, 4, 1; PETR. 28, 3" (LS)  |  "qui traite par les frictions, masseur" (Gaffiot).  ||  Alipta: "one who annoints (athletes), a trainer of wrestlers or other gymnasts" (OLD)  |  " anointer: hence (cf.  αλειφω  1) trainer in gymnasia ... Lat. aliptes, bath-attendant, JUV. 6.422" (Lidell-Scott)  |  "the manager in the school for wrestlers, who took care that the wrestlers anointed their bodies with unguents, in order to give them the necessary suppleness, and exercised them in the ring, master of wrestling, or of the ring: ut aliptae, virium et coloris rationem habere, CIC. Fam. 1, 9, 15; geometres, pictor, aliptes, JUV. 3, 76; aliptâ egere, CELS. 1, 1" (LS)  |  "celui qui frotte ou parfume les athltètes ou les baigneurs, masseur" (Gaffiot).

21 specialties: physical therapy, physiotherapy  iatralipsia, ae* f., cinêsitherapîa, ae* f. (HELFER)  ► cinêsitherapeusia, ae* f. 

21 specialties: plastic surgery  chirûrgia anaplastica* (HELFER citing 19th c. source)  ► chirûrgia plastica, chirûrgia calliplastica*

21 stent, stint  tubulus apertîvus (for adj. apertivus, see CaelAur. 3, 4, 40)  ► tubulus Stentiânus

21 sterile, aspectic

21 sterilize, make aseptic

21 surgical operation, a surgery  sectio, onis f. (PLIN. 25, 150: "[madragoras] bibitur ante sectiones punctionesque, ne sentiantur"; CELS. 7, 26, 1: "eo ferramento quo in sectione calculus [kidney stone] protrahitur")

21 suture: use of sutures or stitches  aciurgia, ae f. (1846 GROSSE 32)

21 symptom  ► symptôma, atis n.  ¶ CaelAur.  CassFel.  Bonon. Acad. I, 310.  1771 WAY 12: "prius quam variolarum symptomata ingruant."  1843 TRAPPEN 80.  1846 GROSSE 12: "eadem fere symptomata exhibere," et passim.  ► signum morbi diagnosticum  ¶ Bonon. Acad. I, 307.  ► phaenomenon semiôticum*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 35, on dental disease as a sign or symptom of more general health problems.

21 Syria language: Aramaic  \\ lingua Aramaica (v. Chaldaica)  \\ lingua Chaldaea  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 84, of the languages used in Jerusalem in Jesus' time: "Illud vero constat, in urbe semper quinque linguarum exstitisse usum: Hebreae, Chaldaeae, Syriacae, Graecae et Latinae, quarum Syriaca in frequentiore usu erat ... Hunc in modum Syriaca lingua apud Hebraeos inducta, propagata est conservata est, quem ad modum Chaldaeam, Syriacae valde similem, ipismet Iudaei ex Bayloniâ, ubi illa usurpabatur, sponte transtulerunt."  Mercuriale here appears to use "lingua Chaldaea" of Biblical Aramaic (that used in Daniel and Ezra), and "lingua Syriaca" of the speech prevalent in Judea around Jesus' time and the language of the major targums.  ► Aramaismus, i* m. \ Gesenius 1.  |  adj.  \\ Aramaicus, a, um  \\ Chaldaicus, a, um \ 1698 Hofmann iv.

21 syringe, hypodermic needle  syringa hypodermica* (v. subcutanea*)  ► syringa, ae f. (Veget.; LATHAM; EGGER S.L. 70, 75)  ►► Forc.: "syringa ... injectio, Veget. 1 Veterin. 28, 7. Souter: "syringa: a hole for injection, hence an injection [eundum locum laudat]."

21 therapeutic  therapeuticus, a, um (1846 GROSSE 23)

21 therapy, treatment (medical)  ► cûrâtio, ônis f.  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.  ► cûrâtio medica  ¶ 1784 THUNBERG xv.  ► therapîa, ae* f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 112.  1846 GROSSE 30.  ► medicâtio, ônis f.  ¶ Col.  1752 STUMPF 9: "dentium cura ... quae pharmaceuticis potissimum medicationibus absolvitur."

21 vital functions  functiones vitales (f. pl.) 1843 TRAPPEN 120: "asphycticis hominbusque quorum functionum vitales ictu fulminis, gaz carbonii inspiratione, gelu, aere latrinarum ... corrupto interceptae sunt, coffeae infusum convenire quidam testantur")

21 wheel-chair  sella subrotata, sella rotalis (EGGER S.L. 55)

21 x-ray  radius Roentgenianus (EGGER D.L. 33)

21 x-ray: radiation treatment (as for cancer)  (Mod. Gr. ακτινοθεραπεία)

21 x-ray: use of x-rays, radioscopy  (Mod. Gr. ακτινοσκοπία, ακτινοσκόπηση)

22

22    SICK

22 /attack (med.: sudden onset or fit of disease or its symptoms)  paroxysmus, i m. (OED s.v. paroxysm mentioning 6c source; 1843 TRAPPEN 110-111: "asthmatis paroxysmum ... sedare"; 1846 GROSSE 20, describing a patient's violent reaction to medicinal cannabis: "respirationes celerrimae ... nuntiabant plerumque novum paroxysmi insultum."  ► accessus, ûs m. 1843TRAPPEN 86: "febris accessûs," et passim)

22 /catch (a disease) \\ (morbum) contrahere  ¶ Plin.

22 /chronic (of disease)  inveteratus, a, um, vetus, eris (PLIN. 20, 36: "prodest homini ad tussim veterem," et saepe; 1571 MATTIOLI 92: "veteres defluxiones sistit."  ► chronicus, a, um (ISID.;1846 GROSSE 24)

22 /contagious disease  morbus contagiosus (EGGER S.L. 103)  ► pestilentia, ae f. (PLIN. 23, 157: "Laurus Delphicae folia ... pestilentiae contagia prohibent")

22 /disease: die of a disease, succumb to a disease  ► (alicui morbo) succumbere  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS v: "qui anno praeterlapso Londini variolis [smallpox] succubuerunt."

22 /disease: have a disease and survive (esp. of diseases assuring future immunity)  ► (aliquo morbo) defungi  ¶ LIV. 4, 52: "Defunctâ civitate plurimorum morbis, perpaucis funeribus, pestilentem annum inopia frugum ... excepit."

22 /epidemic  adj.  ► epidêmus, a, um  ¶ Amm.  ► epidêmius, a, um*  ¶ Anc. Gr.  LATHAM citing 16c source.  BARTAL citing 19c source.  ► epidêmicus, a, um*  ¶ F. BaconHistoria Regni Henrici VII 10.  LATHAM citing 17c source.  BARTAL citing 19c source.  1843 TRAPPEN 91.  ► (publicê) grassans  ¶ 1771 WAY 5: "febris publice grassans."

22 /recurring (of a disease), flaring back up  recidîvus, a, um (Cels. 3, 4, 12: febris recidivus; Plin. 30, 104: febris recidivus; 1843 TRAPPEN 87: "febrem recidivam intermittentem")

22 /sick: bed-ridden  < decumbens, ntis  \  < lecto detentus  \ 1652 TURS. 396.

22 /sick: seriously ill, debilitated by illness  < decumbens, ntis  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 9: "Quodsi Hippocrates, in libro De locis in homine, scripsit gymnasticam et medicinam contrarias esse ... de solâ eâ medicinae parte semonem habuit quae in medendis decumbentibus ... versatur." 

22 /terminal (as of disease), fatal, deadly  ► mortifer, a, um  ¶ CIC. Div. 1, 30, 63: morbus mortifer.  ► lêtâlis, e  ¶ 1652 TURS. 357: "Cardinalem Valetam ... lethalis morbus abstulit." 1771 WAY 4: "hoc morbo letali."  ► lêtifer, fera, ferum  ¶ 1771 WAY 4: "lêtifer iste morbus."

22 /terminal: fatally, mortally  mortaliter (1652 TURS. 374: "mortaliter laesus."  ► lêtâliter (1652 TURS. 404: "quam plurimi in hac Martis aleâ desiderati sunt, multi letaliter sauciati")

22 /terminal: incurable, untreatable  (disease)  insanabilis, e (1652 TURS. 25: "insanabili alvi morbo consumptus"; EGGER S.L. 22: "Ingridis Bergman ... insanabili cancri morbo est exstincta." ► immedicabilis, e

22 abdominal pain, abdominal cramps  tormina, um n. pl. (CIC.; PLIN.)

22 abscess  ► apostêma, atis n.  ¶ Plin.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 357.

22 ache: earache  aurium dolor (1571 MATTIOLI 125)

22 ache: headache  ► dolor capitis  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 99.  1846 GROSSE 22.  ► cephalalgia, ae f.  ¶ PLIN. VALL.  1752 STUMPF 42.  1843 TRAPPEN 75.  ► cephelaea, ae f. (chronic or continuous headache)  ¶ PLIN.  CaelAur.  1846 GROSSE 24.  |  I have a headache  ► e capite labôro  ► dolet (mihi) caput

22 ache: headache: migraine  ► hêmicrânia, ae f.  ¶ Cael. Aur.  1752 STUMPF 42.  ► heterocrânia, ae f.  ► hêmicephelaea, ae f.  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 25.

22 ache: sore throat, pharyngitis  fauces asperae (f. pl.) (1846 GROSSE 29: "de capitis dolore, lassitudine, asperis faucibus questus est")

22 ache: toothache  ► dentium dolor ¶ CELS. 6, 9, 1.  1752 STUMPF 41.  1846 GROSSE 16: "contra vehementissimos dentium dolores."  ► odontalgia, ae* f. (technical medical term) ¶ 1846GROSSE 19.

22 acne  acmê, ês f. (Anc. Gr. with this meaning)  ►► The spelling acne in medical Latin (e.g., BARTAL) was the result of a false manuscript reading in the Greek sources (Lidell-Scott s.v. ακμη).

22 AIDS  morbus AIDS, morbus litteris AIDS signatus, deficientis immunitatis morbus, syndromê* comparati defectûs immunitatis (EGGER S.L. 104)

22 AIDS: HIV  deficientis immunitatis pathogonum*, pathogonum* litteris HIV signatum

22 anemia  anaemia, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. αναιμία)

22 arteriosclerosis, hardening of the arteries  arteriosclerosia, ae* f. (Mod. Gr.  αρτηριοσκληρωση )  ► artêriârum obdûrâtio

22 arthritis  morbus articulâris (PLIN.; SUET.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 299)  ► arthrîtis, idis f. (VITR.; 1843 TRAPPEN 80)  |  having arthritis  arthrîticus, a, um (CIC.)

22 arthritis: rheumatic (suffering from or relating to rheumatoid arthritis)  ► rheumaticus, a, um (*)  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 21.

22 arthritis: rheumatism, rheumatic arthritis  ► rheumatismus, i m.  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 23, 26.  ► rheumatismus articulorum  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 25.  ► morbus rheumaticus  ► dolor rheumaticus  ► inflammâtio articulâris  ► arthrophlogôsia, ae* f.  ¶ cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 139: arthrophlogosis.

22 asphyxia, suffocation  asphyxia, ae f. (1811 PALLAS 15)

22 atrophy  ► atrophia, ae f.  ¶ Cels. 3, 22 (written in Greek).  Cael. Aur.  1752 STUMPF 38.  ► tâbes, is f.

22 breathing: asthma  asthma, atis n. (PLIN. 25, 82)  ► suspîrium, i n. (Col.; SEN.)

22 breathing: asthma attack  asthmatis paroxysmus 1843 TRAPPEN 110-111)

22 breathing: asthmatic, suffering from asthma  asthmaticus, a, um (PLIN.; 1843 TRAPPEN 95)  ► suspîriôsus, a, um (PLIN.; Veg.; 1571 MATTIOLI 382)

22 breathing: out of breath, suffering from shortness of breath, having trouble breathing  ► anhêlus, a, um  ¶ Verg.  Ov.   ► anhêlôsus, a, um*  ¶ Cael. Aur. Acut. 2, 148. 1571 MATTIOLI 124.  ► suspîriôsus, a, um  ¶ Sid. 5, 17, 7, of a man who overexerted himself playing ball: "Primus ludi ab accentu sese removit suspiriosus."

22 burn  subst.  (on body)  adustio, ônis f. (PLIN. 20, 61: "[lactucae sucus sanat] cicatrices adustionesque omnes."  ► ambustio, ônis f. (PLIN. 23, 87)  ► ambustum, i n. (PLIN. 20, 217: "sanat ... ambusta, carbunculos, aures"; PLIN. 22, 132: "aurium inflammationi inlinitur et ambustis," "it is rubbed on inflammed eyes and burns"; 1571 MATTIOLI 93: "ambustis illitae")

22 burn: be burned (of person), suffer burns  ustione sauciari (EGGER S.L. 83)  |  be burned to death  igne absumi (EGGER S.L. 83)

22 burn: burn down (a building), destroy by fire  incendio vastare (Hirt.)  ► incendio devastare 1843 TRAPPEN 25)

22 cancer  cancer, cri m. (EGGER D.L. 33)  ► carcinôma, atis n. (CELS.; PLIN.; 1846 GROSSE 24: "mulieres carcinomate uteri laborantes."  ► cancri morbus (EGGER S.L. 22)

22 cancer: chemotherapy  chêmîotherapîa, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. χημειοθεραπεία)

22 cancer: metastasis (movement of pain or disease from one part of the body to another)  ► metastasis, is (*) f.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 32: "Ne, factâ ... materiae huius serosae vel lypmhaticae corruptae metastasi, ad os derivata dentibus ... irreparabile inferatur detrimentum."  Mod. Gr. μεταστάσις in this sense.

22 cancer: tumor  scirrus, i m. (PLIN. 1846 GROSSE 24)

22 cholera  ► cholera Asiatica  ¶ 1846 Hoeven 204.  1871 Ann. Acad. Lugd., 19: "Graviorem luctum attulit morbus dirus, cholera Asiatica dictus, cuius vim letalem haec civitas olim plus semel senserat."  Ibid. 29: "Ne unum quidem ex iis corripuit, cum hac in urbe grassaretur, cholera Asiatica."  Dissertation titles:  Joseph Wagner, Commentatio de cholera asiatica, ex observationibus ad aegrorum lectos depromta (Prague, 1833).  Hoeven  Alexander Suerman, Specimen historico-medicum de cholerae Asiaticae itinere per Belgium septentrionale, annis 1832-1834 (Utrecht, 1835).  Joseph Haerten, Dissertatio medica inauguralis exhibens historiam cholerae Asiaticae annis 1848 et 1849 dum Ultrajecti regnabat (Utrecht, 1850).  ► cholera Indica  ¶ 1827Hawley 85.  William Foote, Dissertatio medica inauguralis quaedam de cholera Indica complectens (Edinburg, 1825).  ► cholera orientalis  ¶ Mihály Lenhossék, Animadversiones circa curandam choleram orientalem (Buda, 1831).  ► cholera epidêmica  ¶ Charles Livingston, Dissertatio medica inauguralis de cholera epidemica Indiae orientalis (Edinburg, 1827).

22 cold: a cold (disease), common cold, runny nose   ► gravêdo, inis f.  ¶ PLAUT. As. 796: "quasi gravedo profluat."  ¶ CIC. Att. 16, 11, 3: "Gravedo tua mihi molesta est. Quaeso adhibe quam soles diligentiam."  ¶ Ibid. 16, 14, 4: "Gravedini, quaeso, omni ratione subveni" ("Take care of that cold").  ¶ CELS. 1, 2, 3, of sudden changes of temperature: "Quae res maxime gravedines destillationesque concitat."  ¶ CELS. 1, 5, 2: "Vitari etiam gravedines destillationesque possunt, si quam minime qui his oportunus est loca aquasque mutet, si caput in sole protegit, ne incendatur, neu subito ex repentino nubilo frigus id moveat."  ¶ Ibid. 4, 5, 2: "Gravedo ... nares claudit, vocem obtundit, tussim siccam movet" (quoted at length below).  ¶ PLIN. 30, 31, suggesting a kinky cure for the common cold: "Gravedinem invenio finiri, si quis nares mulinas osculetur."  ¶ 5th c. MARC. EMP. 5, 4 (Teubner ed. p. 47), introducing a pharmaceutical formula: "ad destillationes perfrictionesque et gravedines." ► destillâtiô f. (usually in plural)  ¶ CELS. 1, 2, 3; 1, 5, 2; both passages quoted above.  ¶ PLIN. 22, 138-39: " Panis hic ipse, quo vivitur, innumeras paene continet medicamentas ... Vocis studiosis et contra destillationes siccum esse primo cibo utilissimum est."  ¶ 5th c. MARC. EMP. 5, 4, quoted above.  Ibid. 5, 8 (Teubner ed. p. 48), introducing a pharmaceutical formula: "Ad catarrum sive destillationem humoris ex capite."  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 1: "Usque ad tempora Socratis, destillationum (quas Graeci  κατάρρους  dicunt) nomen, quo nihil hodie frequentius, ignoratum tradit Plato."  ► narium destillâtio  ¶ PLIN. 20, 183, of a medicinal plant: "Destillationem narium discutit tusum in linteolo, olefactum."  ► capitis pîtuîta, ae f. ¶ PLIN. 25, 141, of a medicinal plant: "Huius radix commanducata purgat capitis pituitas."  ► ôris pîtuîta, ae f. ¶ PLIN. 23, 17, of a wild berry: "His nucleis ad purgationem uti non censuerim propter ancipitem strangulationem, neque ad pituitam oris siccandam, quia fauces laedunt."  ► nâsi pîtuîta  ¶ Cf. CELS. 4, 5, 1: "Si in nares destillavit, tenuis per has pituita profluit" (quoted at length below).  ► catarrhus, i m.  ¶ 5th c. CAEL. AUR. 2, 17, 101: "Similia pleuriticae passioni dicuntur dolor lateris ... item ad nares catarrhus, quem vocant coryzan, et anhleatio," etc.  ¶ 5th c. MARC. EMP. 5, 8, quoted above for gravedo.  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 1 (in Greek), quoted above for destillatio.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 152: "vitellus ... cum oleo et syrupo mixtus in catarrho et faucium raucedine lenimen."  ¶ Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 116: "in omnibus catarrhosis affectibus."  ► corŷza, ae f.  ¶ CELS. 4, 5, 2 (in Greek), quoted below.  5th c. CAEL. AUR. 2, 17, 101, quoted above forcatarrhus.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 27.  ► capitis rheuma  ¶ 5th c. MARC. EMP. 5, 1 (Teubner ed. p. 46): "Ad capitis reumata et purgationem et ad pituitae et phlegmatis deductionem et restrictionem catarri [chapter heading]. Ad reuma quod de capite descendit, medicamentum facies tale."  ¶  5th c. MARC. EMP. 5, 2 (Teubner ed. p. 47), introducing a pharmaceutical formula: "ad reumata capitis."  || Rheuma can be used generally of watery secretions or discharges from the body:  ¶ 420 HIER. Ep. 65, 14 (PL 22, 632), in an allegorical interpretation of Psalm 44: "Quod autem sequitur, 'casia,' est ipsa quae ab aliis  συρ í ιγξ , id est, id est, fistula nuncupatur, vocalis in laudes Dei, et omnes pituitas et rheumata voluptatum suo calore excoquens."  ¶ Ibid. 112, 16 (PL 22, 926): "Bonum est continentia, malum est luxuria. Inter utrumque indifferens – ambulare, digerere alvi stercora, capitis naribus purgamenta proiicere, sputis rheumata iacere."  ► dêfluxio catarrhalis*   ¶1752 STUMPF 42.  ► perfrictio, ônis f. ¶ PLIN. 20, 156, of a medinical plant: "Tuso in perfrictione fricari ante balinea convenit et ante accessionum horrorem."  ¶ 5th c. MARC. EMP., p. 10 (Teubner ed.): "De pituiâ perfrictio nascitur, quae facit dolorem intestinorum, torsiones etiam inflationemque, quae corpus extenuat."  ¶ 5th c. MARC. EMP. 5, 4, quoted above for gravedo.  ¶ Albert.  The few passages suggest that the ancients in speaking of  perfrictio had in mind something more severe than an ordinary cold.   ►►  Pituita and rheuma, properly, are terms for mucus or phlegm; destillatio and catarrhus, for its dripping or running; and gravedo for the heavy feeling of being stopped up.  Note that of these only gravedo is found in antiquity out of a technical or scientific context.  ||  Celsius (4, 5, 1-2), in his discussion of colds and runny noses, distinguishes destillatio ("in nares," "in fauces," and "in pulmonem") and gravedo (a distinction not known, as far as I know, to contemporary medicine): "Destillat autem de capite interdum in nares, quod leve est; interdum in fauces, quod peius est; interdum etiam in pulmonem, quod pessimum est. Si in nares destillavit, tenuis per has pituita profluit; caput leviter dolet, gravitas eius sentitur, frequentia sternumenta sunt; si in fauces, has exasperat, tussiculam movet; si in pulmonem, praeter sternumenta et tussim est etiam capitis gravitas, lassitudo, sitis, aestus, biliosa urina. Aliud autem quamvis non multum distans malum gravedo est. Haec nares claudit, vocem obtundit, tussim siccam movet; sub eâdem salsa est saliva, sonant aures, venae moventur in capite, turbida urina est. Haec omnia κόρυζας Hippocrates nominat; nunc video apud Graecos in gravedine hoc nomen servari, destillationem κατασταγμόν appellari." 

22 cold: I have a runny nose   ► destillat (mihi) in nâres (v. in fauces v. in pulmônem) ¶ CELS. 4, 5, 2, quoted under the entry a cold (disease)

22 cold: stopped-up nose  ► nares corŷzâ opplêtae  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 27: "Amicum quendam novimus, qui ob oppletas a coryzâ fere perpetuâ nares hiante ore dormit."

22 coma

22 corn  (on foot)  clavus, i m. (PLIN.; Pharm. Austr. 405)

22 cramp (muscle), muscle spasm  ► convulsio, ônis f.  ¶ PLIN.  1752 STUMPF 42: "spasmi atque convulsiones."  1846 GROSSE 17: "Correpta est levioribus omnium musculorum convulsionibus, praecipue brachialium, cruralium ac dorsalium."  ► spasmus, i m.  ¶ PLIN.  CaelAur.  1752 STUMPF 42.  1843 TRAPPEN 106.  1846 GROSSE 17.

22 cramp: convulsion  spasmus clonicus (1846 GROSSE 19: "spasmi clonici contractionibus convulsivis extremitates ... iactabant")

22 cramp: experiencing or involving cramps or muscle spasms  convulsivus, a, um 1843 TRAPPEN 115: "in tussi convulsîva"; 1846 GROSSE 19)  ► spasticus, a, um (PLIN.; 1846GROSSE 24)

22 cramp: tic  musculi contractio involutaria et subitanea (1846 GROSSE 9, in list of effects of hashish use: "intercurrentes musculorum contractiones involuntariae et subitaneae."

22 dehydrated

22 dehydration  aquae in corpore penuria, desiccatio* corporis, aphydratôsia, ae* f. (Mod. Gr.  αφυδρατωση )

22 delirium tremens  ► dêlîrium tremens  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 131.  1846 GROSSE 25.  ► dêlîrium pôtâtorum  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 25: "Num [cannabis] utilis sit in delirio potatorum adhuc est valde dubium ... Potator iam per aliquod tempus vomitu matutino affectus cum delirii trementis prodromis in nosocomio caritatis est receptus."

22 diabetes  diabêtês, ae* m. (Anc. Gr. with this meaning)  ► diabêtês* mellîtus (cf. Mod. Gr. σακχαρώδης διαβήτης)

22 diarrhea  ► ventris fluctio  ¶ PLIN. 23, 99.  1752 STUMPF 38.  ► fluor, ôris m.  ¶ CELS. 3, 6.  ► ventris fluor  ¶ EGGER D.L. 16.  ► alvi fluor  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 100.  ►proflûvium, i n.  ¶ CELS. praef.   ► alvus fluens  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 112.  ► alvi fluxus  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 21.  ► ventris fluxus  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 23, on the effects of Persian date wine: "Si qui tamen ex eo bibunt qui consueti ad ipsum non fuerint, patientur fluxum ventris."  Cf. the parallel passage, c.1300 MARCO POLO A 323: "facit ipsum ire ad sellam et purgat eum." ► diarrhoea, ae f.  ¶ CaelAur.  1846 GROSSE 16.  ► sêdes aquôsa  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 19.

22 diarrhea: constipation  ► alvi obstructio  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 24.  ► alvi constîpâtio  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 38.

22 diphtheria  ►

22 dizziness  vertîgo, inis f.

22 Down syndrome  ► (Mod. Gr. σύνδρομο Down, ή αλλιώς Τρισωμία 21 ή Τρισωμία G)

22 dysentery  ► dysenteria, ae f.  ¶ PLIN.  Vulg.  1771 WAY 5.

22 epidemic  subst.  ► morbus epidêmicus  ¶ F. BaconHistoria Regni Henrici VII 10.  1843 TRAPPEN 91: "ad effluvia animalia et contagia morborum epidemicorum delenda."  ►epidêmia, ae+ f.  ¶ DUCANGE.  LATHAM.  BARTAL citing 19c source.  ► lues epidêmus  ¶ Amm. 19, 4, 7: "prima species luis pandemus adpellatur ... secunda epidemus."  ► epidêmium, i n.  ¶ Souter citing VindicMed.  ► pestis (aliquo loco) grassans  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS v: "Lacrimantur innumeri homines variolarum pestem Parisiis iam plures per annos grassentm."  |  (less precisely)  ► lues, is f.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 263: "lues ex caeli intemperie in Lusitania primum orta, totam deinceps peragravit Europam."  ► pestilentia, ae f.  ¶ ERASMUS Epist.  |  a cholera epidemic is be sweeping Asia  ► cholera in Asia epidemice grassatur  ¶ Cf. PLIN. 26, 4: "haec [morborum genera] in pueris grassari, illa in adultis.  F. BaconHistoria Regni Henrici VII10: "grassari coepit ... morbus quidam epidemicus tunc."  Zwinger 2, 236: "Lues variolarum epidemice grassatur."  1843 TRAPPEN 82: "febres intermittentes de novo caput extulisse et epidemice grassari coepisse."  Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 84: "sub intermittentium [febrium] grassatione."  ► cholera in Asica grassatur  ¶ Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 103: "grassante cholerâ Asiaticâ."  ►► Ducange: "EPIDEMIA, Morbus contagiosus et popularis ... Passim occurrit." 

22 epidemic (among animals)  ► epizôôtia, ae* f. 1826 LÜDERS 9, of cowpox epidemic: "Epizootia harum vacciolarum per octo dies grassata est in grege."

22 epidemic: pandemic  lues pandêmus  ► Amm. 19, 4, 7: "prima species luis pandemus adpellatur ... secunda epidemus." 

22 eye: glaucoma  ► glaucôma, atis n.  ¶ PLIN. N.H.

22 eye: macular degeneration

22 faint, pass out, lose consciousness  ► animo linqui  ¶ SUET.  CAES. 45.  ► deliquium animi pati  ¶ Witte Phil. II. 242: "ut nonnumquam deliquium animi pateretur."

22 fainting, loss of consciousness  ► animi dêliquium  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 268: "cucumis ... olfactu deliquio animi affectos revocat."  ► sycopê, ês f.  ¶ Veg.; 1843 TRAPPEN 120: "coffea ante venae sectionem instituendam adhibita syncopen avertisse visa est."

22 fever (above-normal body temperature; as distinct from a febrile disease)  calor febrîlis (Boerhaave Aphor. 147: "calor febrilis thermoscopio ... cognoscitur"; Swieten II. 287: "si idem thermometrum a febricitante aegro manu teneatur ... per aliquot minuta horae, apparebit pro varia altitudine ascendentis argenti viv, quantum calor febrilis excedat naturalem et sanum calorum."  ► ardor febrîlis (Witte Phil. II. 242: "cum febrilis accessisset ardor"; Robley Dunglison, A Dictionary of Medical Science [Philadelphia, 1860] 87, defining as "the hot period of fever."  ► calor fervens (1846 GROSSE 19, describing effects of cannabis: "eandem dosim ... haustam celerrime nausea, gustus iniucundus, vomituritio, dedolatio artuum, temulentia, calor fervidus ... subsequuntur."  | (less precisely)  aestus, ûs m. (Cic.)  ►► Febris normally implies to a febrile disease, one that may include both fever and chills among its symptoms.  See Cels. 3, 3: "febres aliae ab horrore incipiunt, aliae a frigore, aliae a calore."

22 fever: antipyretic, anti-fever  febrifuga, ae* 1843 TRAPPEN 82: "vis coffeae febrifuga, praesertim eius ad pellandas febres intermittentes efficacia")

22 fever: flu, influenza  ► febris catarrhalis (epidêmica+)  ► catarrha febrilis (epidêmica+)  ► catarrhus epidêmicus+ ¶ 1846 Hoeven 205: "catarrhi epidemici, sive influenzae, quae saepius graviores epidemias et praesagiunt et praecedunt."  ¶ All three terms: 18-19c medical treatises.  HELFER.  |  (less precisely)  ► febris, is f.  ¶ 1891 VELENOVSKÝ iii: "Febris impedivit quominus Rhodopen in Alpinas regiones ascenderem."  ►► Febris refers not only to elevated body temperature, but also to febrile diseases generally, of which the most common today by far is influenza.  ||  Dissertationum tituli: Bökel, Johann, Synopsis novi morbi quem plerique medicorum catarrhum febrilem, vel febrem catarrhosam vocant qui non solum Germaniam, sed poene universam Europam gravissime adflixit (Helmestadii, 1580).  Hahn, Johann Gottfried von, Febrium continuarum quae anno 1729 Vratislaviae populariter grassatae sunt recensio: occasione catarrhi febrilis per Europam epidemici adornata (Lipsiae, 1731).  Dern, Ludwig Christian, Disputatio inauguralis medica de febre catarrhali petechizante superioribus aliquot annis hic, in vicinia aliisque locis infesta atque epidemica (Giessae, 1732).  Juch, Hermann Paul, De febre catarrhali epidemia cum tussi et coryza complicata, mensibus vernalibus anni praeteriti in pluribus germaniae provinciis grassante (Erfordiae, 1743).  Bugnicourt, Jérôme Joseph, Dissertatio medica de affectu catarrhali epidemico anni 1775, quem Galli vulgo appellant la grippe (Montpellier, 1776).  Huggan, Andrew, Disputatio medica inauguralis, de catarrho epidemico, vel influenza, uti vulgo appellatur, prout, in India Occidentali, sese ostendit (Edinburgi, 1793).  Jancovius, Eduard Hermann, De febri catarrhali epidemica quae nomine influenze sub finem veris anni 1831 Lipsiam tenuit (Lipsiae, 1831).  Hubatka, Georg,Dissertatio ... catarrhi epidemici conspectum historicum (Wien, 1837).  ||  Cf. 1571 MATTIOLI 127: pestilentiales febres.

22 fever: malaria  febris palustris (LRL)  ► helonosia, ae* f. (Mod. Gr., from  ελος , marsh, and  νοσος , disease)  ► malaria, ae* f. (HELFER)  ►► malus aër (EGGER S.L. 28)  ||  ►► Febris intermittens (v. periodica) (saepe in librorum titulis, vide WC) est fortasse idem ac malaria.  Exstabat hic morbus antiquitus; sciendum quid audierit apud Hippocraten, alios.  EB s.v. malaria: "Malaria is one of the most ancient infections known. It was noted in some of the West's earliest medical records in the 5th century BC, when Hippocrates differentiated malarial fevers into three types according to their time cycles. It is not known when malaria first made its appearance in the Americas, but it is highly probable that it was a post-Columbian importation; some rather severe epidemics were first noted in 1493." ||  Haec ex interrete: "There was some malaria, however, and Hippocrates also mentions mumps, influenza, diptheria, and tuberculosis, but not measles, smallpox, or bubonic plague."  "Recurring fevers (usually malaria) were thought to be the result of some unresolved ailment or due to fatigue or a long journey."  "The ancient Greeks reasoned that bad smelling air caused disease.  They also identified the non-contagious mosquito-borne disease malaria ('bad air') and correctly associated it with foul-smelling swamps.  Thus, in many ways, the miasmatic theory was a way of classifying disease on the basis of non-causal phenomena."  "Many Latin writers attest that the disease malaria was widespread in ancient Italy.  It was believed to be caused by 'bad air' near swamps and marshes ... Accounts of travelers through the area of Lugnano, like that of the wealthy Gallic ambassador Sidonius Apollinaris who passed through this area in the summer of A.D. 467, describe difficulties with bad air, fevers, chills, sweats and thirst, all of which suggest malaria was present."  "In Epidemics [Hippocrates] observed pneumonia, pleurisy, tuberculosis, malaria and many other diseases."

22 fever: rheumatic fever

22 fever: scarlet fever  ► scarlatina, ae* f.  ¶ In many 18th and 19th c. medical treatises; see WC.

22 fever: typhoid fever  tŷphus (*) pestilentiâlis

22 fever: yellow fever  febris flava 1843 TRAPPEN 83; in titles of many 18th and 19th c. medical treatises, WC)

22 flatulence, excess gas (in intestinal tract)  ► flatus, ûs m.  ¶ SUET. Claud. 32.  |  cause flatulence (of foods) ¶ flatûs gignere  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 100.  \\ inflâtio, ônis f.  \ Cic. Div. 1, 30, 62, of faba (broad beans): "Habet inflationem magnam is cibus."

22 flatulence: anti-flatulence drug, drug relieving gas or bloating  ► medicâmentum carminatîvum*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 23.

22 frost-bitten  nive praeustus (PLIN. 3, 134: "praeustis in transitu Alpium nive membris"; cf. LIV. 21, 40, 9, Scipio describing Hannibal's soldiers: "praeusti artus, nive rigentes nervi, membra torrida gelu."  ► nive adustus (PLIN. 28, 89: "leonis adipes ... sanant et adusta nivibus," "promote the healing of frost-bitten limbs."  ► gelu (v. frigore) praeustus (v. adustus)

22 gum disease, periodontal disease  gingivarum putrilâgo (1571 MATTIOLI 92)

22 heart attack, myocardial infarction  cordis infarctus* (cf. HELFER citing 1971 medical dictionary: infarctus myocardii)  ► cardioplêxia, ae* f. (cf. LRL: cardioplegia; for the formation, cf. Anc. Gr.  παγοπληξια θεοπληξια δαιμονοπληξιαχ , etc.)  < Infarctus is a medical term for a blockage or obsturction, especially of blood vessels (1571 MATTIOLI 487, of rosemary: "vasorum infarctûs expedit," "it relieves blockage of blood vessels"; 1843 TRAPPEN 118: "inque obstructionibus sive infarctibus venarum"; Bartal)

22 heart failure, congestive heart failure  cordis dêfectio (LRL)

22 heart failure: angina  angina pectoris (term coined by William Heberden, 1772; see EB s.v. "cardiovascular disease")

22 heart failure: cardiac arrest 

22 heart palpitation  palpitatio cordis 1843 TRAPPEN 76, on effects of caffeine)

22 heart trouble, heart problem, heart condition  cordis incommodum (EGGER S.L. 22, 76)  |  having heart trouble  cardiacus, a, um  ►► At vide LS s.v. cardiacus: "one who has heart-burn or stomach-ache."

22 heart: coronary artery  artêria coronaria;  coronary vessel  vas coronarium

22 heart: coronary disease, coronary heart disease  morbus cordicoronarius*

22 heartbeat  cordis ictus (1846 GROSSE 11)

22 heat stroke  encausis, is f. (Souter citing CassFel.)

22 hemorrage  ► haemorragia, ae f.  ¶ Plin.  1843 TRAPPEN 132: "iis qui ad sanguinis congestiones, haemorrhagias, apoplexiam phthisinque inclinant."

22 hemorrhoid  ► haemorrhoida, ae f.   ¶ PLIN. 23, 15, of a remedy: "contra haemorrhoida potens."  \ Amm.  \\ fîcus, i m./f.  \ Mart.

22 hemorrhoid: concerning or suffering from hemorrhoids  ► haemorrhoidâlis, e*  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 118: "vasorum haemorrhoidalium atonia."  \\ fîcôsus, a, um  \ Mart.  \ Priap.  \ Forc. s.v. paedico in definition: "Translate de tunicâ quae importune nates ficosas intrat" (quoting Mart. 11, 99).

22 hemorrhoid: one suffering from hemorroids  ► haemorrhoicus, i m.  ¶ FirmMath.)  ► haemorroidarius, i* m.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 118.

22 hepatitis  hêpatîtis, idis (*) f. (1846 GROSSE 26)

22 hernia  hernia, ae f. (CELS.; MART. )  ► enterocêle, ês f. (intestinal hernia) (PLIN.; MART. )

22 hypochondriac (one suffering from unfounded, often obsessive health worries)  aeger imaginarius  ► docêsinosôn, ontis* m. (Divertissemens de Versailles 20, of Molière's play: "Le Malade imaginaire ... Dokesinoson sive Aeger imaginarius, comoedia acta in hortis Versaliarum")

22 hysteria (as medical term, now obsolete, for a form of emotional disturbance)  ► hysteria, ae* f.  ► morbus hystericus  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 105.  ► malum hystericum  ¶1843 TRAPPEN 106.  ► passio hysterica 1843 TRAPPEN 114.  |  (extreme overexcitement)  ► furor, ôris m.  ► dêlîrium, i n.  ► impotentia, ae f.

22 hysterical (suffering from or related to the medical condition)  ► hystericus, a, um  ¶ MART.  1843 TRAPPEN 105; 132.  1846 GROSSE 19: "quae multis annis ante spasmis hystericis laboraverat."  |  (extremely overexcited, raving)  ► mentis vix compos  ¶ Curt. 6, 3, 16: "quanto autem praestat territum adhuc et vix mentis suae compotem opprimere."  ►furens, ntis  ► dêlîrus, a, um  ► impotens, ntis  |  (extremely funny, hilarious)

22 infection

22 inflammation (med.)  ► inflammatio, ônis f.  ¶ CELS.  PLIN. 22, 132: "Aurium inflammationi illinitur."  1571 MATTIOLI 155: "oculorum inflammationes."  1571 MATTIOLI 468: "Ardentes summae cutis inflammationes emendat."  1752 STUMPF 24.

22 inflammatory  inflammâtôrius, a, um* 1843 TRAPPEN 90)

22 jaundice  ► morbus rêgius  ¶ Cels.  ► morbus arquâtus  ¶ Cels.  ► ictericia, ae f.  ¶ Souter citing Avian. 

22 jaundiced  ► ictericus, a, um  ¶ Juv.  Plin.  ► arquâtus, a, um  ¶ Lucr.  Plin.

22 leukemia  leuchaemia, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. λευχαιμία)

22 mononucleosis  mononucleôsia, ae* f. (cf. Mod. Gr. μονοπυρήνωση)

22 muscular dystrophy  dystrophia* muscularis (Mod. Gr. μυική δυστροφία)

22 nausea  nausea, ae f.  ► fastidium, i n.  ► vomituritio, onis f. f. 1843 TRAPPEN 101: "de vomituritione et de vomitu necnon de diarrhoea ex usu coffeae sanatâ"; 1846 GROSSE 13: "leves vomituritiones habebant"; 1846 GROSSE 14: "gustus fastidiosus oris vomituritionem procreat")

22 nausea: be nauseated, feel sick  nauseare (Hor.; Cels.)  ► nauseâ premi (Cels. 1, 3)  ►  nauseâ molestari 1843 TRAPPEN 92: "qui nauseâ molestentur quoties coffeae odorem percipiant")

22 nausea: motion sickness  vehentium nausea

22 nausea: seasickness  nausea, ae f.  ► navigantium vomitus 1843 TRAPPEN 102)

22 nutritional: beri-beri

22 nutritional: rickets  rachîtis, idis* f. (Francis Glisson, De rachitide [London, 1650], introducing the word; Sydenham 596 et passim1843 TRAPPEN 121: "coffeam infantibus a rachitide praecavere."  ||  rachitic, suffering from or related to rackets  rachîticus, a, um* 1843 TRAPPEN 120)

22 nutritional: scurvy  ► scorbûtus, i* m.  ¶ COLES.  1752 STUMPF 34.  1771 WAY 8.  ► morbus scorbûticus*  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 120.  |  scorbutic, suffering from or related to scurvy  ► scorbûticus, a, um*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 31.  1843 TRAPPEN 120: "Coffeam scorbuticis et scrofulosis rachiticisque aliquando utilem perhibuere."  1843 TRAPPEN 120-121: "ad topicas oris affectiones scorbuticas corrigendas."

22 osteoporosis  osteoporôsia, ae* f. (Mod. Gr.  οστεοπόρωση )  ► rarefactio* ossium  ► ossa rarefacta (v. foraminosa)

22 paralysis   ► paralysis, is f.  ¶ PLIN.  PETR.

22 pimple, zit, pustule  ► pustula, ae f.  ► varus, i m.  ¶ CELS.  PLIN.  1571 MATTIOLI 128, of lemon juice: "varos delet."  |  Pimples broke out on his face.  ► Pustulae in eius vultu eruperunt.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 8: "ita ut in earum manibus pustulae eruperint."

22 plague: the plague, black plague, black death, bubonic plague  pestilentia glandularia (LRL)  ► luês, is f. (used per excellentiam, like "the plague" in English, of the recurring pandemics, generally attributed to bubonic plague, that devastated Europe from 14th to 16th c.) ((1652 TURS. 224-5, of the Black Death of 1347-1351, described in Boccaccio's Decameron: "eam celebritatem [jubilee of 1350] deformavit lues quâ non alia foedior ac funestior memoratur ... ita lue sequestrâ cessatum ab armis est")

22 pneumonia  perpneumonia, ae f. (CaelAur.; 1843 TRAPPEN 115)

22 poison (vb)  ► venênare  ¶ Cic.  Hor.  ► intoxicare+  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 40: "Sagittas quas iaciunt intoxicant."

22 poisonous, poisoned  ► venênâtus, a, um  ¶ Plin.  ► venênôsus, a, um  ¶ Aug.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 459: "serpentes venenosi."

22 polio (disease)  poliomyelîtis, is (or idis)* f.

22 polyp

22 prolapse, prolapsus (of organ within body)  ► procidentia, ae f.  ¶ CELS.  ¶ PLIN.

22 rabid, suffering from rabies  ► hydrophobus, a, um  ¶ PLIN.  ¶ CAEL. AUR.  ► rabiôsus, a, um  ¶ HOR.  \ PLIN. 29, 98: "In canis rabiosi morsu, tuetur a pavore aquae canini capitis cinis inlitus vulneri."  ► rabidus, a, um  ¶ LUCR.  \ SEN.  \ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 403.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 4: "rabidi canes."

22 rabies  ► hydrophobia, ae f.  ¶ CELS. (in Greek).  ¶ CAEL. AUR.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 4.  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 23.  ¶ 1811 PALLAS 60.  ► rabies, êi f.  ¶ PLIN. 29, 99: "Est limus salivae sub linguae rabiosi canis, qui datus in potu hydrophobos fieri non patitur; multo tamen utilissime iecur eius, qui in rabie momorderit, datur, si fieri possit, crudum mandendum."

22 rash, eruption on skin, breaking out of skin  ► exanthêma, atis n.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 7: "instar exanthematis ignei coloris."  ► lîchên, ênis m.  ¶ PLIN.  MART.  ► impetîgo, inis f.  ¶CELS.  PLIN.  1826 LÜDERS 16: "impetigine herpeticâ."  ► efflorescentia, ae* f.  ¶ Latham citing 17c source.  1771 WAY 17: "efflorescentiam, vulgariter dictam 'rash,' cognoscere non insuetum est."

22 rash: flaky skin (as caused by dermatitis or eczema)  furfur, uris m. (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 92: "furfures sanat")

22 rash: shingles, herpes zoster  ► herpes, êtis m.  ¶ PLIN.  ► zôster, êris m.  ¶ PLIN.

22 scab  ► crusta, ae f.  ¶ CELS. 5, 9: "Eadem [remedia] fere crustas ulceribus tamquam igne adustis inducunt."  1826 LÜDERS 5, of cowpox pustules: "crustâ obtegnuntur."  ► eschara, ae f. ¶Cael. Aur.

22 scrofula, scrophula, struma  strûma, ae f. (Cels.; Plin.)  ► scrôfulae, arum f. pl. (Veg.)  |  scrofulous, scrophulous, suffering from or related to scrofula  scrôfulôsus, a, um1843 TRAPPEN 120)

22 smallpox  ► variolae, arum+ f.  ¶ Zwinger II. 236: "lues variolarum epidemice grassatur."  1771 WAY 1: "variolae ... nunc temporis per quascumque regiones et terras grassantes."  1826LÜDERS iv et passim: "variolarum pestis immanis."  1843 TRAPPEN 115: "in pustilis variolarum elevandis."  Hoeven 279, of Edward Jenner, inventor of the smallpox vaccine: "qui detectâ novâ variolarum prophylaxi, omnem orbem nominis famâ implevit."  Pharm. Bat. III. 147.  Titles of many 18c and 19c medical treatises.

22 smallpox: chicken pox  varicellae, arum* f. (in titles of 19c medical treatises)

22 smallpox: cowpox  ► variolae vaccînae (f. pl.)  ¶ Edward Jenner (inventor of the smallpox vaccine, writing in English), An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae(London, 1798).  Ann. Acad. Rheno-Tr. (1823-24), "Oratio de nostra cognitione animi," 49: "Uberrima fuit occasio ... insectionem variolarum vaccinarum administrandi."  ► vaccinae f. pl.  ¶ Hoeven 279.  ► vacciolae, arum f. pl.  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS iii et passim.

22 smallpox: German measles  rubella, ae* f.  ►► not in WC titles

22 smallpox: measles  morbilli, orum+ m. pl., rubeola, ae* f. (both terms in many 19th c. medical treatises; see WC)  ►► Variolae and morbilli are found in medical texts from as early as the 13th century (MLBS s.v. "morbilli" for cites containing both words)  |  the words are normally used in the plural because they properly describe the pustules, etc., characteristic of these diseases. MLBS quotes F. F. Bacon IX, 124: "aegritudines multae, scilicet ... variolae et morbilli."

22 smallpox: mumps  parotiditis, is* f.  ►► not in WC titles

22 smallpox: rubella  ►

22 sprain (e.g., of ankle)  \\ ? contorsio, ônis f.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 95: "Inter exercendum saepe vulnera, contusiones, contorsiones, luxationes multaque alia fiera solent."  \\ \\ Cf. Fr. entorse, It. distorsione; vide apud GB distorio, intorsio, etc.

22 sprain: bruise  \\ contûsio, ônis f.  \ Scrib.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 95: "Inter exercendum saepe vulnera, contusiones, contorsiones, luxationes multaque alia fiera solent." 

22 sprain: dislocate (a joint), throw out of joint  \\ luxare  \ SEN.  \ PLIN.  \ 1571 MATTIOLI 107: "luxatos artûs committit."  \ 1846 GROSSE 32, of medical school course: "de ossibus luxatis et fractis."

22 sprain: dislocation (of a joint)  \\ luxâtio, ônis f.  \ Gloss. Philox.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 27, relating how Galenus (the ancient medical writer) once dislocated his shoulder at the gym: "cum scribat se anno aetatis suae trigesimo quinto passum fuisse luxationem summi humeri in palaestrâ."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 95: "Inter exercendum saepe vulnera, contusiones, contorsiones, luxationes multaque alia fiera solent."  \\ luxâtûra, ae f.  \ Marc. Emp. 

22 stone (i.e., disease of kidney stone or gallstone), calculus  morbus calculôsus 1843 TRAPPEN 112)  ► lithiâsis, is* f. (Anc. Gr.; 1843 TRAPPEN 112)

22 stone: gallstone

22 stone: kidney stone, renal calculus  calculus, i m. (PLIN.; SUET.; 1843 TRAPPEN 112: "coffeam tamen urinam movendo sabulum et calculos minores pellere, atque a lithiasi praecavere." ► renum calculus (1571 MATTIOLI 675)  |  the kidney stone passed  calculus eiectus est (SUET. AUG. 80, of Augustus: "questus est et de vesica, cuius dolore calculis demum per urinam eiectis levabatur."  |  suffering from kidney stones  calculôsus, a, um (CELS.; PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 124)

22 stroke, brain attack, cerebrovascular accident  ► apoplêxia, ae f.  ¶ CaelAur.  ISID. 4, 6, 10.  1571 Mattioli 324.  1843 TRAPPEN 132.  ► apoplêxis, is f.  ¶ TERT.  Firm.  ►insultus apoplecticus  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 121)  ► ictus cerebri  ► ictus sanguinis  ¶ EGGER S.L. 80.   ►► EL: apoplexie, attaque cérébrale; ictus, infarto celebrale; infarto cerebral, Schlaganfall, zerebraler Insult, apoplektischer Insult, Gehirnschlag;  αποπληξια 

22 stroke: suffering from or related to a stroke  ► apoplêcticus, a, um  ¶ Firm.  CaelAur.  1843 TRAPPEN 121: "historiae hominum apoplecticorum."

22 tetanus, lockjaw  tetanus, i m. (PLIN.; 1846 GROSSE 23)

22 tone: lack of muscle tone, poor muscle tone  atonia, ae (Cass. Fel.; 1843 TRAPPEN 118)

22 tuberculosis, consumption  ► phthisis, is f.  ¶ CELS.  PLIN.  SEN.  1846 GROSSE 21: "pulmonum phthisis."  ► tâbes hectica  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 38.

22 tuberculosis: consumptive, suffering from or relating to tuberculosis  ► phthisicus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 132.

22 ulcer (stomach)

22 venereal disease  ► affectus venereus  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 32.

22 venereal: gonorrhea  gonorrhoea, ae f. (1846 GROSSE 29)

22 venereal: syphilis  ► syphilis, idis* f.  ¶ 1553 FRACASTORO 106: "de curatione syphilidis seu Gallici morbi"; et passim.  \ 1846 GROSSE 28.  ► morbus Gallicus  ¶ 1553 FRACASTORO106 et passim.  \ lues Gallica  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 5: "Sic temporibus nostris exsecranda illa Gallica et paene exitialis lues universas regiones vexare coepit."   ► lues venerea  ¶ 1752STUMPF 34.  ►► It was Girolamo Fracastoro, Renaissance poet and physician, who invented the name syphilis – for his improbable epic poem, Syphilis sive morbus Gallicus (1530).  In a medical treatise on syphilis, Fracastoro summarizes the circuitous history of its names (Opera omnia 91): "In Italiam vero fere iis temporibus erupit quibus Galli sub rege Carolo regnum Neapolitanum occupavere, annos circiter decem ante 1500, a quibus nomen morbo inditum fuit, Gallicus appellatus. Galli vero nominis iniuriam in nos retorquentes morbum Italicum vocant, Hispani Patursam, Germani nunc Mevium, nunc Gallicum dicunt, nonnulli novo imposito nomine pudendagram appellavere, quod a pudendis inciperet ... Nos syphilidem in nostris lusibus appellavimus."  The "lusûs" are Fracastoro's poem.

22 vertigo, dizziness  vertigo, inis f. (LIV.; PLIN.; 1846 GROSSE 24)

22 virus  ► ? germen virosum  ► ? morbus virosus  ► ? pathogonum, i* n.  ¶ Mod. Gr.  παθογονον .  ►►  Virus was used by Latin writers of the cowpox-infected pus, taken from cows, originally used to vaccinate against smallpox (a virus).  1771 WAY 9: "cum variolarum additur virus."  1771 WAY 16: "Scalpelli mucronem in variolarum virus submersi."  1826 LÜDERS iii: "Mox intellexi quantum interesset inter virus ex vaccarum uberibus recenter depromptum lymphamque ab illa ortam, quam primus in usum vocavit Jennerus."  Cf. 1771 WAY 13, of treatment of smallpox: "ut ... illud virus, naturâ duce, expellatur Peruvianae corticis ope, parce dati."  ||  virus (EGGER S.L. 104)

22 whooping cough  pertussis, is* f. (Sydenham 187: "solacium quod affert venae sectio infantum pertussi, quam nostrates vocant 'hooping cough'"; T. Kirkland, De pertussi [Edinburgh, 1772];Ann. Acad. Leod. 1824, "Diss. de metastasibus," 117; Schrift. Kiel,  "De balneis marinis" 7: "in pertussi pertinaciores balnei marini inhalationes mirum quantum profuerunt")

222

222    DISABILITIES

222 congenital (present at birth)  ► congenitus, a, um (Plin. 11, 231: "libidinosis [pili] congeniti maturius defluunt, agnati celerius crescunt")

222 handicap  ► impedîmentum, i n. (CIC. de Or. 1, 260, of Demosthenes: "in quo tantum studium fuisse tantusque labor dicitur ut primum impedimenta naturae diligentiâ industriâque superaret, cumque ita balbus esset ut eius ipsius artis cui studeret primam litteram non posset dicere, perfecit meditando ut nemo planius esse locutus putaretur")

222 handicapped  ► membris captus \ EGGER S.L. 88.  ► invalidus, a, um  ¶ 1826 LÜDERS 4: "militum invalidorum in aedibus Christianeis Eckenfoerdae alitorum medicum."   ► impedîtus, a, um

222 handicapped: disabled, invalid, chronically ill  ► causârius, a, um (unable to work because of disability)  \\ valêtûdinârius, a, um (suffering from chronic, debilitating illness)  \ Sen.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 7, in a list of the subdivisions of preventive medicine (pars medicinae conservativa): " αναληπτική , a quâ valetudinarii reficiuntur."  \ Ibid. 8: "Omnesque fere testantur exercitationum artem et ad avertendos futuros morbos et ad custodiendam praesentem sanitatem et ad valetudinarios reficiendos ... incredibilem utilitatem afferre." 

222 mentally retarded   << cf. imbecillus, imbecillum ingenium (Quint. 2, 8, 12)

222 mentally retarded: cretinism  ► cretinismus, i* m. \ 1843 TRAPPEN 121: "statum morbosum qui cretinismi nomine designatur."

222 speech impediment  ► linguae impedîmentum  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 125.

222 speech impediment: have a speech impediment  ► vitiôsê loqui  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 39.

23

23    DRUG

23 /administer (drug, medicine)  propînare (Plin. 28, 7; Amoen. acad. VI. 142: "quare ... hoc medicamentum inter heroica et violenta reponendum, nec sine summâ cautione interne propinandum est"; 1843 TRAPPEN 113)  ► porrigere 1843 TRAPPEN 116: 1846 GROSSE 28: "tincturae cannabis guttae sex inter paroxysmum spasticum porrectae dolores profligarunt."  ► immittere (1846GROSSE 9: "cani ponderis medii churrus Nipalensis dosi grammatum 10 immissus est," et passim)

23 /dose  dosis, is f. (CAES. Fel.; 1843 TRAPPEN 80: "quamvis opium maiori dosi illi porrectum fuerit"; 1846 GROSSE 8; Pharm. Austr. xx: "medicamina ... in qua dosi expedienda sint"; ibid. xxii: "medicamina ... si a medico in maiore dosi praescribuntur")

23 /drug, medicine  ► medicâmentum, i n.  ¶ Cic.  Plin.  ► pharmacum, i n.  ¶ Souter quoting Hier.  |  (adj.) (involving drugs or medication)  ► pharmaceuticus, a, um  ¶ Cael. Aur. 1752 STUMPF 9: "Potiorem laboris nostri partem in exponendâ dentium curâ per diaetae rationes instituendâ impendemus, quippe quam in primis prae operosioribus pharmaceuticis chirurgicisque neglectam et vili pensam animadvertimus."  1752 STUMPF 29: "quamvis enim haec [scil. dentifricia] ad pharmaceuticas curationes pertineant."

23 /medicinal  medicamentôsus, a, um (VITR. 8, 3, 4: "omnis autem aqua calida ideo est medicamentosa."  |  medicinal properties  ► vîres medicâtrîces  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 96.  Cf. 1843TRAPPEN 7: "coffeae ... virtutes medicamentosas a Persis maxime laudatas." 

23 /pharmaceutical  ► pharmaceuticus, a, um  ► Cael. Aur.  1752 STUMPF 9; 29.  EGGER D.L. 16.

23 /pharmaceutical company, drug company  ► societas pharmaceutica  ¶ Pharm. Austr. viii.

23 /pharmacist  ► pharmacopôla, ae m. (seller or dispenser of drugs)  ► pharmacopoeus, i* m. (maker or preparer of drugs)  ¶ 1794 RUIZ ii.

23 /pharmacology  pharmacîa, ae f. (1846 GROSSE 31)  ► pharmaceuticê, ês f.

23 /pharmacy, drugstore  pharmacopôlium, i* n. (Pharm. Austr. x; EGGER S.L. 26)

23 /take (drug, medicine)  ingerere (1846 GROSSE 11: "dosis denuo ingesta medicamenti")

23 amphetamine  amphetamina, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. αμφεταμίνη)

23 antibiotic  ►► EL: antibiotique; antibiótico; αντιβιοτικό

23 antidote  ► antidotum, i n.  ¶ QUINT.  SUET.  Pharm. Helv. [1907] 43: "antidotum arsenici."  ► antidotus, i f.  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 4: "etsi Apuleius Celsus ... ad eum morbum antidotum quandam composuisset."  ► alexipharmacum (or -on), i  ¶ Plin. 21, 146.  1752 STUMPF 23.  ► Cf. PLIN. 7, 144: "adversus omnia venena servantur folida aridi [mentastri]," "as an antidote for all sorts of poisons")

23 anti-inflammatory  ► antiphlogisticus, a, um  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 138.  Pharm. Bat. III. 147.

23 blood-letting, bleeding (medical treatment)  ► venae sectio /9.  1843 TRAPPEN 120; 138.  1846 GROSSE 20.  ► sanguinis dectractio  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 32: "sine detractione sanguinis medicum mederi posse nego."  ► sanguinis dêplêtio  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 139.

23 blood-letting: let blood, bleed (v.t.)  venam (alicuis) secare, sanguinem (alicui) detrahere

23 camphor (occurring naturally in the wood of the camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphora)  ► camphora, ae+ f.  ¶ Latham.  1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 70 (where the word is copied by Christopher Columbus in a marginal annotation of his copy).   F. Bacon (ed. Spedding) 2, 156.  1843 TRAPPEN 123.  Species name of the tree.

23 codeine  codeïnum, i* n. (Pharm. Austr. 82)

23 cough syrup  ► syrûpus+ tussiculâris  ► iulapium* tussiculare

23 diuretic  adj.  diûrêticus, a, um (Pall.; Veg.)  ► mictuâlis, e (Apul.)  ► ûrînâlis, e (Cael. âur.)  |  subst.  medicâmentum diûrêticum (Cael. Aur.)  ► medicâmentum ûrînâle (Cael. Aur.)  ► mictuâle, is n. (Cael. Aur.)

23 emetic, drug inducing vomiting ¶ emetica, ae f.  ¶ 1771 WAY  Cael. ap. Cic. Fam.  1771 WAY 9.

23 emetic: anti-emetic, drug effective against nausea and vomiting  remedium antemeticum (cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 102: "vis illa antemetica")

23 enema  ► clyster, êris m.  ¶ PLIN.  SUET.   ► clysma, atis n.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 73)  ► enema, atis n.  ¶ Theod. Pris.  1843 TRAPPEN 121.

23 enema: suppository  suppositorium (anale v. vaginale) (Pharm. Austr. 360)

23 heating pad  pulvillus thermanticus (v. calefactôrius)

23 heating pad: ice pack  epithema glaciâlis (1846 GROSSE 20: "imponebantur igitur sinapismi ad suras, epithemata glacialia ad caput")

23 laxative: act as a laxative, have a laxative effect  alvum emollire (PLIN. 20, 11 et passim1571 MATTIOLI 109)  ► alvum mollire (PLIN. 20, 79 et passim)  ► alvum solvere (PLIN. 13, 127 et passim)  ► alvum ciere (PLIN. 20, 96 et passim)  ► alvum lênire (PLIN. 20, 96; 1571 MATTIOLI 117)  ► alvum movêre (PLIN. 20, 221; 1571 MATTIOLI 127.

23 pain medicine, painkiller, pain reliever, analgesic  ► medicâmentum anôdynum  ¶ Cels. 5, 25.  1752 STUMPF 23.  Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 109: "liquore minerali anodyno."  ►adnônynon, i n.  ¶ Mar. Emp. 25, 5: "medicamentum quod facit ad omnes membrorum dolores, quod anodynon appellatur."  ► medicamentum mîtigâtôrium  ¶ EGGER S.L. 26.  Cf. Plin. 28, 63: "Contra renium ... cruciatûs, in balnearum soliis pronos urinam reddere mitigatorium habetur."  ► remedium antalgicum  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 25.

23 pain medicine: relieve pain  dolores lenire (1846 GROSSE 24)

23 pill, tablet, lozenge  (medicine)  ► pastillus, i m.  ¶ PSEUDO-APULEIUS Herbarium 80, 5: "Herbam rosmarinum cum pipere et melle teris et facis pastillos et dabis unum mane et unum sero, cum dormitum vadit; tussim sedat."  Pharm. Austr. xvii.  ► pilula, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 26.  ► catapotium, i n. /

23 pill: capsule  (medicine)  capsula, ae f. (Pharm. Helv. [1907] 83)

23 placebo

23 prescribe  (of doctor)  praescribere 1843 TRAPPEN 84: "omni horâ drachmam unam praescribendo"; 1843 TRAPPEN 113: "formula, quâ ... coffeam ad arthritidem praescriptam dixi"; 1846GROSSE 17: "cui contra vehementissimos dentium dolores ... vesperibus guttae duodenae tincturae cannabis praescribebantur," et passimPharm. Austr. xiii; Bonon. Acad. I, 312)  |  write a prescription  formulam praescribere 1843 TRAPPEN 121: "formulam a Weikarto praescriptam communicat, quam coffeae tostae drachmas duas continere videmus")

23 prescription  praescriptio medici (Pharm. Austr. xxii: "diversas formas medicaminum ... absque praescriptione medici legimiti expedire non conceditur."  ► formula medica (1846 GROSSE 32, of a medical school course: "de arte formulas medicas rite concinnandi")

23 quinine  ► cortex Peruviânus  ¶ Sydenham 83 et passim.  1771 WAY 13.  1843 TRAPPEN 84.  ► cortex chinae ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 72,  ► chininum, i* n.  ¶ Pharm. Austr. xvii.

23 quinine: cinchona tree (genus Cinchona L.)  ► cinchona, ae* f.  ¶ Linné, as genus name (in honor of the Countess of Chinchon).  1794 RUIZ xi.  ► china, ae* f. (from Quechuankina)  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 72.

23 stimulant  medicamentum stimulans 1843 TRAPPEN 71-71: "illa [scil. coffea], secundum Vireyum ... locum suum invenire inter medicamenta quae stimulantium nomine veniunt, et speciatim inter ea quae stimulantia fixa ... dicuntur."  ► stimulantia, ium* n. pl. 1843 TRAPPEN 72) 

23 stimulant:  act as a stimulant  animum excitare (1571 MATTIOLI 425, of a medicinal preparation)  ► vim excitantem exercêre (1846 GROSSE 9, of hashish)  |  stimulant effect  vis excitans 1843 TRAPPEN 73: "vim coffeae exhilarantem, excitantem et antihypnoticam."  ► vis excitandi 1843 TRAPPEN 81: "abunde demonstratum est coffeam vi excitandi pollêre."  ► vis excitans 1843 TRAPPEN 101)

23 stimulant: depressant, tranquilizer, sedative  subst.  medicamentum sopiens (1846 GROSSE 24)  ► remedium sopiens (1846 GROSSE 25)  |  adj.  sêdâtîvus, a, um*  (Pharm. Helv.[1907] 52: "aqua sedativa."  |  sedative effect  virtus sêdans 1843 TRAPPEN 101)

23 wonder drug, miracle drug, elixir  ► elixir, ris+ m. \ Latham.  \ R. Bacon 314-315: "Qui vero haec sciret adimplere, haberet medicinam perfectam, quam philosophi vocant elixir ... et hoc est quod corpora infirma reducet ad sanitatem et conservabit ea contra omnem occasionem, et vitam si Deus voluerit ultra centenarios annorum prolongabit."  \ F. Bacon Works [1857] 574, of the alchemists' gold-producing medium.  \ Leibniz Sämt. II. I. 288: "aut si diis placet elixirem immortalitatis aliasque nugas quaerit."  \ Astruc 1050: "in forma elixiris."  ► elixirium, i+ n. \ Latham: elixerium.  \ Amoen. acad. VIII. 301: "Ex opio varia parantur medicamina in formam pulveris, elixirii, tincturae."  \ Ann. Acad. Leod. 1824, "Diss. de metastasibus," 67, of a remedy for heartburn: "Elixirium stomachicum ex amaris balsamicis extractis concinnatum exhibui, a cuius frequentiore usu dolores sopiti viresque cum appetitu erectae fuerent."  \ 1843 TRAPPEN 109, similarly: "infusum ... dimidiâ parte elixirii stomachicalis remixtum."  \ Hessler, I. 107, in translation of sacred Sanskrit medical work: "elixir vitae ... sicut Risharum et deorum ambrosia."  \ Hessler II. 27, in note to previous passage: "Rasáyana elixirium vitae, sensu alchymistarum, hôc loco signficare mihi videtur, quamquam hoc sanskritum vocabulum hanc vim non plane aequat, quoniam quodvis medicamentum praevalenti vi praeditum et vitam prolongans etiam rasáyana appellari licet."  \ Hessler I. 152: "Nunc vero omnium morborum sedativum elixirium exposituri sumus."  \ Hessler II. 71-72, in note to previous passage: "Vocabulum rasáyana [elixirium] in his quattuor capitibus fere illum chymicorum habet sensum ... 'Elixirium vitae' est medicamentum admirable, quod vitam conservet et multos pellat morbos."   ►► In 17-19c medical texts, elixir and elixirium are normally used as a technical terms for a particular sort of pharmaceutical preparation.

23 wonder drug: cure-all, panacea  medicamentum panchrestum (Cic.; Plin.)  ► panacêa, ae f. (used by the ancients of a specific herb said to cure all ills: Verg.; Plin.)

242

242    LOVE

242 child support, alimony  alimenta ...

242 divorce (vb.), get a divorce  dîvortium (cum aliquo) facere (CIC.)  ► divertere (said in antiquity only of the woman) (DIG.)

242 divorce: annul a marriage  matrimonium nullum esse declarare (1652 TURS. 274: "cum ... Clemens matrimonium quod inter regem [Galliae Henrici IV] et Margaritam Valesiam sub Carolo IX contractum fuerat, de partium consensu nullum esse declarasset ... rex hoc anno uxorem accipit Mariam Mediceam")

242 erotic:  erotic dream  veneris somnium (PLIN. 20, 146: "[mentastrum] somnia veneris inhibet."  |  have an erotic dream  venerem per somnia imaginari (PLIN. 20, 143)

242 mistress, paramour, concubine, kept woman, female lover  ► amîca, ae f.  ¶ Plaut.  Ter.  Cic.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 370, of Kublai Khan: "Ipse habet semper quattuor mulieres quas tenet pro suis uxoribus ... Ipse etiam tenet aliquas amicas."  ► concubîna, ae f.  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 8, of Kublai Khan: "Habet autem uxores quattuor quas vocat legitimas ... Insuper habet rex concubinas multas."  ► paelex, icis f. (of married man)  ¶ CIC.  1652 TURS. 252: "Henricus VIII Angliae rex in Annae Bolenae pellicis amorem effusus."

242 mistress: male lover  ► concubînus, i m.  ¶ Cat.  Mart.  Suet.  ► adulter, eris m.  ¶ Juv. 6, 565-68, where Tanaquil is consulting astrologers to find out when her relatives and lover will die:"Consulit ictericae lento de funere matris,  ¶ ante tamen de te Tanaquil tua, quando sororem  ¶ efferat et patruos, an sit victurus adulter  ¶ post ipsam."

242 partner (in marriage-like relation)  ► contubernâlis, is m./f.  ► vitae (v. tori v. thalami) consors m./f.

242 potion: love-potion  ► amatorium, i n.  ¶ DIG. 48, 8, 3.  ► poculum amâtôrium  ¶  DIG. 48, 19, 38, 5: "Qui abortionis aut amatorium poculum dant, etsi dolo non faciant, tamen quia mali exempli res est ... in insulam, amissâ parte bonorum, relegantur"   |  magic potion  venênum, i n. (PLAUT. Ps. 3, 2, 81: "Medea Peliam ... suis venenis dicitur fecisse rursus ex sene adulescentulum")

242 romantic  (relating to love, a love-affair, the process of falling in love, etc.)  amatorius, a, um;  romantic love;  a romantic dinner

242 wedding dinner  ► convîvium nuptiâle  ¶ Peter Damian Epist. 8, 3 (PL 144, 467D).

242 wedding: bridal shower, bacherlor(ette) party, bridesmaid  prōnuba

242 best man paranymphus, i m., (“Paranympha pronuba quae rito nympham iungit. Paranymphus dicitur qui nubentibus preest vel eis assistit vel amicus sponsalis qui eos coniungit: vel nuntius intermedius.” Catholicon Anglicum a.1483) pronubus, i m., (properly "The brideman that leadeth the bride to church" Dictionary of Law-Latin) (v. plura apud Ducange s.v. paranymphus) ? amicus sponsalis; auspex (nuptiarum) (cf. "Paranymphus [sive] pronubus dicitur, ab antiquis auspex" Gesner's Thesaurus)242 wedding: bridegroom   nymphos, i m. (Souter citing HIER.)

244

244    SEX

244 adult store, sex-shop  ? pornopolium, i* n.  ► ? priapopolium, i* n.

244 androgynous, effeminate

244 aphrodisiac: have an aphrodisiac effect, act as sexual stimulant  venerem ciere (PLIN. 20, 34: "sister ... urinam ciet, ut Ophion credit, et venerem."  ► venerem excitare (1571MATTIOLI 108)  ► venerem stimulare (1571 MATTIOLI 109)  ► venerem allicere (1571 MATTIOLI 151)

244 boy-toy, kept boy, young male lover  ► acersecomes, ae m.  ¶ Juv. 8, 128  ¶ 1700 Sinistrari 257 (paragraph 19): "Habui a confessario, fide dignissimo, sibi occurrisse casum in confessione in quo mulier quaedam nobilis ephebum quendam, quae pro acersedome domi retinebat, habuit in deliciis, ipsumque praepostere cognoscebat, et enixissime deperibat." ¶ Augustus Thiel,Iuvenalis Graecissans (Vratislava, 1901), 18, s.v. "acersecomes": "Cum vox nisi apud Graecos scriptores non legatur .. eam ab Iuvenale ex poetis epicis Graecorum sumptam esse vix quisquam neget. Sed notio est longe alia; nam poeta significat servum adulescentem bellum intonsum, domini delicias, cui ille ut quidvis concedat persuadet, si petitor ipsi nummos satis multos pependerit."

244 erection: he is having an erection  ► arrigit  ¶ MART. 3, 76, 1: "Arrigis ad vetulas; fastidis, Basse, puellas."  ► arrigitur (ei) membrum (v. penis v. mentula)   ► erigitur (ei) mentula  ¶ MART. 12, 86, 2: "Triginta tibi sunt pueri totidemque puellae; / una est nec surgit mentula. Quid facies?"  \\ CHRISTEN 53, describing an unexpected side-effect of opium ingestion, intended to embolden Turkish troops: "Opio ingesto erigi mentulam observatum est. Turcae ad Levenzinum ... pugnantes, opio exaltati, turpiter caesi et octo mille numero occisi mentulas rigidas tulere."  ► erigitur (ei) penis  ¶ KRAFFT-EBING 228.  ► erigitur (ei) membrum  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 463, of a job-suitability exam for Hindu ascetics: "Quando volunt probare quod isti sint boni et honesti, mittunt pro puellis quae sunt oblatae idolis, et faciunt quod illae tangunt eos huc et illuc et in pluribus locis corporis, et stant in magno solatio cum eis. Et si membrum erigitur vel mutatur, emittunt eum et dicunt quod non est honestus."   ► adstat pene  ¶ [Gloss. Erot.: "Arrigere, adstare pene."]  ► mentulam rigidam ferre  ¶ CHRISTEN 53, quoted above.

244 erection: in a state of erection, having an erection  ► pene arrecto  ¶ Berg in Ar. Lys. 1094: "Mercurium effingi solitum cum magno et arrecto pene."  ► Brunck trans. Ar. Pax 728. ► pene erecto  ¶ KRAFFT-EBING 139.  

244 erotic dream  veneris somnia (PLIN. 20, 146: "mentastrum ... somnia veneris inhibet."  |  have an erotic dream  venerem per somnia imaginari (PLIN. 20, 143)

244 fantasy: have a sexual fantasy  venerem imaginari (PLIN. 20, 143)

244 harass (sexually)  ► Cf. appellare  ¶ Dig. 47, 10, 15, 20, of an "offense against morals" under Roman law: "Appellare est blandâ oratione alterius pudicitiam attemptare; hoc enim non est convicium, sed adversus bonos mores attemptare."  \ Dig. 47, 10, 15, 15: "Si quis virgines appellasset, si tamen ancillari veste vestitas, minus peccare videtur."  \ Dig. 47, 10, 15, 22: "Aliud est appellare, aliud adsectari: appellat enim, qui sermone pudicitiam attemptat, adsectatur, qui tacitus frequenter sequitur."

244 harassment: sexual harassment  ►

244 harassment: stalk (vb)  ► assectari  ¶ Dig. 47, 10, 15, 22, of an "offense against morals" under Roman law: "Aliud est appellare, aliud adsectari: appellat enim, qui sermone pudicitiam attemptat, adsectatur, qui tacitus frequenter sequitur; adsidua enim frequentia quasi praebet nonnullam infamiam."

244 homosexual man, gay man  vir amôris (v. libîdinis) in mares pronior \\ SUET. Galb. 22: "libidinis in mares pronior."  ► marium amator  \\ andrerasta, ae* m.

244 homosexual woman, lesbian  \\ mulier amôris (v. libîdinis) in feminas pronior  \\ feminarum amatrix  \\ gynerastria, ae* f.  \\ lesbiastria, ae* f.  \\ lesbiâna, ae* f.  \\ tribas, adis f.  \ Phaedr. 4, 16, 1-2, on a question directed to Prometheus: "Rogavit alter tribadas et molles mares / quae ratio procreasset."  \ Mart.  \ 1612 DUVAL 69: "Je n'entends parler ici de certaines femmes extrêment lascives ... lesquelles sont ainsi appelés quod olisbo sese mutuo confodiant. Erat autem olisbos instrumentem coriaceum, quo improbae illae tribades libidinis pruritum excitabant.'"

244 homosexual, gay  \\ amôris (v. libîdinis) in proprium sexum prônior  \ Cf. SUET. Galb. 22: "libidinis in mares pronior."  Cf. SUET. Virg: "[Virgilius fuit] libidinis in pueros pronioris."  ► ? proprii (v. sui) sexûs amator  \\ ? homosexuâlis, e* (EGGER S.L. 104)  |  homosexuals  andrerastae et lesbiânae  ►► The compound homosexualis should logically mean "of the same sex (as another)."  The ancient terms cinaedus and pathicus refer specifically to males engaging in passive homosexual conduct and are highly derogatory.

244 homosexual: pederast  \\ paederastes, ae*  \ Hoven, citing Erasmus.

244 homosexual: pederasty, Greek love, erotic relationship between adult man and adolescent boy  \\ puerorum amor  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 36: "Solonem vetasse servis unctiones siccas atque puerorum amores, non item mulierum coniugium."  \ Estré 524: "Credo Horatium prorsus abstinuisse a puerorum amoribus, etiamsi iocans aliter de se profiteatur. Distabat, si quid iudico, Horatii tempore puerorum amores tantum a personâ sancti et casti viri, quantum libera venus nostris temporibus."

244 impotence (sexual)  ► veneris importentia  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 128.

244 impotent (sexually)  procreandae proli inhabilis (1652 TURS. 329, of a Turkish sultan)  ► qui generare non potest (DIG. 1.7.2.1)  ► sterilis, e (Plin. 11, 230: "pubescit homo solus, quod nisi contigit, sterilis in gignendo est, seu mas seu femina"; Plin. 24, 78: "steriles etiam viros faciunt"; Mart. 9, 8, 8: "ne faceret steriles saeva libido viros."  |  an impotent man  spado, ônis m. (DIG. 1.7.2.1: "illud utriusque adoptionis commune est, quod et hi qui generare non possunt, quales sunt spadones, adoptare possunt."  ►► The term spado may apply not only to men who have been castrated, but also to those who are impotent for natural reasons.  (See DIG. 50.16.128: "spadonum generalis appellatio est, quo nomine tam hi, qui naturâ spadones sunt, item thlibiae thlasiae, sed et si quod aliud genus spadonum est, continentur").

244 lecher: aroused, sexually excited, randy, horny  in venerem praeceps (1846 GROSSE 8, of effects of cannabis: "magis praecipites in venerem redduntur."  ► rigidus, a, um (Petr. 134)

244 lecher: aroused: sexual arousal, lust  \\ tentîgo, inis f. \ Hor.  \ Mart.  \ Cael. Aur. Gyn. 2, 112: "Quibusdam landicis horrida comitatur magnitudo, et feminas partium foeditate confundit, et, ut plerique memorant, ipsae, affectae tentigine, virorum similem appetentiam sumunt et in venerem coactae veniunt." 

244 lecher: excessive sexual desire (in a female), nymphomania, female hypersexuality  nymphomania, ae* f.;   adj.  nymphomanicus, a, um* (1846 GROSSE 21: "deliriis nymphomanicis postridie animum agitantibus laetissimum aegrota nunc risum edebat")

244 lecher: excessive sexual desire (in a male), satyriasis, male hypersexuality 

244 lecher: lust (as sin), sexual immorality  ► luxuria, ae f.  ¶ Greg. M. Mor. 45, 87 (PL 76 620-21), in the original enumeration of the seven deadly sins.  Ducange: "LUXURIA, Stupri peccatum. 'Luxus venereus' apud Aurelium Victor. in Epistom. in Constantino; 'luxuria concubinaticae' in Concilio Meldensi cap. 74.  Concilium Aquisgreanense III. ann. 860: 'Canones cum deincestis praescribunt, de coniugatis loquuntur, non de his qui non licite passim coeunt, quos vel luxuriosos vel adulteres vocari manifestum est ... Ceterum vel qui nondum nupti sunt, vel qui intercedente morte separati sunt, si concumbant cum alieno, non tales adulterio, sed luxuriae crimine denotantur."  Hieronymus Bosch, "The Seven Deadly Sins" (painting). 

244 lecherous, lustful, oversexed, lascivious, salacious  ► libîdinôsus, a, um  ¶ Cic.  Hor.  ► luxuriôsus, a, um (+)  ¶ Ducange s.v. luxuria, quoting a 9th-century council: "Canones cum de incestis praescribunt, de coniugatis loquuntur, non de his qui non licite passim coeunt, quos vel luxuriosos vel adulteres vocari manifestum est."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 411: "Iste rex est sic luxuriosus quod habet bene quadringentas uxores, qui statim cum scit unam pulchram mulierem in contracta, accipit eam in uxorem."  ► salax, âcis (properly, of male animals)

244 masturbate  ► manu in se operari  ¶ Cael. Aur. Tard. 5, 89, of a victim of priapism: "Ait enim quod viderit senem in semet manu operantem nec quidquam potuisse peragere, tensionem autem fuisse veretri nimiam, cum parvo dolore, ut cornum putaretur."  ► masturbari  ¶ Mart. 9, 41, 1-3 and 7-8: "Pontice, quod  ... paelice laevâ / uteris, et Veneri servit amica manus, / hoc nihil esse putas? Scelus est, mihi crede, sed ingens ... / Omnia perdiderat si masturbatus uterque / mandasset manibus gaudia foeda suis."  ¶ Mart. 11, 104, 13-14: "Masturbabantur Phrygii post ostia servi, / Hectoreo quotiens sederat uxor equo."  ► paelice laevâ (v. dexterâ) uti (euphemistic or jocular)  ¶ Mart. 9, 1-2, quoted above.  ► se polluere  ¶ Krafft-Ebing 146.

244 menopause  (Mod. Gr. εμμηνόπαυση)  |  menopausal  (Mod. Gr. εμμηνοπαυσικός)  |  post-menopausal  cui menstrui cursûs iam steterunt (Plin. 11, 230: "inventae tamen quaedam defluvio capitis invalidae ... cum menstrui cursus stetere")

244 menopause: change of life  (Mod. Gr. κλιμακτήριο)

244 menstruate: she is menstruating  ► menstrat  ¶ (Pall.  1843 TRAPPEN 132-133: "femellisque menstruantibus vel etiam gravidis [coffea] saepe novica dicenda est."  ► menses ei fluunt ¶ Alpinus 123: "mulieres quibus coeperint fluere menses." 

244 menstruation, period  ► mulierum menses  ¶ PLIN. 11, 44.  ► feminarum menses  ¶ PLIN. 21, 119.  ► menses, ium m. pl.  ¶ PLIN. 22, 101.  1843 TRAPPEN 74: "dum fluunt menses."  ► purgâtio menstrua  ¶ PLIN. 32, 132.  ALPINUS 123: "in omnibus illo [remedio] uti quibus aliquam ob causam purgatio menstrua destitisset."  ► cursus menstruus  ¶ Plin. 11, 230. ► fluxus menstruus 1843 TRAPPEN 118.  ►  menstruâtio, ônis* f.  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 26. 

244 menstruation: failure to menstruate, amenorrhea  ► mênostasia, ae* f. 1843 TRAPPEN 120.  

244 menstruation: late period, delayed menstruation  ► commorantes menses  ¶ PLIN. 22, 147.  ► menses retardati (m. pl.)  ¶ PLIN. 21, 156, of medicinal properties of thyme: "prodest ... mulierum mensibus retardatis."

244 menstruation: menstrual discharge  ► menstruum, i n. (usually plural)  ¶ Plin.  Cels.

244 orgasm  \\ orgasmus venereus  \ Boerhaave [GB "orgasmum venereum"]   \\ climactêrium, i* n. \ Krafft-Ebing 54.

244 orgasm: have an orgasm  ► voluptate perturbari  ¶ KRAFFT-EBING 139: "Inter quae facta, pene erecto, se voluptate perturbari semenque eiaculare [narrat]."  ► voluptate perfundi  ¶ Krafft-Ebing 264.

244 perversion, sexual perversion, perverted or twisted or unnatural sex  ► monstruôsa libîdo  ¶ SUET. Cal. 16: "Spintrias monstrosarum libidinum aegre ne profundo mergeret exoratus, urbe submovit" (where some editors supply "repertores" after "libidinum," from Tib. 43, quoted below).  FORCELLINI s.v. spintria in definition: "Repertor monstrosae libidinis novique concubitûs ... a  σφιγκτήρ , anulus, podex, quâ parte tres vel quinque vel plures exoleti sibi invicem iuncti libidinari solebant."  1560 MELANCHTHON 23, 142: "Cumque hanc [scil. Dei legem] ipsi magistratûs dissipant, videlicet cum tyranni monstrosis libidinibus se polluunt, rapiunt aliorum coniuges et liberos ... mutat Deus ipse imperia, ac excitat vicinos reges aut populos, qui tyrannos puniant." 1614 DOES trans. GEORGIUS ACROPOLITA 41 (p. 74), of a degenerate Turkish ruler: "Ex bono in principem malum degenerarat; potibus namque, libidinibus monstruosis exsecrandisque amoribus furens ( πότοις γαρ έχαιρε και ασελγείαις και κοιταίς αλλοκότοις τε και ατόποις), perpetuo cum homuncionibus et rationis et naturae humanae penitus ignaris consuescebat."  ►monstruôsus concubitus  ¶ SUET. Tib. 43: "Secessu vero Caprensi etiam sellaria excogitavit, sedem arcanarum libidinum, in quam undique conquisiti puellarum et exoletorum greges monstrosique concubitûs repertores, quos spintrias appellabat, triplici serie conexi, invicem incestarent coram ipso, ut aspectu deficientes libidines excitaret."   ►► Cf. the expression (mostly in legal contexts)monstruosa venus, found generally in condemnations or prohibitions of homosexuality.

244 perverted, perverse, twisted (sexually)  ► morbôsus, a, um  ¶ CAT.  PETR.

244 pornography, sexually explicit images or writings  pornographia, ae* f., libidines, um f. pl. (for use of libidines of sexually explicit representations, see CIC. Leg. 3, 13, 31; EGGER 3, 13, 31; PLIN. 33 praef. 4: "in poculis libidines caelare juvit"; PLIN. 35, 72: "pinxit et libidines."  ► ? priâpêia, orum n. pl., ? priâpographia, ae* f.

244 promiscuity  ► vagus concubitus  ► promiscuus concubitus  ¶ 1652 TURS. 219, of Fra Dolcino: "Per id tempus Dulcinus cum Margaritâ coniuge promiscuos ferarum ritu concibitûs in Longobardiam inducebat."  \\ libera venus  \ Estré 524: "Distabat, si quid iudico, Horatii tempore puerorum amores tantum a personâ sancti et casti viri, quantum libera venus nostris temporibus."

244 promiscuous  ► qui passim coit  ¶ Ducange s.v. luxuria, quoting a 9th c. council: "Canones cum de incestis praescribunt, de coniugatis loquuntur, non de his qui non licite passim coeunt, quos vel luxuriosos vel adulteres vocari manifestum est." 

244 prostitute: escort: female escort  \\ comes mercênâria (v. quaestuâria)  ► hetaera, ae* f.  \ Anc. Gr.  |  male escort  \\ comes mercênârius (v. quaestuârius)

244 prostitute: pimp  leno, ônis m.

244 semen  ► sêmen, inis n.  ¶ Vulg. Gen. 38, 9, of Onan: "Introiens ad uxorem fratris sui, semen fundebat in terram."  ► sêmen genitâle (v. virîle)  ¶ 1571 MATTIOLI 180.  ► ûrîna (genitâlis)  ► ros virîlis  ► voluptas, âtis f.  ¶ Arn. 5, 158.  Hyg. Astr. 2, 13: "[Vulcanus a Minervâ] repulsus effudit in terram voluptatem."  ► genitûra, ae f.  ¶ PLIN. 22, 83.  1571MATTIOLI 151, of coconut: "genituram auget" ("it increases the quantity of semen").  ► vîrus vîtâle  ¶ Plin. 9, 157, of fertilization of fish eggs: "Nec satis est generationi per se coitus, nisi editis ovis interversando mares vitale adsperserint virus."   ►► LS s.v. voluptas: "the male semen, Arn. 5, 158; Hyg. Astr. 2, 13."

244 semen: ejaculate  sêmen fundere (Vulg. Gen. 38, 9)  ► voluptâtem effundere (Hyg. Astr. 2, 13)  ► sêmen eiaculare (cf. Krafft-Ebing 139)

244 semen: ejaculate: premature ejaculation  eiaculâtio praecox (Krafft-Ebing 228)  ► eiaculâtio praemâtûra (Krafft-Ebing 220)

244 semen: ejaculation  eiaculâtio, ônis f. (Krafft-Ebing 108: "tum eiaculationem assequitur")

244 semen: nocturnal emission  proflûvium genitâle (PLIN. 20, 143, of a medicinal herb: "in profluvio genitali datur et venerem crebro per somnia imaginantibus."  ► pollûtio nocturna (1571MATTIOLI 272, of a medicinal preparation: "testiculis illitus nocturnas pollutiones compescit")

244 sex (fact of being male or female), gender  \\ sexus, ûs m.

244 sex (sexual intercourse)  venus, eris f. (PLIN.: "in venere obiere," "they fell dead while having sex"; PLIN. 20, 143, of a medicinal herb: "in profluvio genitali datur et venerem crebro per somnia imaginantibus."  ► concubitus, ûs m. (CELS. 1, 1: "concubitus vero neque nimis concupiscendus, neque nimis pertimescendus est"; SUET. Dom. 22, of Domitian: "libidinis nimiae, assiduiatatem concubitûs velut exercitationis genus 'clinopalen' vocabat."  ► coitus, ûs m.

244 sex drive, libido  venus, eris f. (PLIN. 19, 127, of a sort of lettuce: "vocant ...  ευνουχειον  quia haec maxime refragetur veneri."  ► libîdo, inis f. (SUET. Dom. 22, describing Domitian: "libidinis nimiae")

244 sex toy

244 sex toy: dildo  \\ penis succêdâneus (v. factîcius)  \ Richard Burton, "Terminal Essay," in Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights' Entertainments (privately printed, 1885), vol. 10, p. 239: "Of the penis succedaneus, that imitation of the Arbor Vitae or Soter Kosmou, which the Latins call phallus and fascinum, the French godemiché and the Italians passatempo anddiletto (whence our dildo), every kind abounds."  \\ olisbus, i (or ό λισβος ου )  m.  \ Anc. Gr.  \ 1612 DUVAL 69: "Je n'entends parler ici de certaines femmes extrêment lascives ... lesquelles sont ainsi appelées quod olisbo sese mutuo confodiant. Erat autem olisbos instrumentem coriaceum, quo improbae illae tribades libidinis pruritum excitabant. Unde Aristophanes: 'Olisbon non novi octo digitos longum.'"  \ FORC. s.v. paedico in definition, quoting Mart. 7, 67: "Usurpatur etiam de muliere  τω ολίσβω subligatâ, et pueros corrumpente."  \ 1760 BERGLER vol. 2, p. 1099, trans. Ar. Lys. 108-110, where Lysistrata complains that on top of the absence of husbands and lovers, war with the Milesians has cut off the godemiche supply: "Ex quo enim nos prodiderunt Milesii, / ne olisbum quidem vidi octo digitorum, / qui nobis esset coriaceum auxilium."  Idem pp. 1098-99 in annotation: "Notat autem scholiastes comici nostri ad Milesias mulieres respici tamquam olibso utentes."  Idem p. 1099, explicating the expression σκυτίνη 'πικουρία:  "Alludit ad proverbium συτίνη επικουρία, id est ficulneum auxilium, quod de infirmis dicitur. Mutavit autem συτίνη inσκυτίνη, id est coriaceum, quia coriacei sunt olisbi. Sunt autem veretra coriacea, quibus utuntur viduae mulieres. Sed apud Hesychium et σκυτίνη επικουρία proverbium est. Vide Erasmum in proverbium coriaceum auxilium."  \  1882 HERWERDEN 87, on Ar. Lys. 107-110, defending an emendation: "Quo pacto quaeso olisborum penuria causa dici potuit cur moechi mulieribus deficerent? Moechi unâ cum maritis in castris aberant, olisbi vero deerant propter Mileti, ubi fabricabantur, defectionem."  \\ Cf. penis coriaceus, veretrum coriaceum, auxilium coriaceum(Erasmus, Adagia, "coriaceum auxilium"), etc.

244 sex: to have sex (with someone), sleep (with someone)  ► (cum aliquo) coire  ► rem (cum aliquo) habêre  ► se (cum aliquo) miscêre  ► (cum aliquo) miscêri  ► (alicui v. cum aliquo) concumbere \\ coitu ûti \ 1569 MERCURIALE 61: "Quod etenim maiores nostri ... vespere tantum saturarentur, dum cenare dicebantur – exceptis iis qui coitu usuri erant, quibus a medicis vespere cenare interdictum fuisse scripsit Aristoteles – ... comprobatum est."

244 stripper, exotic dancer  ► Cf. Curt. 5,  1, 38, of strippers at Babylonian revels: "Feminarum convivia ineuntium in principio modestus est habitus, dein summa quaeque amicula exuunt, paulatimque pudorem profanant, ad ultimum – honos auribus habitus sit – ima corporum velamenta proiciunt. Nec meretricum hoc dedecus est, sed matronarum virginumque, apud quas comitas habetur vulgati corporis vilitas." 

244 topless, bare-breasted  apertô pectore (abl.) (Ov.)  ► pectore nûdo (v. nûdâto v. denûdâto)  ► a pectore denûdâtus (CIC.)  ► expapillâtus, a, um (PLAUT.)

244 transvestite, cross-dresser, transgender, female impersonator

244 unisex, mixed-sex, coed  \\ promiscuus, a, um  \ CYPR. Hab. Virg. 18 (4 PL 458): "Quid vero quae promiscuas balneas adeunt, quae oculis ad libidinem curiosis pudori ac pudicitiae dicata corpora prostituunt."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 56: "Varronis testimonium mulieres unâ cum viris, si non eodem lavacro, eodem saltem loco etiam antiquitus lavisse comprobat ... Nisi dicamus ista omnia non de publicis balneis ... sed de privatis intelligenda; quem ad modum forsan Vitruvius intellexit, ubi utriusque sexûs lavacra coniugenda monstravit. Verum enim vero posterioribus saeculis mulieres promiscuis balneis usas esse quam plurimorum probatissimorum auctorum testimoniis comprobari potest." \\ mixtus, a, um \ Hist. Aug. Aur. 23: "Marcus ... lavacra mixta submovit." \ Hist. Aug. Alex. 24: Alexander Severus "balnea mixta Romae fieri prohibuit." \ 1718 BALUZE ad CYPR. Hab. Virg. 18 (4 PL 458): "Iulius Capitolinus scribit M. Antonium philosophum lavacra mixta submovisse; Aelius vero Lampridius docet Alexandrum Severum balnea mixta Romae exhiberi prohibuisse, et eunuchos nihil in palatio curare voluisse nisi balneas feminarum."

244 voyeur, peeping Tom  libidinum auceps (cf. CIC. Ac. Fragm. ap. AUG. contra Ac. 3, 7, in Orell. IV. 470: voluptatum auceps)  ► contemplator libidinosus (LRL)  ►► obscena observandi cupidus, ad obscena spectanda propensus (LRL)

244 voyeurism  ►► scopophilia (LRL)  |  scopophilia, mixoscopia (HELFER)

246

246    BIRTH

246 abandon (a child)  ► (infantem v. puerum) expônere  ¶ Plaut. Cas. 41-42, quoted under abandoned child.  Cic.  Suet.  Just. 1, 4, quoted under child abandonment.  ► (infantem v. puerum) abiicere  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 53: "Erat rex autem pius et misericors ad pauperes et quoscumque necessitatem et penuriam patientes. Annis singulis recolligi faciebat pueros abiectos a matribus circa viginti milia, quos suis sumptibus optime nutrire faciebat."  ► (infantem v. puerum) proiicere  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 418: "Iste rex Facfur faciebat nutrire omni anno quindecim milia puerorum per istum modum, qui in illâ provinciâ proiiciuntur multi pueri statum quod sunt nati, a pauperibus personis qui non possunt eos nutrire."

246 abandon: child abandonment  ► infantium expôsitio  ¶ Just. 1, 4, 6-9: "Natus infans datur occidendus Harpago, regis amico et arcanorum participi. Is ... pastori regii pecoris puerum exponendum tradit ... Eius igitur uxor, auditâ regii infantis expositione, summis precibus rogat sibi perferri ostendique puerum."

246 abandoned child, foundling  ► puer expôsiticius  ► puella expôsiticia  ¶ Plaut. Cas. 39-42 and 79: "Is servus – sed abhinc annos factumst sedecim,  ¶ cum conspicatust primulo crepusculo  ¶ puellam exponi. Adit extemplo ad mulierem  ¶ quae illam exponebat; orat, ut eam det sibi ... Revortar ad illam puellam expositiciam."

246 abortion  ► abortio, ônis f.  ¶ CIC. Clu. 44, 125: "qui pecuniam pro abortione dederit."  ¶ DIG. 48, 19, 38, 5: "Qui abortionis aut amatorium poculum dant, etsi dolo non faciant, tamen quia mali exempli res est ... in insulam, amissâ parte bonorum, relegantur" (where "abortionis poculum" refers to abortion-inducing drugs)  ► procûratio abortûs  ¶ 1794 Cuniliati, pars altera, pp. 222 et seq.  ► abortus provocatus  ¶ 1794 Cuniliati, pars altera, p. 222: "abortus de industriâ procuratus, etiam fetûs inanimati, licet non sequatur effectus."  ► abortus voluntarius  ► abortio (provocata v. voluntaria)  ► partûs abactio  ¶ 1732 Schurig 416: "Usu tamen recepta hactenus fuit ... distinctio inter partum animatum et inanimatum, ut, in priore casu, abactio vel abortûs procuratio dolo vel malitiâ facta capitalem, in posteriore vero, arbitrariam poenam habeat. Circa huius proinde abactionis malitiosae poenam rite constituendam, domini iuris consulti de exclusionis termpore sunt solliciti."  ¶ Alexander Arnold Pagenstecher, Tryphonius de abactione partûs (Groning, 1712).

246 abortion drug, abortion pill, drug inducing abortion  abortîvum, i n. (JUV. 6, 366-368: "sunt quas eunuchi imbelles ac mollia semper  ¶ oscula delectent et desperatio barbae  ¶ et quod abortivo non est opus"; JUV. 2, 32-33: "cum tot abortivis fecundam Iulia vulvam  ¶ solveret."  ► medicamentum abortîvum (Cardano)

246 abortion: induce abortion or miscarriage, perform an abortion, have an abortion  ► partum (sibi v. alicui) abigere  ¶ CIC. Clu. 31: "quandam mulierem ... quod ab heredibus acceptâ pecuniâ partum sibi ipsa medicamentis abegisset, rei capitalis esse damnatam."  TAC. A. 14, 63, of Octavia: "abactos partûs conscientiâ libidinum."  PLIN. 14, 116.  Cf. PLIN. 24, 29, of a plant said to induce abortion: "Chamaepitys Latine abiga vocatur propter abortûs."  ► conceptum abigere  ¶ SUET. Dom. 22: "ut etiam [Domitianus] causa mortis exstiterit [Domitianae] coactae conceptum a se abigere."  Cf. TERT. Apol. 9, 8: "Conceptum utero, dum adhuc sanguis in hominem deliberatur, dissolvere non licet."  Cf. also 1698 Hofmann s.v. abortum promovere: "cum semen quoque recens conceptum artibus quibusdam nefariis abigere solerent feminae impudicae" (quoted at length below).  ► partum necare  ¶ PLIN. 20, 154.  PLIN. 28, 251, of a medicinal preparation: "Partum maturat, ut vel abortus evocetur, nec aliter adhibetur, quoniam viventem partum necat."  1571 MATTIOLI 47.  Cf. Juv. 6, 594-97, on wealthy women's abortions: "Iacet aurato vix ulla puerpera lecto; / tantum artes huius, tantum medicamina possunt, / quae steriles facit atque homines in ventre necandos / conducit."   ► partem êlîdere  ¶ CELS. 1, 7.   ► abortum promovêre  ¶ 1698 Hofmann s.v. abortum promovere.  ► abortum provocare  ¶ 1698 Hofmann s.v. abortum promovere.  Catechism.   ►► The passages in Pliny refer to drugs and plant substances that induce abortion. ||  1698 Hofmann: "Abortum promovere, per legem iuris consultuorum medicorumque vetitum.  Erant enim quae fetum, antequam in lucem legitime ederetur, adhuc in utero materno vix conceptum abortivis (quae  αμβλωθριδια φαρμακα, et simpliciter αμβλωθριδια Graeci, Latini quoque abortionis pocula dixere, vide Lindenbrogium aliosque ad Amm. Marcellinum 16, 10, Suidam, Harpocrationem, Heschyium) expellere tentabant, infamie vitandae; quod tamen omnes boni detestatione et communi odio prosequebantur.  A. Gellius 12, 1 ... Hinc non minus mulieres, quae id conabantur, homicidii tenebantur reae, quam si editum necassent.  Augustin. Serm. de temp. 111: 'Mulier quaecumque fecerit per quod iam non possit concipere, quotienscumque parere poterat, tantorum homicidiorum se ream esse cognoscat.'  Ut merito indignentur omnes boni damnentque Minois institutum diminuendae multitudini abortum iubentis, moremque incolarum Formosae Insulae, in qua turpe habitum olim, si femina ante 35 vel 36 aetatis annum prolem edidisset, ante quod tempus proin abortum procurare patria consuetudo fuit. Puniebatur autem apud Romanos olim hoc crimen ... si nempe fetus esset εικονσιμενος, formatus in humanam speciem et vitalis.  Sed et cum semen quoque recens conceptum artibus quibusdam nefariis abigere solerent feminae impudicae, crimen illud non minus homicidii postulat Tertullianus Apolog. 9, 'Etiam' inquiens 'conceptum utero, dum adhuc sanguis in hominem deliberatur, dissolvere non licet.' ... Vide quoque Aug. Quest. 86 in Exod."

246 afterbirth  secundae, arum f. pl.

246 birthplace  ► locus nâtâlis  ¶ 1794 RUIZ xxi.

246 contraception, birth control  conceptûs inhibitio (v. praecautio)  |  practice contraception  conceptum (v. conceptionem) praecavêre (v. inhibêre v. impedîre v. avertere) (1571MATTIOLI 425, of use of mint as contraceptive: "vulvae ante coitum admota, conceptionem impedit."  ►► HELFER: frustratio conceptionis [Donat], contraceptio*, anticonceptio*

246 contraceptive  subst.  atocium, i n. (PLIN. 29, 85; LRL; in Anc. Gr.: Hippocrates)  |  adj.  atocius, a, um* (LRL; Anc. Gr.)  |  contraceptive device  instrumentum atocium*, apparâtus atocius*, instrumentum (v. apparâtus) conceptûs praecavendi (v. inhibendi v. impediendi v. avertendi)  ►► PLIN. 29, 85, of a plant: "quo dissecto inveniri intus dicuntur vermiculi duo adalligatique mulieribus pelle cervinâ ante solis ortum praestare ne concipiant ... quam solam ex omni atocio dixisse fas sit, quoniam aliquarum fecunditas plena liberis tali venia indiget."  HELFER:anticonceptivum*, anticoncipiens, entis* n., subsidia anticonceptionalia* [Vox Lat.], pilula anticonceptiva*, pilula Pincusiana

246 contraceptive: condom, rubber   pênis involûcrum (Bacci s.v. condom; cf. description by the device's inventor, Falloppius 150: "quoties ergo quis coierit ... habeat linteolum ad mensuram glandis praeparatum; demum cum coiverit, pont supra supra glandem... habeatis huius lintei involucrum, et in canali ponatis."  ► pênis integumentum (Bacci s.v. condom)  ► (euphemistically) involûcrum (v. integumentum) praeservatîvum* (v. prophylacticum*)  ► ? posthothêca, ae* f.  ►► Falloppius 149-151: "Ego nihil fecisse videor, nisi doceam vos quomodo quis videns pulcherrimam sirenam et coiens cum eâ, etiam infectâ, a carie et lue Gallicâ praeservetur ... Sed quia oportet etiam meretricum animos disponere, non licet nobiscum unguenta domo afferre. Propterea ego inveni linteolum imbutum medicamento, quod potest commode asportari, cum femoralia ita vasta feratis ut totam apothecam vobiscum habere possitis.  Quoties ergo quis coierit, abluat, si potest, pudendum, vel panno detergat; postea habeat linteolum ad mensuram glandis praeparatum; demum cum coiverit, pont supra supra glandem, et recurrat praeputium ... Habeatis huius lintei involucrum, et in canali ponatis.  Ego feci experimentum in centum, et mille hominibus, et Deum testor immortalem nullum eorum infectum.  Notate autem obiter quod quaelibet species linteoli mundi tantam habet vim in praeservatione ut nihil magis.  Ideo semper quis parvo linteolo obvolvat glandem per spatium quatuor aut quinque horarum, et hoc non est molestum mulieribus."  ||  EL: préservatif, capote; profilattico, preservativo; preservativo, condón, profiláctico; Kondom, Präservativ; προφυλακτικό, καπότα.  LRL: tegumentum. 

246 fetus, embryo  embryo, ônis+ (LATHAM; HOVEN; Calepino; 1811 PALLAS 14; LRL)  ► fêtus, i m. (Gell. 4, 2, 10: "si vitium factum esset, ut concipere fetûs non posset"; RABELAIS 948: "quod utero gerentibus usui venire cottidie experimur, ut quos numquam viderunt fetûs alant."  ► fêtus in utero (1571 MATTIOLI 109, of banana: "fetum in utero alit."  ► fêtus in utero conceptus (Calepino s.v. embryo in def.)  ► fêtus in utero inclûsus (cf. LRL: infans in utero inclusus)  ► conceptum, i n. (PLIN. 28, 248: "conceptum leporis utero exemptum," "the fetus removed from a hare's womb"; SUET. Dom. 22)  ► partus (in utero) (PLIN. 21, 156: "si emortui sint in utero partus."  ►► Fêtus refers to offspring both before and after birth; so a restricting phrase is necessary if the meaning "embryo, fetus" is not clear from the context.

246 gestation:  the period of gestation is nine months  octônis mensibus ferunt partûs (PLIN. 8, 112; cf. PLIN. 10, 179: "cameli duodecim mensibus ferunt."  ► octo mensibus partum gerunt (PLIN. 8, 187: "gerunt partum diebus quadraginta."  ► octo menses utero gerunt (cf. 1811 PALLAS 50: "septimanas novem utero gerunt")

246 labor: be in labor  parturîre

246 new-born  recens natus (1652 TURS. 276)

246 triplets  trigemini, orum m. pl., ter gemini

246 triplets: quadruplets  quater gemini

246 triplets: quintuplets  quinquies gemini

246 triplets: sextuplets  sexies gemini

247

247    CHILD

247 baby bottle  titina, ae f. (Souter citing Soran.; see HILGERS 80)  ► lagoena (v. laguncula) infantilis (v. papillata)  ►► Soran. p. 43 (quoted in HILGERS): "Quod ei [sc. infanti] bibere dabimus?  Aliquando aquam, aliquando vinum aquatius per vasculum vitreum ad similitudinem papillae formatum et pertusum, quod rustici ubuppam appellant aut titinam."  ||  lagoenula suctoria (HELFER citing Bauer)

247 baby-carriage  chîr a maxium infantile (not chîr o maxium )

247 babysitter  gerula, ae f., cunabularia, ae+ f.

247 diaper  subligar (v. subligaculum) infantile 

247 lullaby  lallum, i n. (Aus.)  |  sing a lullaby  lallâre (Pers.; HIER.)

247 nanny, fille au pair, dry nurse  \\ gerula, ae f.  \ TERT. An. 46.  ► assa, ae f.  \ JUV. ► assa nutrix   \ Front. Ep. ad Ant.  \ Inscr.  ► ? infantâria, ae f.

247 nanny: babysitter

247 pacifier (for baby)

247 precocious, child prodigy  ►► Cf. praecox.  At QUINT. 1, 3, 3 aliud innuere videtur: "Hic meus [discipulus] quae tradentur non difficulter accipiet, quaedam etiam interrogabit; sequetur tamen magis quam praecurret.  Illud ingeniorum velut praecox genus non temere umquam pervenit ad frugem."

248

248    FAMILY

248 illegitimate, born out of wedlock  < nothus, a, um  \ VERG.  \ QUINT.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 21, on the gymnasia of ancient Athens: "Athenienses quoque sua gymnasia erexerunt ... alterum  ακαδημ í αν  vocatum ... alterum  λυκειον  .... alterum  κυνοσαργές , ubi nothi, spurii, ac ignobiliores omnes exercebantur, siquidem apud Graecos tanto odio tantâque infamiâ viles ac spurii notabantur, ut qui vere legitimi ac nobiles essent cum iis consuetudinem ac communem sese exercendi locum habere recusarent."  ► spurius, a, um  \ Dig.  \ CodJust.  \ APUL.   ► nâtûrâlis, e  \DIG.  \ AUG.  \ 1652 TURS. 414: "filius naturalis."  << [[LS s.v. nothus: " illegitimate, bastard, born out of wedlock (but of a known father; contra, spurius, of an unknown father: legitimus, born in wedlock)."]] < +bastardus, mazner ĕris, (Vulg.)

249

249    DEATH

249 catafalque  lectus funebris (LRL; cf. 1652 TURS. 378, of death of a French nobleman: "corpus suum publico super lectum honorifice ornatum exponitur")

249 catafalque: lie in state:  Presidents lie in state in the Rotunda of the Capitol  praesidum corpora in tholo Capitolii (v. Curiae Vasintonensis) honorifice exponi solent (cf. 1652TURS. 378, of death of a French nobleman: "corpus suum publico super lectum honorifice ornatum exponitur")

249 cemetery, graveyard  sepulcrêtum, i n. (Cato)  ► coemêtêrium, i n. (TERT.)

249 corpse  ► cadâver, eris n.  ► corpus exanime  ¶ 1674 MILTON XIII. 40: "ut corpus exanime amicis suis atque famulis in patriam deportandum tradatur."

249 cremate  ► igne cremare  ¶ CIC. Leg. 2, 57: "Sulla ... primus e patriciis Corneliis igni voluit cremari."  1652 TURS. 304, 332: "Sententiâ Inquisitorum mortui cadavar igne crematur in publicâ plateâ."  ► cremâre  ¶ PLIN. 7, 187: "Ipsum cremare apud Romanos non fuit veteris instituti; terrâ condebantur."  SUET. AUG. 100: "senatorum umeris delatus in Campum crematusque."  ►corpus (alicuius) comburere  ¶ 1315 MARCO POLO B 2, 48: "Mortuorum suorum corpora comburunt."  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 414: "Faciunt comburi sua corpora quando sunt mortui."

249 crematorium  ustrîna, ae f. (Inscr.)

249 die of natural causes, die a natural death  ► fato naturali exstingui  ¶ 1688 DUCANGE Comn. 559.  : "Sultanum in urbe Bagdatensi fato naturali exstinctum anno hegirae 485, Christi 1092."

249 epitaph  (inscription on tombstone)  êlogium, i n. (CIC.; EGGER R.A. 132)

249 eulogy, funeral oration  epitaphium, i n.

249 funeral  funus, eris n., exsequiae, arum f. pl., exsequiarum officium (1652 TURS. 397)

249 funeral: chapelle ardente, candle-lit chapel or chamber where a corpse lies in state before funeral  capella ardens (1652 TURS. 397)

249 gravestone, tombstone  cippus, i m. (HOR.; Pers.; EGGER R.A. 39)  ► lapis sepulcralis

249 hearse  carpentum funebre

249 last wishes  votum ultimae voluntatis (1652 TURS. 335: "secundum votum ultimae voluntatis Renati secundi ducis Lotharingiae")

249 late, deceased  ► felicis memoriae (v. recordationis) (gen., as an incise after the name)  ► beatae memoriae (gen., as an incise after the name)  ¶ 1652 TURS. 331: "beatae memoriae pontifex maximum Gregorius."  1784 THUNBERG xix: "beatae memoriae et olim praeceptoris archiatri Linnaei."  ► piae recordationis (gen., as an incise with the name)  ¶ 1652 TURS. 397: "In omnibus ecclesiis et capellis exsequiarum regis Ludiovici XIII, piae recordationis, officium celebratur."  ► beatus, a, um (*) (preceding the name)  ¶ 1698 HOFMANN iii.  1891 VELENOVSKÝ i: "beatus Janka."  ►  ο   μακαρίτης   ¶  BESLER  title page, of a book published posthumously: "ut virtuti  του μακαρίτου exstaret monumentum."  Ibid. iii: "Maxime autem me movit desideratissimi filiiτου μακαρίτου impensus hisce labor." 

249 mausoleum  mausôlêum, i n., (SUET.; MART.; 1652 TURS. 378: "corpus ... suorum antecessorum mauzoleo ponitur")

249 mummy  mortui corpus medicatum (EGGER S.L. 100; EGGER R.A. 138)  ► sceletus, i m. (APUL.; 1811 PALLAS v)

249 obituary 

249 suicide  mors voluntâria, mors conscîta, propricîdium, i* n., autochîria, ae* f. (Anc. Gr.; Joannes Meerman, Disputatio philologo-juridica inauguralis de autocheiria, Leiden 1707)

249 suicide: commit suicide  mortem (v. necem v. letum) sibi consciscere  ► manûs sibi afferre (v. inferre)  ► se occidere  ► se interimere  ► neci se dare (1811 PALLAS 35)  ► morte voluntariâ perire (Isid. 20, 1, 1: "Apicius ... morte voluntariâ periit")

249 undertaker, funeral director, mortician  libitînârius, i m., funerarius, i m., dissignâtor, ôris m.;  be an undertaker  libitînam exercêre  ►► funeribus celebrandis dominus (EGGER S.L. 90)

249 undertaker: embalmer  pollictor, ôris m.

249 untimely death  mors praematura (cf. PLAUT. Most. 2, 2, 69: "praemature vitâ careo"; 1698 Hofmann vi: praemature defunctus)

25

25    SPORTS

25 /athlete  < athlêta, ae m. \ EGGER D.L. 13.  |  (as participant in competition)  < agonista, ae m.  \ EGGER D.L. 14.  \ EGGER S.L. 66.

25 /athlete: jock, masculine and athletic man, he-man, stud, macho guy, strapping fellow  ► draucus, i m.  ¶ MART. 7, 67, 5-6, of a preternaturally powerful female athlete: "gravesque draucis / halteres facili rotat lacerto" ("dumbells that are heavy even to male athletes").  \ MART. 14, 48: "Haec rapit Antaei velox in pulvere draucus, / grandia qui vano colla labore facit" (where harpasta are the balls used in a rough game, and Antaei pulvus is the playing field).  \ MART. 1, 96, 12; 9, 27, 10; 11,  72.  \ Not. Tir. 99, 62.  \ 1825 Koenig II, 32, in note on Juv. 9, 92: "Bipedem asellum, stultum hominem, qui eandam operam gratis praestat, servum draucumque simplicem et robustum, vel bene mentulatum, quem eodem modo decipiat."  ►► The sexual meaning attributed to this word in older dictionaries and translations (e.g., Forcellini: "qui mares provectioris aetatis init, conficit"; Georges: "einer der mit Männern Unzucht treibt"; Lewis and Short: "sodomite"; old Loeb translation of Mart. 14, 48: "dissolute youth") is mistaken, having its origin apparently in a misread gloss.  See, for the correct meaning:  \ ThLL: "videtur esse athleta iuvenis" (citing Housman's article, quoted below).  \ OLD: "an athlete."  Walde-Hofmann: "junger Athlet."  \ H. J. Izaac's translation of Mart. 14, 48 ("Belles lettres" series): "un solide gaillard."  \ Shackleton Bailey's translation of Mart. 14, 48 (Loeb series): "the athlete."  \ A. E. Housman, "Draucus and Martial XI 8 1," The Classical Review 44 (1930), 114-15: "The definitions of draucus in Forcellini and Freund and Georges and Lewis and Short may best be described as lurid moonshine ... Draucus is as innocent a word as comoedus, and simply means one who performs feats of strength in public ... The old citation 'gloss. Philox. draucus  καταπύγων ' has prudently been dropped by Georges, for the MSS have 'depugis' – not to mention that  καταπύγων  is exactly the opposite of what draucus is supposed to mean."  \ Hans Peter Obermayer, Martial und der Diskurs über männliche "Homosexualität" in de Literature der früheren Kaiserzeit (Tübingen: Narr, 1999), 40 n. 96, defining "drauci" as "Kraftlackeln" ("sturdy fellows").  \ Guillermo Galán Vioque (tr. J. J. Zoltowski), Martial, Book VII: A Commentary (Leiden: Brill, 2002), 387, reviewing scholarly discussion of the word's meaning: "What we have, in conclusion, is brawny athletes or circus-performers, sometimes presented as models of sexual vigor."

25 /athletic, sports (adj.)  \\ campester, ris, e  \\ athlêticus, a, um   \\ gymnicus, a, um   \\ agônisticus, a, um (concerning competitive sports, or athletic competition)  \ Tert.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 18.

25 /athletics, sports  \\ ludicra certamina (n. pl.)  \ 1652 TURS. 258: "Henricus Franciae rex ... in ludicro certamine letale vulnus accepit," of the jousting accident from which Henry II died.  ►ludicrae exercitationes (f. pl.)  \ EGGER D.L. 12.  ► ludicrae corporis exercitationes (f. pl.)  \\ EGGER D.L. 51.  ► ludicra exercendi  \ EGGER D.L. 51.  ► corporis exercitationes \EGGER D.L. 52.  \\ athlêtica, ae f.  \ Plin. 7, 205: "athleticam Pittheus [condidit]."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 12, distinguishing athletica from gymnastica, as directed to strength and victory rather than health and fitness: "Athletica finem habuit robur, ut illius vi posset athleta adversarium superare et coronoam praemiaque proposita consequi."  \\ palaestra, ae f. (used abstractly)  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 27: "Adolescentes liberos palaestram ediscere solitos fuisse facile convincitur."

25 /sports event  < agôn, ônis m.  \ EGGER D.L. 14.  ► agôn gymnicus \ PLIN. Ep. 4, 22.  ► ludicrum certâmen \ EGGER S.L. 11.

25 /sports: competitive sports  < ? ludi agonici (v. agonistici) (m. pl.)

25 arena  (enclosed area for playing ball: tennis court, basketball court, handball court, etc.)  sphaeristêrium, i n. (PLIN. Ep.; SUET.)

25 arena, stadium  ► amphitheâtrum, i n.  ¶  ► stadium, i n.  ¶ VITR. 5, 11, 4, of the stadium of the palaestra: "Post xystum autem stadium, ita figuratum ut possint hominum copiae cum laxamento athletas certantes spectare." \ 1569 MERCURIALE 60: "Omnium postremo in gymnasiis pars fuit stadium, ubi populus cum voluptate athletas spectabat; nilque aliud erat quam hemisphaerium quoddam, multis gradibus constructum, unde poterant commode spectatores, qui semper plurimi eo confluebant, certatores intueri." \ EGGER D.L. 40.  ► sphaerodromus, i* m. (appropriate for a stadium for football, soccer, rugby, cricket, etc.)  ¶ Cf. Byz. Gr.  σφαιροδρομίο v, of a ball game, presumably polo:  1754 REISKE tr. PORPHYROGENITUS 1, 83 (pp. 381-82):"Hos itaque imperator, statim atque e sphaerodromio seu equestri cum pilâ ludo excesserit ( μετα την του σφαιροδρομίου έξοδον), introduci mandat praefecto mensae."  \ Cf. also hippodromus, "race-track."

25 arena: Coliseum  (ancient amphitheater in Rome)  amphitheatrum Flavium (EGGER R.A. 13)  ► amphitheatrum Caesareum (MART. Spect. 1, 6; EGGER R.A. 13)  ► colisêum, i+(Pseudo-Bede, P.L. 94, 543; EGGER R.A. 13)  |  (of other large stadiums or arenas)  see stadiumarena

25 arena: luxury box, VIP box, executive box, sky box, private box, luxury suite  ► cathisma, atis* n.  ¶ Of the emperor's box in the hippodrome at Constantinople:  1754 REISKEann. PORPHYROGENITUS vol. 2, p. 309 (on bk. 1, ch. 68): "Cathisma ... est tribunal vel triclinium, id est splendidum aedificium, palatium, in quo sedebat imperator quoties ludos circenses spectaret ... Cathismatis Constantinopolitani supersunt adhuc hodie rudera, saltim in effigie aere expressâ, quam Bandurius tom. II Antiquitatum Imperii Orientalis p. 664 dedit, in quâ conspiciuntur septem porticûs."  Ibid. p. 274: "Ita dicitur Michael Calaphates  προκύψας εχ του καθίσματος δημηγορειν, deorsum prospiciens e fenestris vel etiam e maeniano tribunalis circensis, cathisma dicti, ad populum perorasse, apud Cedren. p. 751B fine."  Ibid. p. 296: "De throno cathismatis seu palatii circensis, e quo ludos spectare solebat imperator, hic sermo est."  Ibid. pp. 301-02: "Videntur imperatores Byzantini quoque in pulpito sui cathismatis tales Victorias ... habuisse stantes."  Ibid. 311: "Putem tamen Constantini nostri aetate imperatores e medio cathismate et ex aequo in utramque circi partem spectasse."  1870 RAMBAUD 80-81: "Imperator populo suo numquam se committebat. Cum enim in hippodromi cathisma procedebat, palatio suo tamen ideo non exibat. Nam eodem munitionum circuitu et Sacrum Palatium ... et cathisma, in quo suum triclinium et suum cubiculum imperator habebat, cingebatur ... Si plebs commota videretur, undique aereis portis palatium claudebatur; cathisma autem, satis altis columnis suffultum, ut sublici imposita arx maritima, popularibus fluctibus insultabat."  Cf. DUCANGE Graec.: "Κάθισμα, Thronus imperator in hippodromo ...κάθισμα του ιπποδρομίου, apud Theophan. in Leon. Jun. an. 17 Zenonis et ann. 5 Justiniani.  Leo Gramm. in Theophilo p. 449 ... Vide nostram Constantinopolim Christianam lib. 2, p. 104."  ►tribûnal  (amphitheatri v. stadii v. circi v. circense)  ¶ SUET. Aug. 44, of the praetor's platform or box in the theater: "Virginibus Vestalibus locum in theatro separatim et contra praetoris tribunal dedit."  1688 DUCANGE trans. Chronicon, vol. 1, p. 528, on the emperor Constantine's improvements to Byzantium: "Circum praeterea absolvit ... confecto etiam tribunali, ex quo imperator circenses spectaret (ποιήσας εν αυτω κάθισμα θεωρíου βασιλικου), instar illius quod Romae erat."  Ibid. p. 558, describing how a Byzantine emperor, on learning that a high-ranking minister, who happened to be with him in his stadium box, had gouged a widow, had him hurled to his death before the eyes of the astonished crowd: "Tum vero imperatoris mandato a tribunali proiectus est (κατηνέχθη απο του καθíσματος) praepositus in fundum circi, spectantibus universis, et exustus."  1754 REISKE ann. PORPHYROGENITUS, vol. 2, p. 274, quoted above.   ► altum (v. lautum v. magnâtum) tribûnal  ► altum (v. lautum v. magnâtum) spectandi suggestus  ¶ Cf. Isaac Causabon trans. Polybius (quoted in 1754 REISKE ann. PORPHYROGENITUS vol. 2, p. 309), on a royal box in this hippodrome of Hellenistic Alexandria: "in regibus proprio spectandi suggestu."

25 arena: luxury box: press box  ► diurnâriorum cathisma*

25 arena: playing field, field (in stadium) \\ arêna, ae f. \ Sen. Ep. 99, 13: "Aspice illos iuvenes quos ex nobilissimis domibus in arenam luxuria proiecit." \\ arêna amphitheâtri (v. stadii \ Suet. Ner. 53, of Nero's plan to fight a lion of the field of the stadium: "Destinaverat etiam ... imitari et Herculis facta, praeparatumque leonem aiunt, quem vel clavâ vel brachiorum nexibus in amphitheatri arenâ, spectante populo, nudus elideret." \  1569 MERCURIALE 60: "An autem ... inde per ostium ex platanonibus gymnasiorum athletae in arenam stadii prodirent, eti a Vitruvio nil explicatum habeatur, rationi tamen consentaneum videutr." \\ campus lûsôrius \\ campus agônâlis \ Cf. EGGER R.A. 78, of the stadium Domitiani: "Area agonalis ... appellatur et agonalis, id est ad agonem seu certamen pertinens."  ► pratum lûsôrium (if turf-covered)

25 arena: sports arena  amphitheâtrum (v. stadium) tectum

25 arena: stands, bleachers, seating area of stadium or arena  ► spectâcula, orum n. pl.  ¶ CIC.  LIV.  TAC.

25 arena: stands: section (in theater, stadium)  ► cuneus, i m.  ¶ Vitr.  Verg.  Suet.

25 championship  certamen ad principatum consequendum (EGGER S.L. 14: "certamina folle pedibusque ludentium ad principatum huius ludicrae exercitationis in orbe terrarum consequendum sunt edita")

25 cheer (brief phrase rhythmically chanted, as at sports events), college yell  ► hortâtio, ônis f.  ¶  ► hortâtio modulâta  ¶ Cf. Suet. Nero 20, 3, of the rhythmic applause or cheering of Alexandrians visiting Naples, which Nero had his own claque of cheerers imitate: "Captus autem modulatis Alexandrinorum laudationibus, qui de novo commeatu Neapolim confluxerant, plures Alexandriâ evocavit."  ► celeuma, atis n.  ¶¶ Of the rhythmic chant by which the coxswain shouts the crew encouragement and sets the stroke tempo.  ¶ Mart. 3, 67, 4, of sluggish rowers: "Lentos tinguitis ad celeuma remos."  PSEUDO-ASCONIUS Cic. Div. in Caec. 55 (p. 122): "Cani remigibus celeuma per symphoniacos solebat et per assam vocem, id est ore prolatam, et, ut in Argo navi, per citharam."  ¶¶  Of a chant of encouragement in other activities.  ¶ HIER. Isai. 5, 10 (PL 24, 173): "Nequaquam in vindemia laetus vindemiator celeuma cantabit, sed ubique hostilis vastitas."  ¶ AUG. Monach. 17, 20 (PL 40, 565), setting forth guidelines for the daily life of monks: "Cantica vero divina cantare etiam manibus operantes facile possunt, et ipsum laborem tamquam divino celeumate consolari."  ► conclâmâtio, onis f.  ¶ Cf. Dio Cass. 72, 13, 3, using the verb  συμβοάω  of unison shouting (against Cleander in A.D. 190) by a mob at the games, taken up by the entire crowd: " Πληθός τι παιδίων ες τον ιππόδρομον εσέδραμε ... Τά τε γαρ παιδία συνεβόησαν πολλα και δεινά, και ο δημος παραλαβων αυτα ουδεν ότι ουκ εξέκραγε."  ► conclâmatiomodulâta (vnumerôsa)  ¶ CfDio Cass. 74 (73 in Teubner ed.), 2, 3, on the crowd's behavior after the death of Commodus (193 A.D.), using the expression ευρύθμως εκβοαν of the practice ofrhythmic cheering in the theater: "Τοις τε βουλευταις, όσοις και μάλιστα εκ του Κομμόδου φόβος επηώρητο, ο όχλος επέλεγεν 'ευγε ευγε, εσώθης, ενίκησας.' Ώσα τε ειώθεσαν εν τοις θεάτροις επι τη του Κομμόδου θεραπεία ευρύθμως εκβοαν, ταυτα τότε μετασχηματίζοντες ες το γελοιότατον εξηδον."  ► Cf. VulgAct. 19, 34, of the unison shouting of a rowdy crowd assembled in the Ephesus theater: "Vox facta est una omnium quasi per horas duas clamantium 'Magna Diana Ephesiorum!'"

25 cheerleader  ► hortâtor, ôris m.  ¶¶  Of the coxswain of a rowing crew, who shouts encouragement and chants the stroke rhythm (called in Greek the  κελευστής ).  ¶ PLAUT. Merc. 695-97: "Sed coquos, quasi in mari / solet hortator remiges hortarier, / ita hortabatur."  ¶ Ov. M. 3, 618-19, of the coxswain on Acoetes' ship: "qui requiemque modumque  / voce dabat remis, animorum hortator, Epopeus."  ► celeustes, ae m.  ¶ CIL 12, 5736.

25 competitor (in athletic or other game), contestant  agônista, ae m. (EGGER D.L. 14, EGGER S.L. 66)  ► competîtor, ôris m., concertans, antis m. (1540 VIVES Exer. 337: primum [agonothetae] munus est loca concertantium designare," of a scholastic debate)

25 doubles: we're going to play doubles  lusuri sumus bini, duo contra duo (1540 VIVES Exer. 381, in dialogue between card-players)

25 duel, single combat, one-on-one fight  ► duellum, i n. (+)  ¶ 1652 TURS. 277: "Henricus [IV Galliae] edictum promulgat in duellâ, quibus magnus nobilium numerus damnabili honoris praetextu ob res plerumque levissimas his temporibus in Galliâ periit."  BARTAL s.v. digladiatio in definition.  In antiquity duellum is simply an archaic spelling of bellum, retained in an archaizing style and in poetry.  Its tranference to in the Middle Ages to the notion of "single combat, contest between two warriors" was undoubtedly influenced by an association of the word with du-, duo.   ► monomachia, ae f.  ► certâmen singulâre  ¶ c.1300 MARCO POLO A 487, of a wrestling face-off between a princess-athlete and her suitor: "Et quando fuerunt insimul amplexati, satis traxit unus alterum huc atque illuc et revolvit cum violentiâ magnâ, et ultimo vicit domicella singulare certamen, et proiecit ipsum ad terram, et sic fuit victus domicellus."  BARTAL s.v. digladiatio in definition.  ► digladiâtio, ônis f.  ¶ BARTAL.  1652 TURS. 337.

25 dueller, duellist  ► gladiâtor, ôris m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 335: "Rex Franciae in gladiatores regni edicto animadvertit, perniciosam hominum insaniam coercere studens."

25 fan (admirer)  fautor, ôris m. (EGGER S.L. 96)  ►► admirator studiosissimus (EGGER S.L. 34)

25 first place: win first place  primas ferre (EGGER D.L. 14)

25 foul (in sports)  vitium, i n., peccâtum, i n. (1540 VIVES Exer. 388, of "jeu de paume," the precursor of tennis: "sub funem misisse globulum vitium est seu peccatum")

25 game  (sports event, as in Olympics)  certâmen, inis n., agôn, ônis m. (EGGER D.L. 14)  ► agôn gymnicus (PLIN. Ep. 4, 22)

25 inning, heat, round  missus, ûs m. (SUET. Dom. 4: "circensium die, quo facilius centum missûs peragerentur, singulos a septenis spatiis ad quina corripuit," "on the day of the races, to make it easier to get in 100 heats, he shortened the heats from seven laps to five")

25 judge  (of sporting event, as in Olympics)  agônotheta, ae m. (EGGER D.L. 15)  |  brabeuta, ae m.

25 judge (in sporting event)  brabeuta, ae m. (SUET.; DIG.)  ► dissignâtor, ôris m. (CIC.)

25 lap (one turn around a track, to the end of a walkway and back, across a pool and back, etc.)  \\ spatium, i n.  \ CIC. Mur. 70: "si uno basilicae spatio honestamur" ("if they do us the honor of taking one turn around the basilica with us").  \ SEN. 30, 13: "Animi vigor ... sic crescebat illi quo modo manifestior notari solet agitatorum laetitia cum septimo spatio palmae appropinquat."  \ 1540 VIVES Exer. 328: "Conficiamus quaeso in hac moeniali ambulatione duo aut tria spatia."  ► circuitus, ûs m. 

25 mascot  ►► cf. totem

25 Olympic  adj.  Olympicus, a, um (EGGER S.L. 77)

25 Olympic champion or victor  Olympionîces, ae m. (EGGER S.L. 18)

25 Olympic Committe, International Olympic Committee  Agônothetae Olympicae, Agônothetârum Olympicârum Collegium

25 Olympics, Olympic Games  ludi Olympia, Olympia n. pl. (EGGER D.L. 12)

25 Olympics: summer Olympics  Olympia aestiva (n. pl.) (EGGER D.L. 52)

25 Olympics: winter Olympics  Olympia hiberna (n. pl.) (EGGER D.L. 12)

25 overtime  (sports)  tempus additicium (EGGER S.L. 15, 74)

25 player  (sports)  lusor, ôris m. (EGGER S.L. 15)

25 playground  campus lusorius, pratum lusorium

25 point  (in keeping score in a game)  punctum, i n. ()  ► numerus, i m. (ERASMUS)

25 prize  (in sporting event)  brabêum, i n. (Vulg.; TERT.; DANTE Monarchia 355)

25 prize: medal (gold, silver, bronze)  nomisma (aureum, argenteum, aeneum) (EGGER D.L. 14)

25 prize: trophy  brabêum ?

25 score: point (in scoring a game)  punctum, i n. (1540 VIVES Exer. 293, 381)  ► numerus, i m. (ERASMUS; 1540 VIVES Exer. 388)

25 score: tie (in score of game), tied game  aequalitas numerorum (1540 VIVES Exer. 388)

25 stands (seating for spectators), bleachers  cavea, ae f., spectacula, orum m. pl., cunei, orum m. pl. (EGGER D.L. 51)

25 team  (sports, scientists)  ► manus, ûs f.  ¶ EGGER D.L. 20.  ► turma, ae f.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 14.  ► manipulus, i m.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 14.

25 team member, team player  ► turmâlis, is m.  ¶  Of members of a military squadron:  Cic.  Liv.  In connection with a ball game, cf. Sid. Ep. 5, 17, 7: "Vir illustris Filimatius ... sphaeristarum se turmalibus constanter immiscuit" (where turmalis seems to refer to the team itself). 

25 track  stadium, i n.

25 train (athlete, dog, lion)  vb.

25 umpire 

25 win a game  ludum vincere (1540 VIVES Exer. 388)

252

252    GYM

252 aerobics, aerobic exercise

252 exercise (subst.), physical exercise, working out  \\ exercitatio, ônis f. \ CIC.  \ CELS. 1, 1 et passim.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 7, quoted below.  \ Ibid. 8: "Omnesque fere testantur exercitationum artem et ad avertendos futuros morbos et ad custodiendam praesentem sanitatem et ad valetudinarios reficiendos ... incredibilem utilitatem afferre."  \ Ibid. 9: "Neque etiam inconsulto fecit Cyrus, qui apud Xenophantem tanti exercitationes laboresque corporis aetimavit ut Persis ... quasi legem dederit ne ipsi umquam sine labore cibum caperent, ratus valetudini atque fortitudine perinde exercitationes necessarias esse ac cibum."  \ 1571 MATTIOLI 487, of rosemary: "si decoctum eius ante exercitationes bibatur."  \ Exercitatio in the singular is normally "an exercise"; our use of "exercise" without the article (as in "Exercise is good for you") is most often expressed in Latin by the plural exercitationes.  \\ gymnasium, i (*) n. \  1569 MERCURIALE 7-8: "Sed quoniam de omnibus fere ... copiose satis tractatum est, de gymnasiis autem sive exercitationibus, a quibus ars gymnastica apud veteres valde celebris constituta et denominata fuit, aut nulla aut quam paucissima et fortuito confuseque tradita reperiuntur, ideo de his deque gymnasticâ arte, a Latinis exercitatoria dicta, integram ... tractationem habere decrevi."  \ Ibid. 1569 MERCURIALE 10: "haec ars exercitatoria, gymnastica Graeco nomine nuncupata."  \ Cf. Anc. Gr. (see Lidell-Scott s.v.  γυμνάσιον , sense I).  \\ gymnastica, ae* f.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 9.  \ Ibid. 13-14: "Prout naturale atque mobile exsistit, physicus illud [scil. corpus humanum] contemplatur; prout sanitatis vel morbis capax, medico subiicitur; prout  ε ύ εκτον , id est boni habitûs susceptibile, a gymnasticâ ... consideratur."  \\ ars gymnastica  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 7, quoted above.  \ Ibid. 11-12: "Ita dicere poterimus artem gymnasticam esse facultatem quandam omnium exercitationum facultates contemplantem, eorumque varietates opere ipso edocentem, vel gratiâ bonae valetudinis conservandae, vel gratiâ optimi corporis habitûs acquirendi atque tuendi."  \\ ars exercitâtôria   \ 1569 MERCURIALE 7, quoted above.  \ Ibid. 19, of the medical establishment's use of exercise in the Roman imperial period: "omnes medicos eâ aetate Romae aestimatos passim in morbis curandis et sanis conservandis exercitatoriam artem adhibuisse."   \\ exercitâtiônum ars  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 8: "Omnesque fere testantur exercitationum artem et ad avertendos futuros morbos et ad custodiendam praesentem sanitatem ... incredibilem utilitatem afferre."   ►► The synonomyous terms gymnastica, ars gymnastica, ars exercitatoria, ars exercitationum refer to physical exercise as a systematized pursuit, organized around a body of precepts and patterns of practice; they may also refer to the body of knowledge concerning exercise, thus rendering "exercise physiology," "health and exercise science," and similar terms.  Medical writers, most prominently Galen in antiquity, and the Renaissance humanist-physician Mercuriale, carefully distinguish gymastica, having as its goal health and fitness, from athletica, directed rather to building strength and ensuring victory in games and competitions (see Mercuriale 12, quoted for athletica under the entry athletics, sports).

252 exercise (subst.): a work-out, an exercise session  \\ exercitationes, um f. pl.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 53: "In gymnasiis ante exercitationes ungebantur [they oiled themselves up before their work-out]."

252 exercise (vb), work out  ► se exercêre  ¶ CELS. 1, 1 et passim.  ► exercêri  ¶ Sen. Ep. 56, 1, on the annoyances of living over a bathhouse: "Supra ipsum balneum habito ... Cum fortiores exercentur et manûs plumbo graves iactant ... gemitûs audio." 

252 exercise physiology, exercise science, health and exercise science  ► See note at the end of the entry exercise.

252 fit, physically fit, in good shape  ► bene habitus \  ► habitus, a, um (most often in the comparative in this sense)  \ Plaut.  \ Ter. Eun. 313-318, where Chaerea describes the girl he's in love with: "Haud similis virgo est virginum nostrarum, quas matres student \ demissis umeris esse, vincto pectore, ut gracilae sint. \ Si qua est habitior paullo, pugilem esse aiunt, deducunt cibum ... \ Color verus, corpus solidum et suci plenum."  \\ sûci plênus (esp. of one muscular or well-built; cf. Yiddish zaftig)  \ Ter. Eun. 313-318, quoted above under habitus.  \ Apul. Apol. 63, of a statute of Mercury: "Hiccine est sceletus, haeccine est larva? ... Em vide quam facies eius decora et suci palaestrici plena sit."  \ Apul. Flor. 15, describing a statue of Bathyllus, a famous dancer: "Adulescens est visendâ pulchritudine ... cervix suci plena, malae uberes, genae teretes."  \\ corpulentus, a, um  \ 1585 Muret III, 357.  \\ euecticus, a, um  \ 1585 Muret III, 357.

252 fit, physically fit: muscular  \\ torôsus, a, um  \  \\ teres, etis  \  \\ sûci plênus (see citations under entry for physically fit).

252 fit: get in good shape, get fit  < bonum habitum comparare  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 17, explaining how exercise programs were developed in antiquity to counter the unhealthy lifestyle of an advanced civilization: "Crescente luxu, multisque a longâ valetudine detentis, tandem ad reparandam sanitatem, et imbecillitatem curandam, bonumque habitum comparandum, exercitationes insititui coeptae sunt."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 27, listing types of men who used the ancient gymnasia: "Quartum genus erant omnes illi, sive nobiles sive ignobiles, qui vel militaris disciplinae et fortitudinis, vel tuendae sanitatis et boni habitûs comparandi gratiâ variis exercitationium generibus incumbebant."

252 fit: in bad shape, out of shape, not fit  < male habitus  \

252 fitness, physical fitness, good shape, good physical condition  ► bonus habitus  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 8-9: "Non immerito Athenienses Apollini gymnasium sive exercitationem consecrarunt, significantes ... ab eo deo qui sanitatem nobis largitur, etiam bonum habitum et robur donari."  \ Ibid. 10: "Gymnasta erat qui omnium exercitationum potentias probe noscebat, easque, prout sanitati et bono habitui expedire iudicabat, diversis hominibus imperabat."  \ Ibid. 11-12: "Ita dicere poterimus artem gymnasticam esse facultatem quandam omnium exercitationum facultates contemplantem ... gratiâ optimi corporis habitûs acquirendi atque tuendi."  \ Ibid. 13-14: "Corpus humanum ... prout  ε ύ εκτον , id est boni habitûs susceptibile, a gymnasticâ ... consideratur."  \ Ibid. 97: "Gymnastica simplex et medicinae pars id solum curat, ut homines exercitationum moderatarum ope et sanitatem acquirant tueanturve, et bonum habitum adipiscantur."  \\ euexia, ae* f.  \ 1585Muret III. 357: "Exstat et libellus Galeni Peri euexiaV, quem qui legerit sciet aliud esse euexian, aliud bonam corporis constitutionem. Docet enim Galenus duplicem esse euexiam, unam quae simpliciter et absolute dicitur, alteram athleticam; quarum illa quidem est optima corporis constitutio ... altera posita est in copiâ et firmitate carnis ... Hanc [posteriorem] Latini interdum corpulentiamvocant ... et euecticos homines corpulentos."  \\ corpulentia, ae f.  \ 1585 Muret III. 357, quoted above.  \\ \\ Euexia, euecticus, loci plurimi apud GB.  A Mureto III. 357 sume locos ex veteribus de corpulentia, firmitas, habitudo, habitior, suci plenus, etc.

252 gym, gymnasium (building or complex of buildings), health club, YMCA, place for exercise  \\ palaestra, ae f.  \ Plaut.  \ Cic.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 20: "Ad haec quandoque sub nomine gymnasii omnem locum ubi exercerentur comprehensum fuisse reperitur ... Haec loca Vitruvio, Celso, Plinio, atque aliis Latinae linguae auctoribus palaestras nuncupari invenio."  \ Ibid. 22: "Romani postremi omnium gymnasia, palaestras vocata, in urbe ad Graecorum aemulationem, Varrone auctore, aedificare coeperunt; quos tamen ceteros quoscumque tum magnificentiâ operum, tum inaestimabili pulchritudine in hôc genere antecessisse, ex illis thermarum ruinis, quae ad hanc usque diem non sine omnium stupore perdurantes conspiciuntur, facile convincitur."  \ Ibid. 39: "Animadvertendum est palaestram apud utriusque linguae auctores multa significare: primo, totum ipsum gymnasium, ut est videre penes Vitruvium; secondo, locum quemcumque exercendis corporibus idoneum ... tertio, certam gymnasii partem, in quâ ex sententiâ Plauti, Galeni et Oribasii tot exercitationes factas praediximus [scil. luctam, pugilatum, halterum usum, sciamachiam, et similia]."  ► gymnasium, i n.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 20; 22; quoted above.  \\ thermae, arum f. pl. (appropriate for a gym with sauna, whirlpool, etc.)  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 22: "Nam gymnasia tota aliquando thermas, ob aquae calidae usum ibi frequentem, nuncupari apud auctores Latinae linguae nemo dubitat."

252 gym, gymnasium (large indoor hall for team sports, esp. basketball)  < sphaeristêrium, i n. \ PLIN. Ep. 5, 6, 27: "Apodyterio superpositum est sphaeristerium, quod plura genera exercitationis pluresque circulos capit."  The quotation from Pliny shows that the ancient sphaeristerium, like our gym, could have room for several simultaneous ball-games, as well as other sorts of exercices.

252 gymnastics, callisthenics  ►    ►►  γ υμναστική.

252 jump: long jump, high jump  ► Cf. Sen. 15, 4 (top of Loeb p. 98)

252 locker room (US), changeroom (Br.), changing room  \\ apodytêrium, i n. \ CIC.  \ PLIN.

252 low-impact, high-impact

252 massage (subst.), rub-down  \\ frictio, ônis f.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 27-28, quoted under entry for "get a massage."  ► fricatio, ônis f.  ► malassatio, ônis f. 

252 massage (v.t.), give (someone) a massage  ► fricare \ 1569 MERCURIALE 93: "Aderant servi fricandis corporibus destinati, qui ad praescriptum gymnastae aut paedotribae, modo nudis manibus, modo unctis, modo cum linteis ... corpora fricabant."  \\ malaxare  \ SEN. Ep. 66, 49: "An potius optem ut malaxandos articulos exoletis meis porrigam?"  \ PLIN. VAL. 1, 8. 

252 massage: get a massage, have a massage  \\ fricari  \ Plaut. Poen. 219-220: "Ex industria ambae numquam concessamus / lavari aut fricari aut tergeri aut ornari."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 27-28, listing types of men who used the ancient gymnasia: "Quintum genus erat eorum qui fricabantur; licet enim frictiones fierent a multis ante reliquas exercitationes, nihilo minus multi quoque sine ullâ exercitatione seorum ab aliis, ut de Vespasiano tradit Suetonius, solum fricabantur."

252 masseur  ► fricâtor, ôris m.  ► ? tractâtor, ôris m.  \ SEN. Ep. 66, 53.

252 phyiscal trainer, personal trainer, athletic trainer, trainer, coach  ► magister palaestricus  ¶ QUINT. 2, 8, 7, urging that the teacher (like the trainer) be sensitive to individual students' aptitudes: "Sic discernet haec dicendi magister, quo modo palaestricus ille cursorem faciet aut pugilem aut luctatorem aliudve ex iis quae sunt sacrorum certaminum."  ► doctor palaestricus  ¶ QUINT. 12, 2, 12.  \\ palaestricus, i m.  \ QUINT. 1, 11, 15-16: "Ne illos quidem reprehendendos puto qui paulum etiam palaestricis vacaverunt. Non de iis loquor quibus pars vitae in oleo, pars in vino consumitur ... sed nomen est idem iis a quibus gestûs motûsque formantur, ut recta sint bracchia, ne indoctae rusticae manûs, ne status indecorus, ne qua in proferendis pedibus inscitia, ne caput oculique ab aliâ corporis inclinatione dissideant."  \\ gymnastes, ae* m. \ Anc. Gr.  \ Hoven, citing Lipsius.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 10, establishing a distinction betweenpaedotriba and gymnasta: "Est insuper animadvertendum Galenum hac definitione gymnasticam a paedotribicâ distinxisse, quoniam illa, tamquam imperatrix, et exercitationum qualitates omnes et earum causas speculatur imperatque, haec veluti ministra illius exsistit; perinde ac gymnasta erat qui omnium exercitationum potentias probe noscebat, easque, prout sanitati et bono habitui expedire iudicabat, diversis hominibus imperabat, paedotriba vero qui eas, quo modo fieri deberent et possent, re ipsâ demonstrabat."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 27: "Adolescentes ... ad gymnasia accedebant, ubi a gymnastis ipsis quascumque cupiebant exercitationes edocebantur."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 91, listing the the staff positions at the gymansium: "Post hos aderat gymnastes, quem Galenus ... voluit magistrum omnium exercitationum exstitisse; qui, earum vires ac potentias ad sanitatem conducentes callentes, quo modo fieri deberent, quam diu, et quae quibus convenirent, tam athletas quam ceteros omnes exercitatores edocebat ... Hunc Xenophon, ut refert Iulius Pollux, progymnastem appelavit; Plato vero paedotribam, referente Galeno, vocare maluit."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 92: "Post gymnastem erat paedotriba, qui licet secundum Platonem ab eo differre non videretur, Galenus tamen eos valde diversos fuisse scribit, dum gymnastam medico et imperatori, paedotribam militi et coquo assimilat, merumque gymnastae ministrum nuncupat ... Paedotriba exercitationum omnium facultatem ignorabat, gymnastaeque praecepta solum faciebat, utpote qui et usum et differentias et modum exercitationum experientiâ quâdam calleret, sed ob ignorantiam saepenumero aberraret."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 93: "Gymnastes itaque erat praefectus exercitationum, paedotriba minister, et panifici, coquo et aedificatori proportione respondens, facere panes, obsonia, aedes scientibus quidem, minime tamen quid in ipsis optimum sit, quid non optimum intelligentibus."  ►paedotriba, ae* m.  \ Anc. Gr.  παιδοτρίβης .  \ Hoven, citing Budé.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE pp. 10, 91, 92, 93; each passage quoted under gymnastes.   \\ progymnastes, ae m.  \ Sen. Ep. 83, 4: "Progymnastas meos quaeris? Unus mihi sufficit Pharius, puer, ut scis, amabilis ... Sed iam vix illum adsequor currentem, et intra paucissimos dies non potero; vide quid exercitatio cottidiana proficiat."  Seneca, like Galen, uses this term specifically of a trainer who demonstrates exercises and accompanies his client in performing them.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 91, quoted undergymnastes.  ► alipta (or -es), ae m. \ Cic. Fam. 1, 9, 15, referring to the senators who supported his recall from exile, but voted to acquit his enemy Clodius: "Qui me homines quod salvum esse voluerunt, est mihi gratissimum; sed vellem non solum salutis meae, quem ad modum medici, sed, ut aliptae, etiam virium et coloris rationem habere voluissent."  \ Juv. 6, 421-423, of a woman who, after lifting weights at the baths, apparently received a sensuous massage from her aliptes: "Cum lassata gravi ceciderunt bracchia massâ, \ callidus et cristae [scil. clitoridi] digitos inpressit aliptes \ ac summum dominae femur exclamare coegit."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 92: " Αλείπτης  quoque ab Aristotele ... et a Latinis aliptam hunc eundum [scil. gymnastam] vocatum reperio ... Quamquam etiam aliquando pro unctore ipso vel pro unctorum magistro aliptam accipi sciam."  \  The aliptes apparently both oiled down the athlete and acted as his coach or trainer.  OLD: "one who annoints (athletes), a trainer of wrestlers or other gymnasts."  Lidell-Scott: "anointer: hence trainer in gymnasia" (citing Aristotle and Polybius).  ►► Mercuriale (whom Hofmann and others follow) draws from Galen and Aristotle a distinction between the gymnasta, a sort of theorist or scientist with a wide-ranging understanding of the relations between various forms of exercise and overall health or fitness, and the paedotriba, a practitioner, who demonstrates proper technique for specific exercises or athletic activities.  In today's context, the term gymnasta might thus be appropriate for an exercise physiologist, paedotriba for a personal trainer at the local gym; or gymnasta might be reserved for those with a professional degree in some area of physical education or exercise science; or gymnasta might simply be used as a more deferential or high-sounding term than paedotriba for a coach or trainer.

252 phyiscal trainer: coach (for ball-game)  \\ magister (v. doctor) sphaeristicus*  \ Cf. 1569 MERCURIALE 93: "Aderat et sphaeristicus, eorum qui pilâ ludebant institutor ac veluti paedotriba."

252 weight machine, rowing machine, treadmill, stair-climber

252 weight: barbell  ? pertica ...  ►► Mod. Gr. μπάρα

252 weight: dumbbell  ► haltêr, êris m.  ¶ MART. 7, 67, 5-6, lampooning a certain frotteuse for her notorious butchness: "Gravesque draucis / halteras facili rotat lacerto" (where draucis refers to he-man athletes).  \ MART. 14, 49, where halteres is the lemma: "Quid pereunt stulto fortes haltere lacerti? / Exercet melius vinea fossa viros."  \ SORAN. 1, 92 (pp. 33-34), on how a wet-nurse can stay fit: "Quae sunt exercitia quae fieri possunt nutrici? – Scilicet si ei pila ludatur aut cum halteribus manus mittatur" (where the corresponding Greek text, as noted by ThLL s.v. halter, has αλτήρων βολή).  \ CAEL. AUR. Tard. 2, 43, recommending the use of dumbbells as part of a program of physical therapy for paralysis victims: "Et in illis quibus totae manûs paralysi fuerint vitiatae, vel earum quaelibet partes, halteres erunt offerendi."  \ CAEL. AUR. Tard. 5, 38 (quoted below).  \ SCHOL. JUV. 6, 421: "Halteras dicit, quibus utuntur athletae cum exercentur."  (See quotation of the Juvenal passage under the entry weight.)  \ 1549 LINACRE tr. GALEN 253: "Depositis ante se halteribus ... attollunt dexterâ quidem eum qui ad sinistram iacet, sinistrâ qui ad dexteram" (full quotation under the entry lift weights).  \ 1825 RUPERTUS 1, 474, explicating Juv. 6, 420: "Sudare, sudorem elicere in sudatorio seu cellâ caldariâ, quod potissimum fiebat vel ferendo vel movendo pondera, in primis halteres, seu massas graves, hoc est, plumbeas (μολυβδίνας χειροπλήθεις apud Lucian. de Gymn.), quibus utebantur ad saliendum seque velut librandum, aut agitandum corpus, manibus plumbo gravibus sive sublatis ac depressis, sive huc illuc iactatis" (see quotation of the Juvenal passage under the entry weight).  \ 1840 DÜBNER tr. EPICTETUS 1, 4, 13: "Tu itaque mihi ostende profectum! Perinde ac si athletae ego dicerem 'Ostende mihi humeros,' atque ille responderet 'Ecce meos halteras' (ίδε μου τους αλτηρας). Tu videris cum tuis halteribus; ego effectum videre velim."  \ 1845 DINDORF  tr. PAUSANIAS 6, 3, 10, describing a classical Greek statue of an athlete: "Statua eius Cleonis opus est, et priscos halteres tenet (έχει δε αλτηρας αρχαίους)." (See on this passage PW s.v. halter, noting that by the expression αλτηρας αρχαίους Pausanias distinguishes the club-shaped or spherical αλτηρες of classical Greece from those of his own time, which were similar to modern dumbbells.)  \ Cf. PHILOSTRATUS Gymn. 55 (p. 180) (following Jüthner's German for the translation): "Γυμνάζουσι δε οι μεν μακροι των αλτήρων ώμους τε καιχειραςοι δε σφαιροειδεις και δακτύλουςΠαραληπτέοι δε και κούφοις ομοίως και βαρέσιν εν πάντα γυμνάσια" ("The long dumbbells work the shoulders and arms; the spherical ones work the fingers as well. Both heavy and light athletes use them for all sorts of training").  \ Cf. also Mod. Gr. αλτήρα; Fr. haltère, haltérophile, haltérophilie.  ► manipulus, i m.  ¶ CAEL. AUR. Tard. 5, 38, suggesting forms of physical therapy for arthritis sufferers: "Arthriticis vero convenit etiam digitis ceram emolliendam dare, vel manipulos tenendos, quos palaestritae halteres appellant, tum movendos, cereos vel ligneos, primo cum parvo plumbo interfuso, tum pro modo profectûs graviores." (Translation by Trabkin: "In cases of arthritis it is well to give the patient wax to knead with the fingers, or weights, which athletes call halteres, to hold in the hands and afterward to swing. These wax or wooden weights should at first have only a little lead inserted; later, as the patient improves, they should be made heavier.")   ►► The ancient halteres were originally used by competitive jumpers (who threw them as a means of increasing momentum); but during the Roman imperial period (from which all the ancient Latin citations come) were used rather for weight-lifting, like our dumbbells and barbells (see Daremberg 7).   \ Smith Antiquities: "HALTERES were certain masses of stone or metal which were used in the gymnastic exercises of the Greeks and Romans. Persons who practiced leaping often performed their exercises with halteres in both hands; but they were also frequently used merely to exercise the body, in somewhat the same manner as our dumbbells."  \ Daremberg s.v. halteres (pp. 6-7): "The shape of halteres by far the most frequent in Attic pottery is closer to that of modern dumbbells. This type of halter is composed essentially of two masses, linked by a short bar which the athlete grasped. The only difference is that in today's dumbbells the bar is straight, whereas in the ancient halter it was curved, giving the object an arched shape ... The ancients did not fail to notice that these weights [in addition to their original use as aids in jumping] were remarkably useful for working the muscles. On a cup in the Berlin Museum, we see an athlete extending out to the side an arm that holds a halter; he is otherwise motionless, and is only exercising his muscles. Whatever sport an athlete specialized in, the halteres were useful in training for it. Thus, though their use was restricted in the games to the pentathlon, halteres were constantly used in the palaestrae ... The exercises done with halteres follow precise rules that appear to have been very carefully thought out. One of the most effective was done in this manner: the athlete placed two halteres on the ground, about an arm's length apart; then he stood between them, and taking the left one in his right hand and the right one in his left hand, lifted the weights, then set them back down. The movement was repeated a number of times; it would have engaged muscles in all parts of the body, as the athlete was not allowed to move his feet, only leaning forward."  For the exercise described here, a sort of deadlift, Dalemberg cites the passage in Galenus (De tuendâ valentudine 2, 10) quoted under the entry lift weights.  \ PW s.v. halter (article by Julius Jüthner) (my trans.): "HALTER, αλτήρ (from άλλομαι or άλμα, Philostr. Gymn. 55) = jumping-weights or dumbbell (Sprunggewicht oder Hantel) ... In Roman times (from what date is unclear), a halter of cylindrical shape was in use ... Halteres were used on the one hand in jumping, as a way of increasing momentum, and on the other like our dumbbells, to strengthen the arm muscles (wie unsere Hanteln zur Kräftigung der Armmuskulatur)."  \ PW s.v. αλτηροβολία (article by Julius Jüthner) (my trans.): "Αλτηροβολία, exercise with dumbbells (das Hantelturnen), recommended by physicians of the imperial period ... The physicians classed αλτηροβολία as a form of health-promoting physical exercise; but it was clearly invented in the palaestra."   \ Julius Jüthner, Über antike Turngeräthe (Vienna, 1896), pp. 16-17 (my trans.): "It is well known that physicians of the imperial period also recommend that form of exercise which we call weight-lifting (Handelturnen), and which consists in the moving either the arms or of the entire upper body while holding weights ... All these passages [by ancient authors discussing the use of halteres for weight-lifting] are from the imperial period; earlier testimony is lacking. To fill this gap with visual or artistic evidence is difficult, as the relevant depictions can nearly always be interpreted as representing either jumping or weight-lifting. There are a few depictions, though, which are difficult to interpret as anything other than weight-lifting. An example is Figure 16 [a vase painting showing an trainer and two athletes], where two ephebes, with one foot ahead of the other and bent far over, are lowering pairs of halteres. This depiction clearly has nothing to do with jumping ... I would interpret in the same way an Etruscan bronze (Villa Papa Guilio XX I), which shows an ephebe holding a pair of halteres staight up over his head, his arms locked in position. If he were swinging the halteres backwards as part of a jump, this posture would be unnecessary; the movement appears natural only if one interprets it as a weight-training exercise (als Kraftübung)." [[image from Jüthner, Turngeräthe, p. 17]]

252 weight-lifting, weight training, resistance training  ► halterum iactus  ¶ 1707 OBRECHT tr. IAMBLICHUS Pyth. Vit. 21 (p. 211), relating the daily schedule of the Pythagoreans: "Ab huiusmodi scholis deinde ad corpora curanda se convertebant. Plerique unctione et cursu utebantur ... quidam etiam halterum iactu, aut saltatione cum manuum gesticulatione, studioseque eligebant exercitia corporis vires roboratura ( οι δε και αλτηροβολίαη χειρονομίαπρος τας των σωμάτων ισχυς τα εύθετα επιτυδεύοντες εκλέγεσθαι γυμνάσια)."  (The passage is undoubtedly anachronistic, providing evidence of weight-lifting in Iamblichus' time – the Roman imperial period – rather than in Pythagoras'.)   ► haltêrobolia, ae* f.  ¶ Cf. Anc. Gr. αλτηροβολία: IAMBLICHUS PythVit. 21, quoted above.  ► haltêria, ae* f.  ¶ Anc. Gr. αλτηρία:  ARTEM. Onirocrit. 1, 57  ►► In the expression halterum iactus, the word iactus – like -βολια in the term αλτηροβολία – refers not to actual "throwing," but to vigorous movement (see PW s.v. αλτηροβολία and sources quoted there).

252 weight-lifting: body-sculpting  ► ? exercitatio sômatoplastica*  ►► EL:  σ ωματική διάπλαση

252 weight-lifting: do bodybuilding, build up or bulk up (the body), build mass  ► corporis crassitûdini studêre  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 40: "Galenus quandoque palaestram nuncupat ubi athletae solum et crassitudini corporis studentes exercerentur."   \\ \\ The adjectives crassuspinguis, and corpulentus often refer to a muscular or "beefy" body (rather than a fat one). EL:  σ ωματοδόμηση

252 weight-lifting: lift weights, do weight-training exercises  ► pondera tollere  ¶ 1549 LINACRE tr. GALEN 253: "pondus aliquod a terrâ tollentem" (full quotation below)  ► pondera levare  ¶ 6th-c. ORIBASIUS Lat. 1, 3 (vol. 1, p. 34): "Qualia [exercitia] sunt ut fortiora leventur in manibus pondera."  Cf. parallel passage in Greek original (6, 14 [vol. 1, p. 474]): " Τοιαυτα δεεστι ... φορτίον αράμενον μέγιστον η μένειν κατα χώραν η προβαίνειν μικρά."  \\ pondera manibus attollere  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 39, translating Galen De tuenda valetudine 2, 9 (in a listing of exercises practiced in the ancient palaestra): "exercitationem ... quâ pondera manibus attollebant, et ita persistebant, quod genus halteres vocatum est."  ► pondera movêre  ¶ 1825Rupertus 1, 474, quoted under the entry dumbbell.  ► manûs cum pondere movêre  ¶ Sen. Ep. 15, 4: "Sunt exercitationes et faciles et breves, quae corpus et sine morâ lassent et tempori parcant, cuius praecipua ratio habenda est: cursus, et cum aliquo pondere manûs motae."   See PW s.v. Αλτηροβολία, noting that this passage refers to exercises with αλτηρες, or dumbbells.  ► manûs plumbo graves iactare  ¶ Sen. Ep. 56, 1, on the annoyances of living over a bathhouse: "Supra ipsum balneum habito ... Cum fortiores exercentur et manûs plumbo graves iactant, cum aut laborant aut laborantem imitantur, gemitûs audio, quotiens retentum spiritum remiserunt."  ► plumbeas manibus iactare  ¶ 1743 Genser tr. Lucian Lexiph. 5: "Et cum venissemus in gymnasium ... alius obiiciebat se coryco, alius autem plumbeas manum implentes cum fragore manibus iactabat (μολυβδαίνας χερμαδίους αράγδην έχων εχειροβόλει)."  ► haltêres attollere  ¶ 1549 LINACRE tr.GALEN 253: "depositis ante se halteribus ... attollunt dexterâ quidem eum qui ad sinistram iacet, sinistrâ qui ad dexteram" (full quotation below)  ► lacertos exercêre  ¶ Sen. Ep. 15, 2: "Stulta est enim, mi Lucili – et minime conveniens litterato viro – occupatio exercendi lacertos et dilatandi cervicem ac latera firmandi."  ►► Galen, in De sanitate tuendâ (2, 10), provides a lucid description of a weight training exercise in use in his time (Latin translation by the Renaissance humanist and physician Thomas Linacre, pp. 252-53): "Lumborum autem [exercitatio est] assidue se inclinare ac rursus revocare, idque aut pondus a terrâ tollentem, aut assidue in manibus sustinentem. Sunt et qui depositis ante se halteribus, ulnae intervallo distantibus, postea medii ipsi stantes, inclinant se atque attolunt dexterâ quidem eum qui ad sinistram iacet, sinistrâ qui ad dextram, tum rursum utrumque in suum locum referunt. Atque hoc identidem deinceps faciunt iisdem vestigiis insistentes."  The exercise described appears to be a sort of Romanian deadlift; the last sentence quoted makes clear it involved multiple repititions.

252 weight-lifting: weight (for weight-lifting)  ► pondus, eris n.  ¶ Sen. 15, 4: "Sunt exercitationes et faciles et breves, quae corpus et sine morâ lassent et tempori parcant, cuius praecipua ratio habenda est: cursus, et cum aliquo pondere manûs motae, et saltus," etc.  ► gravis massa  ¶ Juv. 6, 418-421: "Gravis occursu, taeterrima vultu / balnea nocte subit, conchas et castra moveri / nocte iubet, magno gaudet sudare tumultu, / cum lassata gravi ceciderunt bracchia massâ."  ¶ Cf. Sen. 56, 1: "manûs plumbo graves iactant."  

26

26    BALL

26 /actions: bounce  subst.  ► resultus, ûs m.  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 388, of jeu de paume, the precursor of tennis: "Pila autem vel ex volatu remittitur, vel ex primo resultu" ("the ball is returned either on the volley or after the first bounce").

26 /actions: catch (ball)  \\ excipere  |  (subst.)  exceptus, ûs* m.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 93, of a sort of tennis coach: "spaeristicus ... qui omnem pilae iactum, exceptum, repulsum callebat."

26 /actions: intercept a pass  ► praetervolantem pilam intercipere  ¶ Cf. Sid. Ep. 5, 17, 7, of a hapless player of a ball-game, perhaps harpastum: "Qui cum ... acceptus in aream tam pilae coram praetervolantis quam superiectae nec intercîderet [interciperet coni. Anderson] tramitem nec caveret ... primus ludi ab accentu sese removit."

26 /actions: kick (a ball)  ► (pilam) plantâ reddere  ¶ Manil. 5, 165, in a series of examples of the nimbleness of those born under Gemini: "Ille [potens] pilam celeri fugientem reddere plantâ."

26 /actions: return (ball), hit back (ball)  \\ repellere  |  (subst.)  repulsus, ûs m.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 93, of a sort of tennis coach: "spaeristicus ... qui omnem pilae iactum, exceptum, repulsum callebat."

26 /actions: throw a ball back and forth, toss a ball around  ► (pilâ) datâtim lûdere  ¶ PLAUT. Curc. 296: "isti qui ludunt datatim servi scurrarum in viâ."  NON. 96 (vol. 1, p. 136): "DATATIM, id est invicem dando ... Pomponius Adelphis: 'quod ille dicit, cum datatim in lecto tecum lusi.' Novius Exodio: 'In molis non ludunt raptim pilâ datatim † morso.'"  DUCANGE s.v.pililudius: "Pililudii ... dicebantur omnes qui pilâ ludebant, tam ii qui datatim, quam qui soli pilas alternis manibus iactabant et exercebant."  

26 /actions: throw, shot, serve (ball)  \\ mittere  \\ iacere  |  (subst.)  missus, ûs m.  \\ iactus, ûs m.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 93, of a sort of tennis coach: "spaeristicus ... qui omnem pilae iactum, exceptum, repulsum callebat."

26 /ball game, playing ball  ► pilae lûdus  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 58: "Adnotavit Galenus antiquos post pilae ludum calidis balneis lavari consuevisse."  ►  lûsio pilâris  ¶ STAT. Silv. 4 praef.

26 /ball: play ball  ► pilâ ludere  ► pilâ lusitare  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 371.  ► folle ludere

26 /ball-player  ► sphaerista, ae m.  ¶ SID. Ep. 2, 9, 4: "sphaeristarum contrastantium paria" ("pairs of opposing ball-players").  SID. Ep. 5, 17, 7: "Vir illustris Philomatius ... sphaeristarum se turmalibus constanter immiscuit."  GREG. TUR. GlorConf. praef. (PL 71, 829), anticipating the jibes of critics contemptuous of his ungrammatical Latin: "Putasne videbitur ut bos piger palaestrae ludum exerceat, aut asinus segnis inter sphaeristarum ordinem celeri volatu discurrat?"  EGGER D.L. 52, of a soccer player.  FORCELLINI: "qui pilâ vel globis ludit."  Cf. CALELPINO s.v. sphaeristerium: " σφαιρισται , pilae studiosi."  ► pilae lûsor  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 58: "Dum hora balnearum appropinquaret, tintinnabulo quodam significabatur, quo pilae lusores atque alii exercitatores statim accurrerent."  ¶ MERCURIALE 94, quoted below.   ►► RR  ► Pilicrepus (used by Egger S.L. 15, of a ball-player) is perhaps best avoided, as of uncertain meaning.  It is found only in Sen. Ep. 56, 1, on the woes of living over a bathhouse ("Si vero pilicrepus supervenit et numerare coepit pilas, actum est"), two glosses ("pilarius," and "qui pilâ ludit," quoted in ThLL), and a few unenlightening inscriptions (e.g., "Epaphra pilicrepus non est," and "'Pilicrepus hic,' scil. iacet," as quoted in ThLL).  |  CALELPINO: "PILICREPUS ... intelligendus est is qui pilas, hoc est sphaeras aut glomos pice illitos, in ignem balneorum sive vaporarii coniiceret, sicubi forte restingueretur" (citing Vitr. 5, 10 for description of these balls thrown into the bathhouse furnace).  | MERCURIALE 94, describing the personnel of the ancient gymnasium: "Aderant pilicrepi, qui sphaeris pici oblitis curabant ne ignis balneorum exstingueretur – quidquid alii dicant, qui pro pilicrepis lusores pilae, utopte obstrepentes, intelligendos putant, male sententias Martialis et Statii ... interpretantes."  |  FORCELLINI: "qui pilâ ludit, eamque mittendo et remittendo et solo impingendo crepat, et sonitum edit ... Lipsius ad locum Senecae citatum vult intelligi eos qui lusoriâ pilâ se exercebant in balneis, super tabulatis valde ex ictu pilae crepantibus ... Aliter alii hanc vocem explicant, Turnebius, Hieronymus Mercurialis, Caelius Rhodiginus, item Hadrianus Iunius, qui pilicrepum intelligit pilos evellentem e corpore."  |  ThLL: "is qui pilâ ludit (scil. ita ut crepet)."  |  OLD: "a person involved in ball-games, perhaps a scorer."  |  Richard M. Gummere on Sen. Ep. 56, 1 (Loeb edition): "Pilicrepus probably means 'ball-counter,' one who keeps a record of the strokes."  |  That the word occurs in the comic "hard Latin" correspondance between Swift and Sheridan is a testimony to its obscurity (Thomas Sheridan, in Jonathan Swift, Works [London, 1765], 17, 170: "Lucuntes olim vendidit, admodum fuit procellulus, eximius autem pilicrepus, sed salaconem ac dolonem nimium se ostendendo, minuit hanc gloriam quam exercitiis meruit").

26 /ball-player: juggle  ► pilis alternâtim iactatis lûdere  ¶ FORCELLINI s.v. pililudius: "Idem ac pilarius, qui duabus vel pluribus pilis utrâque manu alternatim iactatis ita ludit, ut a tergo eas capiat quas ab anticâ parte proiecerit, et quas manu reflexâ a tergo proiecerit, alterâ manu recipiat ab anticâ."  ► pilas alternis manibus iactare  ¶ DUCANGE s.v. pililudius: "Pililudii ... dicebantur omnes qui pilâ ludebant, tam ii qui datatim, quam qui soli pilas alternis manibus iactabant et exercebant."    ►► Manilius (5, 168-71) provides a poetic description of masterful juggling (one of a series of examples of the nimbleness of those born under Gemini): "Ille potens turbâ perfundere membra pilarum,  ¶ per totumque vagas corpus disponere palmas,  ¶ ut teneat tantos orbes, sibique ipse reludat,  ¶ et velut edoctos iubeat volitare per ipsum."

26 /ball-player: juggler  ► pilârius, i m.  ¶ Quint. 10, 7, 11, in a comparison between juggling and the ability to read ahead of while reciting aloud: "Quo [usu] constant miracula illa in scaenis pilariorum ac ventilatorum, ut ea quae emiserint ultro venire in manûs credas et quâ iubentur decurrere."  CALELPINO: "PILARII,  σφαιρισται , dicuntur praestigiatores qui levi agitatione parvas pilas videntur emitter aut in vas iniicere, cum secus faciant."  FORCELLINI: "PILARIUS, giuocolatore di bussolotti o di palle [magician or juggler], praestigiator qui levi agitatione parvas pilas videtur emittere aut in vas iniicere, cum secus faciat, vel qui plures pilas in altum et circa se iacit, easque manibus vel ore excipit, iterumque continuâ circuitione iacit excipitque."  OLD: "a juggler."  Cf. ThLL: "qui pilâ ludit" (quoting Quintilian, two inscriptions, and this gloss: " σφαιριστής , pilarius").  ► ventilâtor, ôris m.  ¶ QUINT. 10, 7, 11, quoted above.  ► sphaeropaecta, ae m.  ¶ MAR. VICT.Gramm. 6, 187: " Ματαιοτεχνία , quae difficiles quasdam res, non tamen usui necessarias, facit, veluti sunt sphaeropaectae, funambuli, ceterique huius modi."  FORCELLINI: "pilarum lusor, pilarius." ► pililûdius, i m.  ¶ FORCELLINI, quoted under the entry juggle.  DUCANGE: "PILILUDIUS, 'Qui cum pilâ ludit, et componitur a pilo pro pilocello et ludo,' apud Iohannem de Ianua. Glossarium Latino-Gallicum Sangerm.: 'Pililudius vel ludipilus, qui joue à la pelote ou à l'esteuf' [names of balls]. Pililudii, ut observat Graevius ad Glossarium Isidori, dicebantur omnes qui pilâ ludebant, tam ii qui datatim, quam qui soli pilas alternis manibus iactabant et exercebant."  The only ancient authority is an obscure gloss ("qui polotello ludit," as quoted in ThLL, which markspolotello as obscure).

26 /server, pitcher  ► (pilae v. follis) missor /

26 baseball  ► pila statiônâria  ► basipila, ae f. (LRL)  ► ? basisphaera, ae* f.

26 baseball terms: base

26 baseball terms: bat (baseball, cricket)

26 baseball terms: catcher

26 baseball terms: cricket: batsman

26 baseball terms: cricket: bowler

26 baseball terms: cricket: wicket

26 baseball terms: home plate

26 baseball terms: inning

26 baseball terms: out

26 baseball terms: pitcher

26 baseball terms: run

26 baseball terms: run: home run

26 baseball terms: strike

26 baseball: cricket  ► pila clavâria (17th cent., of similar game)   ►► EL: κρίκετ

26 baseball: softball  ►

26 basketball  ► follis canistrârius (cf. LRL: canistrifollis, follis canistrique ludus)  ► ? calathosphaera, i* f.  ►► Ludus bascaudarius (HELFER) and follis bascaudarius (Alb. Imag.) appear to be based on an obsolete etymology deriving basket from the rare Latin word bascauda; in fact, bascauda is not a basket, but a scallop-shaped basin of bronze or silver, used for washing dishes (HILGERS 120; see OED s.v. basket)  ||  Ludus bascaudarius (HELFER citing Soc. Lat.)  ► follis bascaudarius (Alb. Imag.)  |  canistripila, canistrifollis, pilae (v. follis) canistrique ludus (LRL)  || "Bascauda" nec "canistrum" significat (potius "ahenum," "pelvim."  ► nec cognationem cum vocabulo Anglico "basket" habet, teste OED.  Hoc apud Forcellinum: "bascauda, ae, f., catinus, conca, vas Anglicum, in quo calices et cacabus lavabantur."  LS soli, inter lexicographos quos consului,  του  "basket" mentionem faciunt, fisi scilicet etymologiae obsoletae ("prob. a delicately woven mat, or dish-holder of basket-work").  HILGERS 120: "muschelförmige Wanne, tiefe Schüssel ... ein Gefäss zum Geschirrspülen."  ||  EL: basket; pallacanestro; Basketball;  καλαθοσφαίριση  (cf. κ αλαθοσφαιρικ ός , καλαθοσφαιριστής)

26 bowls, lawn bowling, bocce, boules, pétanque

26 bowls: bowling

26 bowls: horseshoes (game)

26 croquet  ► pila et malleum  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 220: "His dissimilem formam habet exercitationis illud genus, quod, non multis abhinc annis in Regno Neapolitano inventum, hodieque in universa fere Europa usitatum, apud Italos pilam et malleum [pallamaglio] vocant.  In hoc etenim primo brachia et dorsum exercentur, quando malleis ligneis pilam ligneam longe pellere coguntur ... quamquam aliquis antiquos etiam hac exercitatione non caruisse contendat, cum apud Avicennam inter ceteras exercitationes unum nominetur quod virgis retortis dictis alsulegian cum pila magna aut parva lignea efficiebatur, quas condiciones apprime nostra [sic] pilamalleo convenire unusquique videt, nisi alias tacuerit Avicenna, quod suo tempore notissimae essent."  1698 HOFMANN s.v.gymmnastica: "Alsulegian, apud Avicennam, genus exercitationis est quod virgis retortis cum pilâ magnâ aut parvâ lignea efficiebatur, forte pilamalleo non absimile."  Pila et malleum (orpilamalleum) in these passages is clearly the Italian pallamaglio ("pall-mall, the old form of the game of croquet," Hoare, Italian Dictionary), very popular in the 16th and 17th centuries.

26 croquet: pall mall, pall maille, lawn billiards  ►

26 football positions: defender, fullback  defensor, oris m. (EGGER S.L. 17)

26 football positions: forward, lineman  oppugnator, ôris m. (EGGER S.L. 17)

26 football positions: goal (soccer, hockey), goalposts (football)  porta, ae f. (EGGER S.L. 15)

26 football positions: goalkeeper, goalie  portarius, i m. (Albert)  ► portae custos (EGGER S.L. 17)

26 football positions: goal-line  terminus ... ?

26 football positions: make a goal, score a goal  follem in portam ingerere (EGGER S.L. 16

26 football positions: midfielders, halfbacks  acies media (EGGER S.L. 17)

26 football positions: quarterback  lusor cardinalis ?

26 football positions: touchdown  terminum attingere ?

26 football: rugby, American football, Australian football, any one of several sports originating from rugby football (ball or game)  ► harpastum, i n.  ¶ MART. 4, 19, 1-7: "Hanc tibi Sequanicae pinguem textricis alumnam, / ... peregrinam mittimus endromida, / seu lentum ceroma teris tepidumque trigona, / sive harpasta manu pulverulenta rapis, / plumea seu laxi partiris pondera follis."  \ MART. 7, 32, 7-10, of a young man who preferred study to sports: "Non pila, non follis, non te paganica thermis / praeparat ... / non harpasta vagus pulverulenta rapis."  \MART. 14, 48, under the lemma harpasta: "Haec rapit Antaei velox in pulvere draucus, / grandia qui vano colla labore facit" (where "Antaei pulvus" refers to a playing field, "draucus" to an athletic man).  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 133-34: "Ultimum et quartum Latinorum pilae genus harpastum fecimus, quod ob nominis similitudinem idem prorsus videtur quod  αρπαστόν  Graecorum. Erat enim pila quam ludentes alter alteri eripiebat, cuius vero magnitudinis, et ex quâ materia foret, haudquaquam ab ullo auctore explicatum habemus, nisi quod Athenaeus his verbis manifestum facit harpastum rotundum fuisse: ' Το δε καλούμενον δια της σφηαίρας αρπαστονφενίνδα εκαλειτοο εγω πάντων μάλιστα ασπάζομαι.' Id est, 'Lusus autem pilae harpastum nuncupatum pheninda vocabatur, quem ego maxime omnium diligo.' ... Ludus qui hodie a calce nuncupatur [scil. calcio fiorentino], etsi in aliquibus assimiletur harpasto, in hoc tamen ab harpasto antiquorum differre videtur, quod illud parvum erat; pila autem quâ nostrates calce ludunt maior est. Nam et antiquiores et pulverulento solo hac pilâ ludebant, ut testatus est Martialis [locos affert] ... Quae omnia argumento esse possunt hanc exercitationem perarduam fuisse, solisque validioribus hominibus convenisse. Quod etenim nequaquam mulieres hoc genere ludere valerent ... eiusdem poetae versûs comprobant ubi Philaenim quandam tribadem exprobans quod omnibus fere virorum muniis fungeretur, quasi rem mulieribus prae aliis maxime insuetam ageret, post multa dixit, 'Harpasto quoque subligata ludit'" (citing Mart. 7, 67, 4, quoted above).  \ 1698 HOFMANN 753 s.v. pila: "Harpastum ... pila fuit quam ludentium alter alteri eripiebat; magnitudo incerta, rotundum fuisse Athenaeus dictat. Parvam pilam vocat Galenus, similisque videtur hic ludus illi quem hodie a calce nuncupant Itali [scil. calcio fiorentino], nisi quod pia quâ illi calce ludunt maior est. In pulverulento solo, ut folliculus, olim haec pila ludebatur, fuitque exercitatio talis perardua, et non nisi validioribus hominibus conveniens."  \ 1771 FORCELLINI: "HARPASTUM ... palla di calcio, genus pilae grandioris quam pila paganica, minoris quam follis; ab αρπάζω, 'rapio,' quod plures proiectum harpastum conentur arripere et extra ludi limites eiicere. Nam hoc pilae genus non repercutitur, sed cum multi ludentes in duas partes divisi sunt, quisque annititur pilam arripere et ad eos qui post se sunt viciniores limitibus transmittere; eiusque partis victoria est quae pilam extra limites adversariae partis eiecerit. Laboriorsum ludi genus est, grandibus tantum conveniens. Cum enim multi simul pilam arripere conantur, in terram se invicem prosternunt, pulvereque et sudore infecti flavescunt."  \ 1801 SCHWEIGHÄUSER tr.ATHENAEUS 1, 25-26 (pp. 54-55): "Quod vero in pilae ludo harpastum vocant (το δε καλούμενον δια της σφηαίρας αρπαστον), phaeninda olim appellabatur; quo genere ego omnium maxime delector. Habet autem multum laboris contentionisque certamen eorum qui pilâ ludunt, et violentas imprimis cervicis inflexiones ... Describit vero phaenindae ludum idem Antiphanes his verbis: 'Acceptam pilam / huic laetus dedit, illum simul effugit; / huius (pilam) repulit, illum de statu deiecit, / magnis cum clamoribus: / 'Extra!' 'Procul!' 'Praeter illum!' 'Ultra illum!' 'Deorsum!'"  \ 1840DÜBNER tr. EPICTETUS 2, 5, 15-17, taking the game of harpastum – where it's not the ball itself that matters, but what you do with it – as an allegory of life: "Idem facere et eos videbis qui pilâ scite ludunt. Nemo eorum de harpasto contendit tamquam de bono aut malo; sed de eo iaciendo et rursus excipiendo. Igitur in hoc omnis solertia ponitur, in hoc ars, celeritas, dexteritas ... Quodsi vero cum perturbatione et metu vel exceperimus vel emiserimus, quis iam ludus?  \ Cf. Artem. Onirocrit. 1, 55: "Αρπαστονδεκαισφαιραφιλονεικίαςαπεράντουςσημαίνουσι, πολλάκιςδεκαιεταιραςέρωτα. Εοικε γαρ η σφαιρα και το αρπάστον εταίρα δια το μηδαμου μένειν και προς πολλους φοιταν."  ►► As with other ancient games, the information on harpastum is not detailed enough to permit a full description; but several factors suggest it was similar enough to the group of closely related games including rugby and American football to justify a transfer of the term to them:  (1) It involved a number of players on an outdoor field, competing for possession of a ball.  (2) It was intensely physical, appropriate only for toughened male athletes.  (3) The emphasis on "snatching" or "stealing" the ball, from which the game took its name, suggests the tackling of rugby and football.  (4) The ball was frequently passed between players, sometimes with a feint strategy, with others trying to intercept.  (5) Mercuriale (the most influential early modern authority on ancient athletics), followed by Hofmann, Forcellini, and others, expressly draws a parallel betweenharpastum and the Renaissance Italian game calcio (now called calcio fiorentino or storico, and preserved as a vintage sport), a game that resembles rugby, and is thought by some actually to have evolved from the harpastum of later antiquity.   ||  Der neue Pauly s.v. harpaston: "A highly physical game played on a field ... The player with possession of the ball is attacked by the opposing team, which seeks to take it away from him (αρπάζειν, 'to grab, snatch, steal'), while he tries to pass it to his teammates ... This leads to shoving, tripping, kicking, and a general no-holds-barred struggle for control of the ball ... Harpaston required a high degree of skill and dexterity."  ||  PW s.v. harpastum, summarizing the ancient passages: "Thus harpastum has two parts: first, a player must get control of the ball, αρπάζειν, and then throw it on to another player – but deceptively, as if intending to throw it to a different player ... The ball goes through so many hands that Artemidor (Oneirocrit. I, 55) compares it to a courtesan ... It would be pointless to try to describe in details the rules of harpastum ... It has been compared to football (Fußballspiel), and also to lawn-tennis ... Harpastum was a game for manly individuals. Martial (6, 67) mentions a female player, Philaenis; but he singles her out as a manly woman, who does precisely what is inappropriate for women. The game appears to have been very popular in Rome." 

26 football: rugby: American football  ► harpastum Americânum

26 football: rugby: rugby  ► harpastum Rugbiense (v. Britannicum)  ¶ For the adjective Rugbiensis, see:  Walter Savage Landor, Poemata et inscriptiones (London 1847), 194, in a tribute to a former teacher: "Vale, Jamese! tuque Rugbiensium  ¶ fortis priorum contubernalis, vale!"  Arthur Stanley, The Life and Correspondence of Thomas Arnold (New York: Scribner's, 1910), 312, in an epitaph written by Rugby School headmaster Thomas Arnold: "Scholae Rugbiensis alumni."  Rugby School Prize Poems (Rugby, 1826), 3: "in Scholâ Rubgiensi publice recitatum."  Anthologia Graeca in usum Scholae Rugbiensis (Rugbiae, 1856).

26 football: rugby: water polo  ► harpastum aquâtile  ► ? hydatosphaera, ae* f.   ►► EL:  υδατοσφαιρίση .

26 football: soccer (US), football (Brit.) (ball or game)  ► follis pedâlis  ► pedifollium, i* n.  ► ludus follis pedumque  ¶ EGGER S.L. 9.  ► ? pediludium, i n.  ¶ EGGER S.L. 9. ► ? podosphaera, ae* f.  ¶   |  adj.  ► ? pediludiarius, a, um*  ¶ EGGER S.L. 9.   |  a soccer game  ► certamen folle pedibusque ludentium  ¶ EGGER D.L. 52.    ►►  EL foot f ú tbal ; calcio Fu ß bal ; ποδόσφαιρο, ποδοσφαίριση.  ||   WP : "Αθλήματα ή παιχνίδια που θυμίζουν το ποδόσφαιρο συναντώνται από και παλιότερα. Ίχνη του ποδοσφαίρου βρίσκουμε στο 'επίσκυρος' των Ελλήνων και το " harpastum " των Ρωμαίων."   |  "Di origine arcaica, in uso presso gli antichi Romani con l'harpastum, nel quale due fazioni dovevano portare una palla oltre la linea di fondo avversaria e nel quale prevaleva l'aspetto antagonistico rispetto a quello agonistico, veniva probabilmente abbozzato, in seguito, per quello che conosciamo al giorno d'oggi durante il Medioevo in Italia (vedi Calcio fiorentino), ma la sua affermazione moderna e codificata si ebbe in Inghilterra, alla metà del XIX secolo."  |  "Il Calcio 'storico' fiorentino, conosciuto anche col nome di Calcio in livrea o Calcio in costume, è una disciplina sportiva che affonda le sue origini in tempi molto antichi. Ad oggi è riconosciuto da molti come il padre del gioco del calcio, anche se almeno nei fondamentali ricorda molto più il rugby."  "I Greci praticavano un gioco chiamato sferomachia, di cui sappiamo solo che adottato dai Romani prese il nome di harpastum (strappare a forza). L'harpastum veniva giocato su terreni sabbiosi da due squadre di ugual numero di giocatori che dovevano attenersi a dei regolamenti molto precisi. Visto il carattere virile della competizione, fatta di lotte serrate e di continui corpo a corpo per il possesso della palla, l'harpastum ebbe grande successo soprattutto tra i legionari che contribuirono così alla sua diffusione nelle varie zone dell'Impero Romano. Tra queste c'era sicuramente la colonia Florentia dove secoli dopo sarebbe diventato il gioco tipico della città toscana."

26 football: soccer: handball, team handball  ► follis manuâlis  ► manifollium, i* n.  ► ? chîrosphaera, ae* f.   ►► EL:  χ ειροσφαίριση

26 frisbee: play frisbee, toss around a frisbee  ► disco datâtim lûdere  ¶ Datatim ludere is to toss a ball from person to person, or back and forth.  See cites under the entry throw a ball back and forth.

26 golf  pila Caledonica (v. Scotica)

26 hockey: field hockey  ► zucanium(v. tzucanium* v. tzucanisma*) pratense  ► ? hochium* pratense   ►► EL: hockey sur gazon; hockey su prato; hockey sobre césped; Feldhockey, Landhocke; χόκεϊ επί χόρτου.

26 hockey: hockey stick  ► virga retorta  ¶ Mercuriale 220; 365 (quoted and discussed under the entry ice hockey)  ► ? rhabdos, i f.

26 hockey: hurling  ►   

26 hockey: ice hockey  ► zucanium(v. tzucanium* v. tzucanisma*) glaciâle  ¶    ► ? hochium* glaciâle   ►► EL: hockey sur glace; hockey sobre hielo; hockey su ghiaccio; Eishocky; χόκεϊ επί πάγου.  ||  alsulegia glacialis (HELFER; ALBERT I.V.); ludus pilae malleique super glaciem (EGGER D.L. 15); pilamalleum super glaciem (EGGER S.L. 67)  ||  Alsulegia.  Helfer's only authority for alsulegia is the De arte gymnastica of Girolamo Mercuriale (original edition Venice, 1569).  In two nearly identical passages (pp. 220 and 365), Mercuriale quotes – from the Liber canonis of the Persian physician and philosopher Avicenna (980-1037) – a brief description of a game which Mercuriale speculates might be similar to pall-mall, the early-modern precursor of croquet:  "His dissimilem formam habet exercitationis illud genus, quod, non multis abhinc annis in regno Neapolitano inventum, hodieque in universa fere Europa usitatum, apud Italos pilam et malleum vocant ... Quamquam aliquis antiquos etiam hac exercitatione non caruisse contendat, cum apud Avicennam, inter ceteras exercitationes, unum nominetur quod virgis retortis, dictisalsulegian, cum pilâ magnâ aut parvâ ligneâ efficiebatur, quas condiciones apprime nostra [sic] pilamalleo convenire unusquisque videt, nisi alias tacuerit Avicenna, quod suo tempore notissimae essent" (220).  "Hoc fortasse exercitationis genus intellexit Avicenna quando dixit, 'et ludere cum virgis retortis dictis alsulegiam, cum pilâ magnâ, aut parvâ ligneâ,' nisi quod illud inter fortes exercitationes reponens, et pilam magnam nominans, a nostro differre demonstrat" (365).  Avicenna in the quoted phrase is in fact describing polo, a game that originated and flourished in his native Persia, and was adopted by both the Arabs and the Byzantine Greeks, who called it τζυκάνιον or τζυκανίσμα, from the Persian chugan or chawgan (see discussion under the entry polo).  The Arabic word for a bent stick ("virgis retortis"), transliterated here as alsulegiamalsulegian, is صولجان (sawlağān, sūleğān), "a kind of golf-stick, played with by men on horseback, a stick with a curved or crooked end" (Lane, Arabic-English Lexicon, quoted in full below; see also Quatremère, quoted below).  Mercuriale's alsulegian is the expected medieval Latin rendering of the word, with prefixed article (al-) and Italian pronunciation of the the digraph gi.  The Arabic sawlağān, sūleğān probably derives, like the Greek τζυκάνιον, from Persian chawgan, chugan, the intrusion of the syllable -la--le- being explained by the crossing of the Persian loan-word with a native Arabic word (see Pagliaro, quoted below).  Helfer's use of the passage as authority for a Latin "alsulegia, -ae f." is bizarre; the word is clearly not being used by Mercuriale (or the Latin translator of Avicenna he quotes) as a Latin accusative, but as an indeclinable foreign term.  Apart from these two passages in Mercuriale, I have found no occurrence in Latin of alsulegian or anything similar.  In conclusion, though Mercuriale's alsulegian does denote a bent stick used in a game, it seems extravagant to propose as the Latin term for "hockey" a modified form of a word mentioned in passing, as a foreign term, and in a discussion of pall-mall, by a single Latin author – given especially that the underlying Persian chugan had already been imported into Greek as τζυκάνιοντζυκανίσμα , and thence into Latin in the derivative zucanistrium, tzycanisterium (see authorities under the entry polo).  ||  Edward William Lane, Arabic-English Lexicon (London, 1863-93), p. 1749 (transliterating the vocalized Arabic, and omitting technical parentheticals): "Sawlağān and sawlağānahand sawlağ and sawlağah, as also sawğān, a kind of goff-stick, or golf-stick, played with by men on horseback; a stick with a curved, or crooked, end; syn. mihğān; or rather a stick of which the end is curved artificially with which a ball is struck by men on horseback."  ||  Hasan Sa'id Karmi, Al-Manar: An English-Arabic Dictionary (London: St. Martin's, 1972) s.v. polo, giving الصولجان(al-sūleğān) as one of two renderings.  ||  M. Quatremère, translator and annotator, Histoire des sultans Mamlouks de l'Égypte, écrite en arabe (Paris, 1837), 1, 124 (my trans.): "We have seen above another word [in addition to جوكنchugan or ğukan] used to designate the game, the word savledjân صولجان ... This term differs from tchaugân only with respect to the form of the instrument used to strike the ball. The savledjân was a piece of wood bent at the end."  Ibid. 130: "Arabic writers distinguish between the game of the ball ﻜﺮﺓ and the game of the malletsavledjân صولجان. Avicenna (vol. 1, p. 80), in a list of sports, includes the game of the large ball, that of the small ball, and that of the mallet صولجان. The first two of these, apparently, were played exclusively with a sort of racket called tchaugân, which ended in a pointed, rounded piece of wood, whereas in the last game, which I call the game of the mallet, the ball was struck with a sort of mallet that was bent at the end; this is the meaning the lexicographers give for the word savledjân صولجان." Quatremère's note 4 (pp. 121-132), from which this quote is taken, is in fact a detailed and erudite disquisition on polo and polo terminology in Persian, Arabic, and Byzantine Greek.  ||  Antonino Pagliaro, "Un giuoco persiano alla corte de Bisanzio [A Persian Game at the Byzantine Court]," Atti del V congresso internazionale di studi bizantini (Roma: Senato del dottore G. Bardi, 1939), 524 (my trans.): "The game [of polo] appears among the Arabs during the course of the 7th and 8th centuries. The form of the name documented in the dictionaries is sawğān, v. Dozy, Suppl. aux dictionnaires arabes, I, 854. Alongside this there is the form sawlağān, cfr. E. W. Lane,An Arabic-English Lexicon, col. 1749, in which we see a cross of the original form (the passage from Persian č to Arabic s being normal, cf. Siddiqi, Studien über die persischen Fremdwörter im klassischen Arabisch, Göttingen, 1919) with sawlah (impetuous attack)."  ||  The following is the relevant passage from Avicenna's Liber Canonis, in the Latin translation Mercuriale appears to have read.  13th c. GERARD OF CREMONA tr. AVICENNA lib. 1, sententia 3, doctrina 2, cap. 2 (p. 47, left leaf, first column, at note g): "Et ex fortioribus exercitiis sunt ea quae fiunt campestribus armis ... et in plano salire et in alto, et ludere cum virgis alcheisiran retortis, et cum pila magna et parva." Marginal note by Andreas Bellunensis (who revised the translation on the basis of the Arabic text), signalled after "virgis": "Arabice 'retortis dictis alsulegian cum pila magna aut parva lignea.'"

26 hockey: ice hockey: puck  ► discus, i m.

26 hockey: polo  ► tzucanium, i* n.  ¶ Cf. Byz. Gr.  τζυκάνιον τζουκάνιον .  Cf. also Latin tzycanisterium, tzucanisterium, and zucanistrium, under the entry polo field.  Cf. finally medieval and modern Persian ج وگان  (chawgan, chugan), and classical Arabic  جوكن  (ğukan), also  ص وج ا ن  (sawğan), name of the stick used to play polo, and of the game itself.  For abundant quotations of medieval Persian and Arabic texts using these terms, and discussion of the Greek term's derivation from the Persian, see M. Quatremère, translator and annotator, Histoire de sultans Mamlouks en l'Égypte, écrite en arabe (Paris, 1837), 1, 121-132, note 4, quoted below.  ► tzucanisma, atis* n.  ¶ Cf. Byz. Gr.  τζουκανίσμα :  CEDRENUS 2, 480: " τζουκανίσμασιν " as a marginal note, presumably glossing  ιπποδρομίαις  in the text (in a list of passtimes of a negligent emperor).  ► pila equestris  ¶ 1754 REISKE tr. PORPHYROGENITUS 2, 13 (vol. 1, p. 557): "E palatio prodeunt ... sive ad circum, sive ad tzucanisterium [id est aream exercendae equestris pilae], sive ad Daphnen" (bracketed phrase in original, as translator's explanatory note).  ► equestris cum pilâ lûdus   ¶1754 REISKE tr. PORPHYROGENITUS 1, 83 (vol. 1, pp. 381-82), of a Byzantine ceremony that followed (apparently) a polo match: "Hos itaque imperator, statim atque e sphaerodromio seu equestri cum pilâ ludo excesserit ( μετα την του σφαιροδρομίου έξοδον), introduci mandat praefecto mensae."  1754 REISKE, annotating the previous passage (vol. 2, p. 362): "Σφαιροδρομίου. Non exercitia pilae qualia Romani norant et Graeci veteres, sed illud designat, ex oriente a Persis acceptum, quod جوگانtzucanτζυκαν appellant, unde locus in quo exercebatur τζυκανιστήριον ... Scilicet sedens in equo, clavâ, quam manu tenet, excutit humi iacentem globum ligneum, et rapide provolutum aut volantem potius, incitato equo, persequitur, ulteriusque agit incusso iterum malleo ligneo, ideque toties iterat donc pila metam attigerit. Itineratores paene omnes de hoc nobili equestri exercitio, sed valde quoque periculoso, multa narrant."    ►► EL: polo; polo; polo; Polo;ιπποσφαίρισηRuss. лоло; Farsi جوگان (chugan).  ||  The Persians appear to have invented polo, which they called جوگان (chugan, the name still used in Iran), from the name of the stick used to hit the ball.  The Byzantines adopted from them the game and its name, for which they used the root τζυκαν- (τζ in late-ancient and medieval Greek corresponding to the ch sound in words borrowed from other languages, as in τζαμπελάνα for cambellana, or Ριτζάρδος for Ricardus).  The noun τζυκανιστήριον, "polo field," and the verb τζυκανίζειν occur in a number of Byzantine writers (see Sophocles).  ||  The 12th c. Byzantine historian Cinnamus provides a detailed description of polo as it was played in his time at the court of Constantinople.  DUCANGE tr. CINNAMUS Hist. 6, 5 (263): "Circumactâ iam hieme discussâque caeli caligine, [Manuel I imperator] honesto se dedit exercitio, quod ab antiquo imperatioribus eorumque liberis proprium ac solemne fuit. Est vero id eiusmodi. Adolescentes aliquot, aequo divisi inter se numero, factam ex corio pilam, magnitudine malo similem, in locum quendam, ad id prius prout visum fuerit dimensum, emittunt. Tum vero ad illam veluti praemium aliquod in medio positam plenis invicem habenis contendunt, singuli in dextris virgam habentes, quae longitudine mediocri in orbiculatam quandam latitudinem subito desinit, cuius medium chordis aliquot desiccatis retisque in modum inter se connexis intercipitur. Dat vero operam utraque pars ut ultra alteram ante definitam metam prior quisque pilam transmittat. Cum enim in alterutram metam reticulatis virgis pila transmittitur, id parti alteri pro victoriâ est. Huiusmodi quidem est ludus iste, lapsui obnoxius plane ac periculosus. Necesse quippe est ut qui in eo se exercet sese supinet continuo inque latus utrumque flectatur, ut in orbem equum circumagat et varios subinde instituat cursûs totidemque motûs, quot pilam facere contigerit."  As Ducange notes in the article quoted below (p. 30), Cinnamus here avoids the words τζυκανίσμα and τζυκανιστήριον, "as he is in all his works a stickler for pure style."  ||  OED s.v. chicane in etymological note: "Littré and Devic think the French derived from med.Gr. τζυκανίζειν, var. of τζουκανίζειν, to play golf or polo (whence τζουκάνισμα the game, and τζουκανιστήριον a place for playing it, cited from Theophanas A.D. 817, by Sophocles); app. f. Pers. chaugān the crooked stick used in polo."  ||  Ducange Gloss. vol. 10, Diss. 8, p. 29-30, in an oft-cited article entitled "On the Sport of Chicane, or Playing Ball on Horseback" (my translation from the French): "This passage might also be applied to the equestrian sport often mentioned by Byzantine writers, a ball-game on horseback (qui était celui de jouer à la palme à cheval). They applied to this sport a word of foreign origin (un terme barbare), τζυκανιστήριον, which was also the name of the place where the game was played, a field on the grounds of the great palace of Constantinople."  ||  M. Quatremère, translator and annotator, Histoire de sultans Mamlouks en l'Égypte, écrite en arabe (Paris, 1837), 1, 122  (my trans.): "Among the passtimes in use at the court of Constantinople was a game considered the noblest of sports, one practiced only by princes and high-ranking nobles: the game of ball on horseback (le jeu de la paume à cheval) ... This game, among the Greeks of Constantinople, was designated by the word τζυκάνιον. We also find the verb τζυκανίζειν ... and τζυκανιστήριον was the name of the large playing field devoted exclusively to this sport."  Ibid. 123: "It is in Persia that the game of ball on horseback originated. We find in fact that the game was popular there very early, before the founding of Constantinople, and that its name was tchaugan جوكن, which the Greek term represents quite faithfully, almost without alteration."  ||  Edward B. Tylor, "The History of Games," The Eclectic Magazine 30 (1879), 24: "Polo ... was played with the long-handled mallet called chugán, which Persian word came to signify also the game played with it ... By the ninth century, the game of chugán had established itself in the Eastern Empire, where its name appears in the barbarous Greek form τζυκανίζειν. In the Byzantine descriptions, however, we find not the original mallet, but a long staff ending in a broad bend filled in with a network of gut-strings. Thus there appear in the East, as belonging to the great sport of ball-play on horseback, the first shapes of two implements which remodelled the whole play-life of medieval and modern Europe, the chugán being the ancestor of the mallets used in pall-mall and croquet ... while the bent staff with its network was the primitive racket."  ||  Antonino Pagliaro, "Un giuoco persiano alla corte de Bisanzio [A Persian Game at the Byzantine Court]," Atti del V congresso internazionale di studi bizantini (Roma: Senato del dottore G. Bardi, 1939), 521-23 (my trans.): "Byzantine authors provide ample documentation of the success of the ball game on horseback (il giuoco della palla a cavallo) at the court of Constantinople ... The game in question is in fact of Persian origin, and is the original version of the game now known as polo, which in the Middle Ages enjoyed a wave of popularity in both Europe and the Orient. Its Pahlavi name was čōgān, from which τζυκάνιοντζυκανίζειν, and τζυκανιστήριον are derived ... The form čōwəgōn is the direct precedent of čōgān ... That čōwəgōn denoted the bent-ended stick used to hit the ball is apparent from Kārnāmak, 186 ... At Constantinople the game underwent some minor changes. In the description of Cinnamus (Hist., VI, 5), a sort of racket has taken the place of the bent stick ... From Constantinople the game passed to the West; this Byzantine provenance is proven by the iotacism visible in the French derivative chicane ... The figurative use of the word chicane survived the game itself, which after undergoing a series of transformations finally disappeared – to return later, imported by English from Tibet under the namepolo."  ||  Barbara Schrodt, "Sports of the Byzantine Empire," Journal of Sport History 8, 3 (1981), 52: "Persia gave the world polo, and in due course, this horseman's team game made its way to Constantinople, where it became a popular activity of the nobility. The introduction of polo to the Byzantine Empire is generally attributed by historians to Theodosius II, who reigned from 408 to 450. The game was known there as tyzkanion, presumably a variation of the Persian name, tschougan. The field on which Byzantine polo was played was called the tyzkanisterion, and Basil I (867 to 886), a devotee of the game, caused such a ground, measuring about seventy yeards, to be built within the walls of the Imperial Palace."  ||  Claudio Azzara, "Τζυκάνιον: Un gioco equestre con la palla alla corte di Bisanzio," Ludica 2 (1996), 20-21 (my trans.): "A relatively limited group of documents, found in Byzantine sources for the most part dating from the 10th through 12th centuries, provide evidence of a ball-game played on horseback, ultimately of Persian origian, which was popular at the imperial court in Constantinople ... In this description [that of Cinnamus, quoted above], the analogies are obvious with the modern sport of polo, brought to Europe in more recent times by the English, who themselves discovered it in India, where it had arrived much earlier from Persia ... Under the name čōgān (from čōp, "wood"), the game is widely attested at the Sassanid court ... The term for the game in Byzantine sources, τζυκάνιον, or more rarely τζoυκάνιον (related to the verb τζυκανίζειν or τζουκανίζειν, and the noun τζυκανιστήριον or τζουκανιστήριον, referring to the playing area) seem to derive directly from Pahlavi čōgān."  ||  J. A. Mangan and Boria Majumdar, Sport in Asian Society (London: Routledge, 2005), 390: "From Iran polo spread westwards through the Byzantine Empire to its capital of Constantinople, where it may have been played as early as the fourth century. The Greek term for the game was tzykanion (from the Persian chowgān). Emperor Theodisius II (r. 408-450) built a stadium in Constantinople for the game, thetzykanisterion ... Of twelfth-century Cruasaders passing through Asia Minor on their way to the Levant, the French historian Jean-Jules Jusserand wrote that 'their enemies Noureddin and Saladin loved the game quite as much as their Byzantine friends. The Crusaders took the idea of the game back to France, where it proposed only as a game played on foot.'"  ||   Nigel B. Crowther, Sport in Ancient Times (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2007), 138: "The emperor and the nobility played a form of polo, known as tzykanion, on their own private pitches. For public matches on special occasions, players sometimes used the hippodrome in Constantinople and other towns. This sport is probably a version of the Persian game chogān that we have seen originated in about the fifth century B.C.E. and spread to China, Japan, and elsewhere. From the evidence of paintings and the historian Cinnamus, we can ascertain that it was a violent and competitive team game in which two sides of unknown numbers rode on horseback on a large field, holding a wooden stick with a net on the end. The purpose was to catch a leather ball and throw it into the opposing goal or, according to other sources, to gallop with the ball across the end line."

26 hockey: polo field  ► tzûcanistêrium, i* n.  ¶ 1754 REISKE tr. PORPHYROGENITUS 1, 557, where Greek text has " τζουκανιστήριον ": "E palatio prodeunt ... ad tzucanisterium [id est aream exercendae equestris pilae]" (bracketed phrase in original, as translator's explanatory note).  ► tzycanistêrium, i* n.  ¶ 1615 MEURS tr. PORPHYROGENITUS 75, referring to a narrow section of the river Dnieper: "Ita vero locus praedictus angustus est ut tzycanisterii latitudinem non superet ( οσον το πλάτος του τζυκανιστηρίου)."  1655 LAMBECK tr. CODINUS 462; 466; 558: "Tzycanisterium (τζυκανιστήριον) primo condidit Theodosius Iunior ... Basilius Macedo tzycanisterium ampliavait." (Theodosius II, referred to here as builder of the imperial polo field, reigned 408-450.)  1839 SCHOPEN tr. ANNA COMNENA 2, 359: "usque in eum locum qui tzycanisterium vocatur (το ουτωσί πως καλούμενον τζυκανιστήριον)."  For further cites for τζουκανιστήριον in Byzantine Greek, see:  Ducange Gloss. vol. 10, Diss. 8, p. 29-30; Ducange Gloss. Graec.; Sophocles.  ► zucanistrium, i+ n.  ¶ Liutprand Apo. 5, 21: "Ex eâ parte quâ zucanistrii magnitudo portenditur, Constantinus crines solutus per cancellos caput exposuit, suâque ostensione populi mox tumultum sedavit."   Ducange: "Locus Constantinopoli in quo pilâ ludebant in equis, apud Luitprand." 

26 hockey: polo: play polo  ► tzûcanisma (v. tzycanismate) lûdere  ► pilâ in equis lûdere  ¶ Ducange: "ZUCANISTRIUM, T ζυκανιστήριον , locus Constantibopolis in quo pilas ludebant in equis."  Cf. COMBEFIS tr. PORPHYROGENITUS 5, 86 (PL 109, 343), describing the  τζυκανιστήριον  of the imperial palace complex (which he calls  δίαυλον , translated here curriculum): "Ad orientem profecturus egrediens, duplex aliud curriculum offendes ... in quo imperatores ac reliqui aulae proceres equo assidentes pilâ ludere ( μεθ ' ί ππων σφαιρίζειν) consueverunt."  ► pilâ equitando lûdere  ¶ WOLF. tr. ZONARAS 16, 15 (PG  135, 79), relating how Byzantine emperor Alexander (870-912) died grotesquely after playing polo on a full stomach: "Cum a balneo pransus, ventre epulis meroque distento, pilâ luderet (σφαιρίσαι), equitando (τη ιππασία) et pilae inflexionibus vasis quibusdam ruptis multoque sanguine per nares et veretrum reiecto, uno die post exstinctus est."

26 pelota, jai alai  ► pila Vasconica

26 tennis terms: hit a volley  pilam ex volatu remitti (1540 VIVES Exer. 388)

26 tennis terms: net (of tennis court)  ►► cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 388, of "jeu de paume," the precursor of tennis: "habent funem tensum ... sub funem misisse globulum vitium est seu peccatum" (of "jeu de paume")

26 tennis: tennis player tenilūdius, i+ m. (Latham)

26 tennis terms: racquet  ► reticulum, i n.  ¶ ERASMUS.  1540 VIVES Exer. 388: "Quomodo ergo percutiunt pilam? pugno, ut folles?  – Ne sic quidem, sed reticulo ... ex fidibus crassiunculis."

26 tennis: American handball, Gaelic (or Irish) handball, court handball, wall handball  ► pila palmâris  ¶ ERASMUS.  Cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 387: "Quales habent pilas?  – ... Sphaerulas minores vestratibus et multo duriores ... eamque ob causam raro luditur palmâ."  Both citations concern the Renaissance game called "jeu de paume" or "tennis" (the precursor of modern tennis) played with or without a racquet.   

26 tennis: badminton  ►  ►► EL: αντιπτέριση

26 tennis: racquetball  ► pila reticulâris

26 tennis: squash  ► pila reticulâris mollior    ►► Cf. Pollux 9, 105:  την εκ της μαλακης σφαιρας παιδιαν.

26 tennis: table tennis, ping-pong  ? tennisia mensalis, ? pila mensalis  ►►  Ε L:  ε πιτραπέζια αντισφαίριση

26 tennis: tennis  ► ? tennisia /tenisia , ae + f.  ¶ LATHAM.  ► ? pila reticulâris  ►► EL:  αντισφαίριση

26 volleyball  ► follis pugillaris  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 388: "Quomodo ergo percutiunt pilam – pugno, ut folles?"   ►► Follis volaticus (HELFER) and pila volatica (LRL), approximate calques of the English word, do not seem to describe the game aptly; it is called "volleyball" not because the ball "flies," but because it must be returned on the volley.  ||  EL: πετοσφαίριση

27

27    ATHLETICS

27 acrobat  petaurista, ae m.

27 acrobat: gymnast  cernuus (artifex)

27 acrobat: tightrope-walker  funambulus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 59)  ► schoenobates, ae m.

27 biathlon  biathlon, i* n.

27 biathlon: decathlon  decathlon, i* n. (EGGER S.L. 77)

27 biathlon: triathlon  triathlon, i* n.

27 box (v.i.)  ►

27 box: boxer  ►

27 box: boxing  ►

27 box: shadowboxing  \\ sciomachia, ae f.  \ Var. (title of a lost satire)  \\ sciâmachia, ae* f.  \ Hoven, citing Pico della Mirandola.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 39, translating Galen (in a list of exercises practiced in the ancient palaestra).

27 box: wrestle (v.i.)  ►

27 box: wrestler  ►lucator, ôris m.  \ Ov.  \ Sen.

27 box: wrestling  ► luctatio, ônis f. \ Cic.  \ Sen.  < luctâtus, ûs m. \ Plin.  \ Tert.  < lucta, ae f.  \ Aus.  \ Aug.  \ Hist. Aug.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 15, of Homeric sports: "milites Graecos interdum disco, luctâ, cursu, arcu, et aliis huiusce modi, quae postea ad gymnasticam facultatem transierunt, sese exercuisse."

27 bullfight  tauromachia, ae* f. (Anc. Gr.; EGGER D.L. 51: "spectatores ... ardentes tauromachiae, ad quam edendam plures tauromachi voluntarii in arenam descenderunt")

27 bullfight: matador  tauricîda, ae* m., tauromachus* primarius  ►► LRL: mactator

27 bullfight: picador (mounted bullfighter who prods bull with lance)  taurocenta, ae m. (CIL: Pompei)

27 bullfighter, toreador  tauromachus, i* m. (EGGER D.L. 51)  ► taurarius, i* m.

27 dive: oxygen tank  instrumentum oxigenicum (EGGER D.L. 37)  ► vas oxygenium suppeditans (EGGER D.L. 37)  ► vas quod oxygenium suppeditat (EGGER D.L. 55) (all three cites of oxygen tank for Himalayan mountain-climbers)

27 dive: scuba diving, snorkeling

27 diver: underwater diver, underwater swimmer  \\ ûrînâtor, ôris m. \ EGGER S.L. 18.

27 diving bell \\ campâna ûrînâtôria  \ Act. Lips. (Feb. 1683) p. 73: "Campanarum urinatoriarum eâ in re usus dudum innotuit, aliaeque sunt ab aliis inventae rationes quibus respirare sub aquâ homo possit."  \ 1713 CASTELLI 750 s.v. urinator

27 fence  vb.  battuere (SUET. Calig. 54)

27 fencing, escrime  ars battuendi, battualia, ium n. pl., ars gladiatoria (EGGER S.L. 18)  ►► EL: ξιφασκία.

27 fencing: foil  rudis, is f., gladius praepilatus

27 hike: mountain climber  montium ascensor (EGGER D.L. 56)  ► oribates, ae* m. (EGGER D.L. 37; EGGER S.L. 44)  |  mountain climbing  montium ascensiones, oribasia, ae* f.

27 hike: rock climber  rupium ascensor, petrobates, ae* m.;   rocking climbing  rupium ascensiones, petrobasia, ae* f.

27 jog, go jogging  cursitare, ? tolûtim ire

27 kite  ►► cf. hang-glider

27 race (contest of speed)  curriculum, i n.;  horse races  curricula equorum (LIV. 45, 33, 5; EGGER R.A. 18)  ► circenses, ium m. pl.;  auto races  curricula autocinêtôrum* (v. autocinêtica*)

27 race-car  autocinêtum cursorium (EGGER S.L. 11)

27 racecourse, racetrack (auto), motor speedway  autocinêtodromus, i* m. (EGGER S.L. 11)  ► circus autocinêticus

27 racecourse, racetrack (auto): stock-car racing

27 racecourse, racetrack (horse)  hippodromus, i m. (EGGER D.L. 9)  ► circus, i m.

27 skate: figure skating  certamen artificiosum ferrearum solearum (EGGER D.L. 15)  ► ludus artificiosus solearum ferratarum (EGGER S.L. 66)

27 skate: ice-skate  solea ferrea (EGGER D.L. 12)  ► ? solea labilis (v. lapsilis)

27 skate: ice-skater  ►► soleâ ferreâ ludens (EGGER D.L. 12)

27 skate: ice-skating rink  stadium glaciale (EGGER D.L. 12)  ► curriculum glaciale

27 skate: roller-skate, roller-blade, in-line skate  calceus subrotatus (v. rotalis)  ►► Subrotatus apud VITR. (10, 13, 4: "utebatur ariete subrotato") invenitur; rotalis apud seriores.  Quo modo roller-skate et roller-blade distinguenda?

27 skate: scooter

27 skateboard  tabula subrotata (v. rotalis)

27 ski  subst. narta, ae+ f. (EGGER D.L. 12)  ► solea oblonga (EGGER D.L. 14)  |  vb.  nartis+ uti, nartis+ prolâbi (EGGER S.L. 66; EGGER S.L. 75: "super nives montis Adamelli nartis prolâbitur"; cf. EGGER S.L. 101: "notum est homines illâ aetate iam nartis usos esse ad prolabendum super nives")

27 ski jump  suggestus desultorius (EGGER D.L. 12)

27 ski slope, ski run  ►► iter narticum* (EGGER S.L. 75)

27 ski: cross-country skiing  cursus campester (EGGER D.L. 12)

27 skier  nartâ+ utens (EGGER D.L. 12)  ► nartis+ prolabens (EGGER S.L. 66)  ► nartator, ôris* m. (EGGER S.L. 66)

27 ski-lift, chair-lift  cellula pendula (EGGER S.L. 38)  ► via funalis (EGGER S.L. 38: "tres cellulae viae fualnis ... ex altitudine viginti metrorum in saxosa una cum vectoribus deciderunt."  ►► anabathrum* nartatorium* (EGGER S.L. 48)

27 slalom  descensio flexuosa (EGGER D.L. 12)  ► certamen descensionis flexuosae (EGGER D.L. 52)  ► decursio flexuosa (EGGER S.L. 66)

27 sled, sleigh  ► traha, ae f.  ¶ Col.  Vulg.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 48, describing the use of sled-dogs in the fur-trade (in a northern region, probably modern Russia): " Hi canes assueti et docti sunt trahere trahas, quae vulgariter dicuntur in Italia tragye. Est autem traha vel tragula vehiculum sine rotis quo apud nos montium habitatores utuntur."  1811 PALLAS 59.  ► tragula, ae f.  ¶ Varr.  1315 MARCO POLO B 3, 48, quoted above.

27 sliding board

27 snowboard  tabula nivaria;  go snowboarding  tabulâ nivariâ prolabi, tabulâ super nives prolabi

27 speedway  see race-track

27 surf  vb.  super fluctûs prolâbi, tabulâ fluctivagâ prolâbi

27 surfboard  tabula fluctivaga

27 surfer  ? cymatódromus, i* (Anc. Gr.: "running over the waves")

27 swimming pool  \\ natâbulum, i n.  \\ natatio, onis f.  \\ piscîna, ae f.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 52, quoted below under baptisterium.  \ EGGER S.L. 93.  \\ colymbus, i m.  \ Hist. Aug.  \ Prud.  \\ colymbêthra, ae* f.  \ Anc. Gr.  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 28, of the ancient baths and gymnasia: "Divites atque primates labra et colymbithras proprias in cellis alioqui communibus habebant, ubi soli diversis temoribus lavabantur."  \\ baptistêrium, i n. (the passage in Pliny suggests it was smaller than a piscina)  \ Plin. Ep. 5, 6, 25: "Inde apodyterium balinei laxum et hilare excipit cella frigidaria, in quâ baptisterium amplum atque opacum. Si natare latius aut tepidius velis, in areâ piscina est."  \ Sid. 2, 2, 9: "Huic basilicae appendix piscina forinsecus – seu, si graecari mavis, baptisterium – ab oriente conectitur, quod viginti circiter modiorum milia capit."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 52: "Vasa quibus lavabantur alia immobilia, alia mobilia fuerunt. Quae non movebantur, alveiet labra in calidâ lavatione, in frigidâ piscinae et baptisteria nuncupabantur; adeoque magna erant ut etiam in ipsis aliquo pacto natare concederetur."

27 swimming: back stroke (swimming)  natatio retrograda (v. resupina)

27 swimming: breast stroke (swimming)  natatio ranîna*, natatio in ranae modum (EGGER S.L. 93)

27 swimming: butterfly stroke (swimming)  natatio papilionis in modum

27 swimming: crawl (swimming)  natatio libera (cf. Ital. "stile libero")

27 swimming: life jacket, life preserver, life vest, life saver  \\ thorax natâtôrius  \\ colobium natâtôrium  \\ \\ Note that the verb natare can mean "float" as well as "swim."

27 swimming: swimfin, swim fin, flipper (of swimmer, diver, etc.)  \\ pinna natâtôria  \ Cf. Isid. Etym. 17, 7, 27: "cortex natatorius."

27 swimming: swimming float (of swimmer, diver, etc.)  \\ cortex, icis m. \ Hor. S. 1, 4, 119-120: "Simul ac duraverit aetas / membra animumque tuum, nabis sine cortice."  \\ cortex natâtôrius  \ Isid. Etym. 17, 7, 27: "Suberies arbor, ex quâ validissimus cortex natatorius extrahitur."  \\ \\ The term cortex might reasonably be extended to modern floats, made of synthetic materials resembling cork in their buoyancy.

27 track and field  ? cursus ac saltus

27 track: runner (competitive)  ► cursor, ôris m.   

27 track: sprint (v.i.), do a sprint  \\ stadium currere  \ Cic. Off. 3, 10, 42.  \\ \\ Strictly, the  στάδιον  or stadium of the ancients was a sprint to the end of the 200-yard or 180-meter track (also called  στάδιον  or stadium); the  δ í αυλος  or diaulos was a sprint to the end of the track and back. 

27 track: sprinter  ► stadiodromus, i m.  ¶ Plin.  \ Firm.

27 track: sprinter: long-distance race  ► dolichos  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 41, describing running-courses in the exercise-grounds of the ancients: "In his [viis] cursum factum existimo, et ad id tum diauli, dum dolichi, a quibus dilochodromi et diaulodromi formas atque terminos ibi constitutos."  \ Anc. Gr. 

27 track: sprinter: long-distance runner  ► dolichodromus  \ Hyg. Fab. 273.

28

28    GAMES

28 /vide la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Categoria:Ludi_tabulares

28 board game  tabulae lusus (1698 Hofmann s.v. Palamedis)

28 card cheat, card shark  fraudulentus chartarum (v. foliorum) lusor (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 381, in dialogue between card-players: "non habet fraudem mea lusio")

28 card game  ludus chartarum (1540 VIVES Exer. 378)  ► ludus foliorum (1540 VIVES Exer. 378)

28 card ranks  The Renaissance humanist VIVES named playing cards of ranks two to ten as follows: dyas, adis f., trias, adis f., quaternio, ônis m., pentas, adis f., senio, ônis m., heptas, adis f., ogdoas, adis f., enneas, adis f., decas, adis f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 381)

28 card ranks: ace  monas, adis f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 381)  |  ace of spades  monas spîculôrum

28 card ranks: jack, knave (Fr. valet)

28 card ranks: joker

28 card ranks: king  rex, regis m. (1540 VIVES Exer. 380)

28 card ranks: queen  regîna, ae f.

28 card suit  chartarum (v. foliorum) familia (1540 VIVES Exer. 380: "chartae enim Hispanicae, quem ad modum et Gallicae, in quattuor sunt genera seu familias divisae: Hispanae habent aureos nummos, carchesia, baculos, enses; Gallicae corda, rhombulos, trifolia, vomercula seu palas seu spicula")

28 card suit: clubs (Fr. trèfles)  trifolia, orum n. pl. (1540 VIVES Exer. 380)

28 card suit: diamonds  rhombuli, orum m. pl. (1540 VIVES Exer. 380)

28 card suit: hearts  corda, um n. pl. (1540 VIVES Exer. 380)

28 card suit: spades (Fr. piques)  spîcula, orum n. pl. (1540 VIVES Exer. 381)

28 card: deal cards  chartas (v. folia) distribuere (1540 VIVES Exer. 382)  ► chartas (v. folia) assignare (1540 VIVES Exer. 381)

28 card: dealer  distribûtor, ôris m. (1540 VIVES Exer. 381)

28 card: deck of cards, pack of cards  chartarum (v. foliorum) fasciculus (1540 VIVES Exer. 380: "ecce vobis fasciculos duos foliorum integros")

28 card: hand  ludus, i m. (1540 VIVES Exer. 382: "ludum habeo dissipatum et male cohaerentem – cedo tibi"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 384: "superiorem habet ludum tuo")

28 card: playing card  charta lûsôria, folium lûsôrium (1540 VIVES Exer. 294)  |  play cards  chartis ludere (1540 VIVES Exer. 370)  ► foliis lusitare (1540 VIVES Exer. 371)  |  I really enjoy playing cards  lusu foliorum magnopere oblector (1540 VIVES Exer. 378)

28 card: shuffle cards  chartas (v. folia) miscêre (1540 VIVES Exer. 383: "misce probe istaec folia et praebeto singulis attentius")

28 card: stack the deck  folia compônere ut sibi expediat (1540 VIVES Exer. 381: "es in ludendo admodum vafer et cavillator, tum aiunt te artem tenere componendi folia ut tibi expediat")

28 card: Tarot card  taroccus, i* m. (cf. Ital. "tarocco," from which Fr. and Eng. "tarot" is derived)

28 checkers (U.S.), draughts (Br.)  ludus damicus*, ludus damarum*  ►► EL: dames,  νταμα .  ||  Iustinus in Wikipaedia: "Ludus damicus, sive ludus damarum, sive damiludium sive (verbis classicis) ludus dominarum (nonnulli auctores, praesertim Thomas Hyde, hunc ludum potius quam scaccorum verbo 'latrunculi' designant) est ludus qui super tabula scutellata luditur. Quisque collusor duodecim calculis ludit, qui obliquo tramite moventur. Calculus hostilis capi potest transiliendo.  Fontes:  Saec. 16 (exeunte)  ► Manuscriptum l. 27, f. 1630a, apud Bibliothecam Communalem Perusinam (digramma titulo 'Ludus dominarum D(ifficilis)').  1694, Thomae Hyde Historia nerdiludii : hoc est dicere trunculorum. (pp. 173-195: "Historia Damiludii seu Latrunculorum").  1710, Leibnitii Annotatio de quibusdam Ludis (p. 24): 'nisi alium calculum transiliendo devenire possis proxime in vacuum locum, ut in ludo Damico caeditur.'"  ||  Epistolium a Iustino missum: " Pro checkers habemus haec nomina:  1) Ludus damicus (Leibnitii Annotatio de quibusdam Ludis p.24)  |  2) Ludus dominarum (Manuscriptum l. 27, f. 1630a, apud Bibliothecam Communalem Perusinam, exeuntis saeculi 16)  |  3) Ludus damarum (nusquam quidem a me repertum, sed me iudice certum est exstitisse, nam pro 'regina' scaccorum habemus aut 'reginam' aut 'dominam' aut 'damam', et re vera calculi huius ludi erant ex origine reginae scaccicae!)  |  4) Damiludium (Thomae Hyde Historia Nerdiludii, pp. 173-195 'Historia Damiludii seu Latrunculorum.'  Nota bene Dominum Hyde vocem 'latrunculos' non scaccorum ludo attribuere, ut nostri solent, sed damico.  Hos enim credid eosdem esse ludos!)."

28 checkmate, mate (vb.)  ad incitas redigere (PLAUT., figuratively; 1698 Hofmann s.v. scacci)  ►► Hoffman s.v. scacci: "Victoria autem penes eum, qui regem, hoc est principem calculum, ad incitas, id est, eo redigit, ut cieri moverique nequeat; quod 'scaccum mattum,' hoc est contritum et subactum, Galli vocant."  1698 Hofmann s.v. calculi lusorii: "Hinc 'calculus incitus' in ludo latronum seu scaccorum dicitur qui eo redactus est ut cieri moverique amplius non possit; hodie 'scaccus mattus' appellatus Germanis Gallisque."

28 chess  scacci, orum+ m. pl. (1698 Hofmann; DUCANGE)  ► latrunculi, orum m. pl. (1698 Hofmann s.v. calculi lusorii1843 TRAPPEN 20, in description of Turkish coffee-houses: "alii ludo latrunculorum toti occupati, nullo clamore ... interrumpuntur"; EGGER S.L. 55)  ► zatricium, i n. (1698 Hofmann; from Byzantine Greek)  ► ? acierum ludus (cf. 1540 VIVES Exer. 370, 388: aciebus ludere)

28 chess: backgammon, tables  ludus duodecim scriptorum (1698 Hofmann s.v. scripta)  ► tabularum ludus (DUCANGE s.v. tabula; see OED s.v. table)  ►► 1698 Hofmann s.v. scripta: "Iudicat itaque hic ludum illum admodum similem fuisse illis qui hodie trictrac aut verkeeren aut lurtschen ... appellantur."  DUCANGE quotes a 14th c. charter: "Non possit nec debeat ludere ad aliquod ludum taxillorum, excepte ad scachos et ad tabulas."  || Grand Larousse s.v. jeu: "Le jeu des duodecim scriptorum, se jouant avec des dés et des pièces, sur une table spéciale, devait être analogue à notre trictrac.  Noel s.v. trictrac: scruporum et tesserarum ludus.  EL: trictrac, tavola reale,  ταβλι .  ||  Iustinus (Wikipaedia): "Nerdiludium est ludus tabularis qui Europam ex solis ortu medio aevo attigit, Romanis ludis duodecim scriptorum et tabulae similis. Nomen Latinum a fonte Persico seu Arabico derivatur, cf. vox Arabica نَرْد (nard).  Fontem praecipuum de hoc ludo scripsit Thomas Hyde anno 1694: Historia nerdiludii: hoc est dicere latrunculorum." 

28 chess: square (in chessboard or checkerboard)  capsus, i m. (1698 Hofmann s.v. scacci)  ► mandra, ae+ f. (of monastery: DUCANGE; NIERMEYER; with this meaning: 1698Hofmann s.v. scacci vallus (all three in)  ► quadrum, i n. (DUCANGE s.v. scacci in article)

28 chessboard  scaccarium, i+ (DUCANGE s.v. scacci1698 Hofmann s.v. scacci)  ► tabula latruncularia (EGGER S.L. 55)  ► tabula scaccorum (DUCANGE s.v. scacci quoting source)

28 chesspieces1: king  rex, rêgis m. (DUCANGE quoting Pseudo-Ovidius; Vida, De Scaccorum Ludo)

28 chesspieces2: queen  virgo, inis f. (DUCANGE quoting Pseudo-Ovidius)  ► rêgîna, ae f. (Vida, De Scaccorum Ludo)

28 chesspieces3: rook, castle  roccus, i+ m. (DUCANGE quoting Pseudo-Ovidius)  ► propugnaculum i n. (Vida, De Scaccorum Ludo)

28 chesspieces4: bishop  alphinus, i+ m. (DUCANGE quoting Pseudo-Ovidius)

28 chesspieces5: knight  miles, itis m. (DUCANGE quoting Pseudo-Ovidius)  ► eques, itis m. (Vida, De Scaccorum Ludo)

28 chesspieces6: pawn  pedes, itis m. (DUCANGE quoting Pseudo-Ovidius; Vida, De Scaccorum Ludo)

28 dominoes  ►► EL:  ντομινο

28 gambler  âleâtor, ôris m. (PLAUT.; CIC.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 380)

28 gambling  âlea, ae f.

28 gambling: bet  sponsio, ônis f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 382, in dialogue between card-players: "sed quaenam erit sponsio?  – Terni in singulas manûs denarii"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 383: "rursum augeo sponsionem")

28 gambling: bet:  I bet you $10 it rains tomorrow.  \ Sponsionem facio tecum decem thalerum nisi cras pluerit.  ► spondeo decem thalerum nisi cras pluerit.  \ Cf. Gell. 6, 11, 9: "Si hoc ita est, qui spondet mille nummum?"  |  I bet you $10 it doesn't rain tomorrow.  \ Sponsionem facio tecum decem thalerum si cras pluerit.  ► Spondeo decem thalerum si cras pluerit. \ Gell. 6, 11, 9: "Si hoc ita est, qui spondet mille nummum?"

28 gambling: bet: win a bet  sponsionem vincere (QUINT.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 293)

28 gambling: casino  taberna âleâtôria (EGGER S.L. 94)  ► âleâtôrium, i (SID.; EGGER S.L. 39)

28 gambling: slot machine  machina âleâtôria

28 gambling: stakes  depositum, i n. (1540 VIVES Exer. 383, in dialogue between card-players: "augeo meâ ex parte depositum")

28 go (East Asian board game)  calculi Sinici (m. pl.) (cf. Leibnitz, Adnotatio de Ludis 25: ludus Sinicus)

28 pass (in a game: give up one's turn)  ? cedere (1540 VIVES Exer. 382: "ludum habeo dissipatum et male cohaerentem – cedo tibi."  ►► At fortasse intelligendum apud Vivem potius "ludum, hoc est folia mea, tibi cedo."

28 playing board (as for checkers, chess)  tabula lûsôria (MART. 14, 17; 1698 Hofmann s.v. scacci)  ► alveum lûsôrium (1698 Hofmann s.v. scripta)  ► tabula âleâris (for a game of chance) (CaelAur.; TERT. cited in DUCANGE s.v. tabula)  ► abacus, i m.

28 playing piece (as in checkers, chess)  calculus, i m. (MART. 14, 17; 1698 Hofmann s.v. scacci)  ► calculus lusorius (1698 Hofmann)  ►► palamediacus, i m. (1698 Hofmann s.v. calculi lusorii)

28 turn (time for action or participation, as in a game): it's your turn  res tua agitur;  to loose one's turn  vicem suam amittere (1540 VIVES Exer. 382, of card-playing)

29

29    PSYCHOLOGY

29 Freudian slip  lapsus Freudiânus

29 hallucination  ► phantasia, ae f.  ¶ AMM.  1846 GROSSE 9: "Excitantem omnino vim exercet hasheesh, et sensuum acie acutâ, et procreatis erroribus et phantasiis valde mirabilibus animi, qui nunc res immobiles motas, nunc in novas formas redactas videt."  1846 GROSSE 25: "hallucinationes visûs, ita ut phantasiae motibus ad agendum permoveretur."  Cf. QUINT. 6, 2, 29-30, in Greek: "Quas  φαντασ í ας  Graeci vocant, nos sane 'visiones' appellemus, per quas imagines rerum absentium ita repraesentantur animo ut eas cernere oculis ac praesentes habere videamur ... Ita nos hae de quibus loquor imagines prosequuntur ut peregrinari navigare proeliari, populos adloqui, divitiarum quas non habemus usum videamur disponere, nec cogitare sed facere."  ► phantasmata, um n. pl. ¶ 1846 GROSSE 16, of effects of cannabis: "Imagines ac phantasmata vice celerrimâ mutabantur, animumque prohibebant ab omni rerum externarum attentione vel negotio mentis."  ► oculorum (v. aurium) hallûcinatio  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 9, of effects of hashish: "Hallucinationes oculorum et aurium suavissimâ voluptate afficiunt animum et a corpore et rebus externis abstrahunt."  ► visûs hallûcinatio  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 25.  Cf. imaginum compositiones (1846 GROSSE 8, describing effects of hashish: "si quis grammata 30 sumpsit, animo imaginum compositiones singulares ante oculos ponuntur")

29 introverted, extroverted

29 mentally retarded 

29 mood swings: bipolar disorder, manic depressive disease  maniomelancholia, ae* f. (cf. Mod. Gr. μανιοκατάθλιψη)  ► (mentis) perturbatio bipolâris, aliênatio bipôlaris;   manic-depressive, bipolar  maniomelancholicus, a, um*, perturbatione (v. aliênatione) bipolâri* laborans, bipolâris*  ►► EL: psychose maniaque dépressive, trouble bi-polaire, cyclothymie; maniacodepressivo; διπολική διαταραχή, μανιοκατάθλιψη, κυκλοθυμία.

29 mood swings: tendency to mood swings  cyclothymia, ae* f. (Mod. Gr.)  |  subject to mood swings  cyclothymicus, a, um*  ►► "Cyclothymia" and cognate terms are currently used by psychologists for a tendency to mood-swings milder than bipolar disorder.

29 obsessed, addicted  ► (alicuius rei) insâna (v. impotens) cupidus  ¶ Cf. CIC. Fin. 1, 59, quoted above.  ► (alicui rei) insane (v. impotenter) dêditus  ¶ Cf. 1843 TRAPPEN 131, of a caffeine addict: "narrat hominem ... adeo huic potui deditum fuisse ut ultimo vitae suae tempore praeter triginta huius cyathos nihil aliud assumpserit."  ►► see "substance abuse," "drug addition."

29 obsession, addiction  ► (alicuius rei) insâna (v. impotens) cupiditas  ¶ Cf. CIC. Fin. 1, 59: "animi autem morbi sunt cupiditates immensae et inanes divitiarum, gloriae, dominationis, libidinosarum etiam voluptatum."

29 psychiatric  ► psychiatricus, a, um* (1846 GROSSE 31: "de morbis psychiatricis')

29 psychiatrist  ► psychiatrus, i* m.

29 psychological  (of the mind)  ► mentis (gen.)  ► psychicus, a, um;  (concerning the scientific study of the mind)  ► psychologicus, a, um

29 psychologist  ► psychologus, i* m. (EGGER D.L. 49)

29 psychology  ► psychologia, ae f.  (1846 GROSSE 31)

29 stress (psychological)  ► nimia virium contentio (EGGER R.A. 68: "si quis in hac 'aula Dei,' a nimia virium contentione (stress) relaxatus, valet aliquamdiu ad se ipse revocare, veri nominis pace perfundetur")

29 stress management techniques, learn how to manage one's stress

29 trance, trance-like state, state of shock, state of rapture, altered state of consciousness  ►  ecstasis, is f.  ¶ Vulg. Act. 3, 10, of those who had witnessed the miraculous healing of a lame man: "impleti sunt stupore et extasi in eo quod contigerat illi."  TERT. Anim. 45, of the imaginative capacity of the dreamer: "hanc vim ecstasin dicimus, excessum sensûs, et amentiae instar; sic et in primordio somnus cum ecstasi dedicatus: 'et misi Deus ecstasin in Adam, et obdormivit."  AUG. Serm. 52, 16, on Psalm 30, 23: "Hoc in ecstasi fecerat, abreptus a sensibus corporis et subreptus in Deum; ubi quodam modo a Deo ad hominem revocatus est, ait, 'Ego dixi in ecstasi meâ.'"  ► excessus mentis  ¶ Vulg. Psal. 30, 23: "ego autem dixi in excussu mentis meae."  ►excessus sensûs  ¶ TERT. Anim. 45, quoted above.

292

292    EMOTIONS

292 depressed, depressive, suffering from depression  ► animo fracto (v. demisso) (abl.)  ► melancholicus, a, um  ¶ CIC. Tusc. 1, 80: "Aristoteles quidem ait omnes ingeniosos melancholicos esse, ut ego me tardiorem esse non moleste feram."  \ 1843 TRAPPEN 132.  \ 1846 GROSSE 17.

292 depression  ► fractus (v. demissus) animus  \\ taedium vitae  ¶ PLIN. 7, 186: "Domitius ... veneno poto propter taedium vitae, postquam biberat omni opere ut viveret adnisus est."  Gell. 6, 18, 11: "eos tamen qui ad Hannibalem non redissent usque adeo intestabiles invisosque fuisse ut taedium vitae ceperint necemque sibi consciverint."  ► taedium animi  ¶ 1652 TURS. 243.  ►melancholia, ae f.  ¶ Cael. Aur.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 489: "Habuit nova [scil. nuntium] quod pater suus erat mortuus, de quo habuit magnam iram et magnam melancholiam, et concepit dolorem."   ► insania melancholica  ¶ PLIN. 22, 133.  ► acêdia, ae f.  ¶ Cassiod.  DUCANGE defining as "melancholiae species." 

292 ecstasy, euphoria  elatio voluptaria (CIC. Fin. 3, 10, 35)  ►► euphoria, ae f. (EGGER D.L. 16)

292 ecstatic, euphoric  magno gaudio elatus (1846 GROSSE 9, of effects of hashish use: "intoxicati sentiunt sese ... magno gaudio elatos")

292 emotion  animi môtus (CIC.)  ► animi affectus, animi affectio, animi perturbatio, animi passio (AUG. Conf. 10, 14, using as equivalent the preceding three terms; AUG. Civ. Dei 8 17: "quod nobiscum daemones dixit habere commune, id est animi passiones"; AUG. Civ. Dei 9, 3: "passionibus animi irrationabilibus nequaquam cedere"; DANTE Monarchia 363)  ►► Augustine (C.D. 9, 4) provides a summary of Latin terms for "emotion": "Duae sunt sententiae philosophorum de his animi motibus, quae Graeci  παθη , nostri autem quidam, sicut Cicero, perturbationes, quidamaffectiones vel affectûs, quidam vero, sicut iste, de Graeco expressius passiones uocant – has ergo perturbationes sive affectiones sive passiones quidam philosophi dicunt etiam in sapientem cadere, sed moderatas rationique subiectas."

292 emotional: be in emotional turmoil  affectuum (v. passionum) aestibus fluctuari (AUG. Civ. Dei 9, 3: "daemonum mentes ... velut procellosum salum dixit passionum tempestate turbari."  ► affectuum (v. passionum) tempestatibus agitari (AUG. Civ. Dei 8, 17: "passionum turbelis et tempestatibus agitentur")

292 excited, get excited

292 hot-blooded, excitable  fervens, entis (1540 VIVES Exer. 336: "Hispani sunt et Galli, paulo ferventiores")

292 introspective, be introspective, engage in introspection  \\ secum habitare \ Pers. 4, 52.  \ Vic ο .

292 nostalgia  temporis praeteriti (v. rerum praeteritarum) desiderium

292 nostalgia: homesickness  patriae desiderium, nostalgia, ae* f. (extreme homesickness; properly, a medical condition) (Bonon. Acad. I, 307: "morbus est ... quo in exteras regiones delatos nos patriae desiderium ardens in lectum conicit."  ►► The word nostalgia was coined by Johann Jacob Harder for his medical treatise De Nostalgia (Basil, 1678)

30

30    EAT

30 appetite  cibi appetentia (PLIN. 19, 127; 1846 GROSSE 29)  ► appetentia, ae f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 329: "iam exstimulor appententiâ, redeamus domum ientatum"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 347: "condimenta vellicabant atque instigabant desidentem stomachum, et appetentiam non patiebantur delassari."  ► appetîtio, ônis f. (Gell. 16, 3, 2: "cum antehac semper edundi fuerit appetens, nunc post imperatam inediam tridui omnis eius appetitio pristina elanguerit"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 358: "adeo voravi initio avide ut statim amiserim appetitum."  ► ciborum appetîtus (1846 GROSSE 12)

30 appetite: anorexia0: eating disorder

30 appetite: anorexia1, chronic lack of appetite  \\ anorexia* chronica (v. perpetua)

30 appetite: anorexia2: anorexic  \\ anorectus, a, um*

30 appetite: anorexia3: ravenous hunger, proclivity to bing eating \\ bûlîmus, i m. \ Pelag. 10, 188 (Teubner ed. p. 69): "Item ad bulimum, apsyrti. Utilissimum et necessarium est domino philocalo [equo] bulimoso succurrere. Nam equi interdum famem sic non ferunt ut concidant ... Cum bulimaverit, panis mundi mollem partem vino infundis ... et per cornu faucibus infundis ... Sin autem permanserit bulimus, simulae cyathos quattuor cum vino commisces et per cornu dabis." \ Theod. Prisc. 2, 29, 84 (Teubner ed. p. 186): "Stomachus ... sustinent constrictionem, dolorem cum indignatione vel febribus, duritiam, ventositatem, fastidium, solutionem, bulimum, vomitûs ex corruptela."  |  prone to bouts of ravenous hunger and binge eating \\ bûlîmôsus, i m. \ Pelag. 10, 188, quoted above.  |  have bouts of ravenous hunger and binge eating (without reference to compensatory vomiting) \\ bûlîmare \ Pelag. 10, 188, quoted above. \ Theod. Prisc. 2, 29, 90 (Teubner ed. p. 190): "Praeter consuetudinem vero edacibus, hoc est bulimantibus, ieiunia conveniunt, somni procurandi largiores, cibi insuaves et inflationem procurantes."

30 appetite: anorexia4: bulimia (as manifested in self-induced or defensive or compensatory vomiting)  \\ bûlîmus vomitôrius \\ insâna (v. morbôsa) emesia* \  εμεσία , Anc. Gr., "disposition to vomit" (Lidell-Scott). |  bulimic, one engaging in self-induced or defensive or compensatory vomiting after binge eating  \\ bûlîmôsus vomitor \\ insânus (v. morbôsus) emeticus* \  εμετικός , Anc. Gr., "one who uses emetics, like the Roman gourmands" (Lidell-Scott), "glutted with food to the point of vomiting (rassasié à vomir)" (Bailly).  PLUT.Pomp. 51L : " ο Πομπήιος έφη πάντων αδικώτατον ειναι τον Μαρκελλινονος χάριν ουκ έχειλόγιος μεν εχ αφώνου διαυτονεμετικος δεκ πεινατικου γενόμενος (having been turned by Pompey from a starveling into one who makes himself vomit)."  |  engage in self-induced vomiting (esp. as compensation for binge eating) \\ εμετικήν (v. emeticên*) agere \ Cic. Att. 13, 52, recounting Caesar's day: "Post horam octavam in balneum, tum ... unctus est, accubuit, εμετικήν agebat, itaque et edit et bibit αδεως et iucunde, opipare sane et apparate."  See comment on this passage by 1569 MERCURIALE 59: Cicero "eius solius diei rationem exponit in quâ – secundum multorum consuetudinem – vomere destinaverat, atque ob id αδεως, id est sine timore, et iucunde ederat biberatque, ut (quod erat medicorum praeceptum) varii generis potu ciboque repletus, posset, dum iret dormitum, vomere." \\ \\ Wealthy and decadent Romans, like modern bulimics, engaged in cycles of binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting. Plutarch calls these retching revelers εμετικοί (Pomp. 51, quoted above, relating a savage jest of Pompey); and Cicero, reporting self-induced vomiting by Caesar after a Lucullan repast, uses the expression "εμετικήν agebat" (Att. 13, 52, quoted above).

30 appetite: have an appetite for (for something), be hungry (for something), feel like eating (something)  ► (aliquid) appetere  ¶ SUET. AUG. 76: "Pisciculos minutos et caseum bubulum ... maxime appetebat." 

30 appetite: lack of appetite  ► malacia, ae f.  ¶ PLIN.; 1571 Mattioli 127: "Succus [citrei] gravidarum malaciae succurrit."  ► inappetentia, ae* f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 102)  ► anorexia, ae* f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 128.

30 appetite: stimulate the appetite  appetentiam incitare (1571 MATTIOLI 117)  ► cibi appetentiam excitare (1571 MATTIOLI 119) 

30 bite: a bite, a small amount of food  buccea, ae f. (SUET. AUG. 76, quoting a letter of Augustus: "ne Iudaeus quidem ... tam diligenter sabbatis ieiunium servat quam ego hodie servavi, qui in balineo demum post horam primam noctis duas buccas manducavi"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 352: "lucanicae huius scinde mihi bucceam unam aut alterm")

30 brunch: a late, large breakfast  prandiculum n.

30 caterer, (Fr.) traiteur  cuppêdinârius, i m. (Ter.; Hist. Aug.)

30 congeal  in gelatinam coire (Pharm. Austr. 26)

30 cuisine (art or manner or style of cooking)  coquîna, ae f. (Apul. Plat. 2, 9; Isid. 20, 2, 32)  ► coctûra, ae f. (Plin. 19, 143: Apiciana coctura)  ► ars coquînâria (Apic.)

30 dietary laws, dietary interdictions

30 dietary laws: kosher, halal

30 digest  ► concoquere  ¶  ► digerere  ¶ CELS.  QUINT.  1752 STUMPF 37.

30 digest: bolus, mass of chewed food  ► puls cibârius  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 38.

30 digest: digestion  ► concotio, ônis f.  ► dîgestio, ônis f.  ¶ CELS.  QUINT.  1846 GROSSE 24.

30 digest: hard to digest  difficilis digestu (Pharm. Bat. III. 147)

30 digest: heartburn  morbus cardiacus (CELS.; PLIN.)  ► cardialgia, ae* f. 1843 TRAPPEN 108: "cardialgiam hôc potu saepe gigni constat"; 1846 GROSSE 28)  |  suffering from heartburn, relating to heartburn  cardiacus, a, um (JUV.)  ► cardialgicus, a, um* 1843 TRAPPEN 108: "doloribus cardialgicis mederi"; 1846 GROSSE 28)

30 digest: indigestion  ► cruditas, atis f.  ¶ CIC.  QUINT.   ► indigestio, ônis f.  ¶ HIER.  1843 TRAPPEN 97: "coffeae inest ... virtus indigestionis molestias auferendi," et passim)  ► laesa digestio  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 97: "in emendandâ laesâ digestione."  ► stomachus male digerens  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 99: "quae quoniam a stomacho male digerente fiunt")  ► dyspepsia, ae f.  ¶Cato.  ► apepsia, ae* f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 128.

30 eat:  what do you feel like eating?  quid appetis maxime?  (cf. SUET. AUG. 76: "pisciculos minutos et caseum bubulum ... maxime appetebat")

30 edible, eatable, serving as food  ► esculentus, a, um  ¶ CIC.  PLIN.  Col.   ► edûlis, e  ¶ HOR.   ► edibilis, e  ¶ Cassiod.  ► comestibilis, e  ¶ Isid.  c.1300 MARCO POLO A 324. ► edilis, e+  ¶ LATHAM.  1843 TRAPPEN 3.

30 flaky  flocculosus, a, um* (Pharm. Austr. 19 et passim)

30 flatulence: bloating, feeling of being bloated (after eating) \\ inflâtio, ônis f. \ Theod. Prisc. 2, 29, 90 (Teubner ed. p. 190): "cibi insuaves et inflationem procurantes."

30 frozen (of food)  frigore duratus (1595 MERCATOR II "Islandia": "piscium frigore duratorum strues .. evehunt")

30 gourmet food, specialty food, delicacy, fine food  ► cuppêdium, i n.  \  ► cuppêdo, inis f. \ PLAUT.  \ 1540 VIVES Exer. 358: "tantumne bellariorum apparatum et cuppedines, cum nihil superest amplius cuppediae?"  < scîtâmentum, i n.  \ PLAUT. Men. 208-11: "Iube igitur tribus nobis apud te prandium accurarier / atque aliquid scitamentorum de foro opsonarier – / glandionidam suillam, laridum pernonidam, / aut sincipitamenta porcina aut aliquid ad eum modum."  \ APUL. Met. 10, 13: "panes, crustula, lucunculos, hamos, lacertulos et plura scitamenta mellita."  \5th c. MACR. S. 7, 14, noting the distorting effect of refraction in water: "Cur in aquâ simulacra maiora veris videntur? Quod genus apud popinatores pleraque scitamentorum cernimus proposita ampliore specie quam corpore; quippe videmus in doliolis vitreis aquae plenis et ova globis maioribus et iecuscula fibris tumidioribus et bulbos spiris ingentibus."   < gûlae blandîmentum  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 4: "infinita gulae blandimenta, inexplebilis libido, immensaque voracitas, quibus ... novae morborum species genitae sunt."

30 gourmet, epicure, connoisseur of fine food, gastronome, bon vivant  < homo subtiliôris (v. ingenui) palâti  ► ligûrîtor, ôris m. (Macr. S. 2, 12)  ► opsophagus, i* m. (Anc. Gr.)  ► gulôsus, i m. (usually pejorative) (MART.;  JUV.)  ► proceres gulae (Plin. 9, 66, describing the pleasure connoisseurs taking in watching the death of the mullet, a gourmet fish: "mullum esxpirantem versicolori quâdam et numerosâ varietate spectari proceres gulae narrant, rubentium squamarum multiplici mutatione pallescentem," with mention of Apicius just after)

30 gourmet: be a gourmet, enjoy fine food  ligûrire (Ter.)

30 gourmet: gourmandise, gourmet tastes, gastronomy, enjoyment of or indulgence in sophistication about fine food, love of fine food  \\ ligûrîtio, ônis f. (Cic.; 1843TRAPPEN 97: "ob nimiam comissationem atque liguritionem infaustas metuunt sequelas."  ► gula, ae f. (Plin. 9, 66: "proceres gulae"; Isid. 20, 1, 1, condemning Apicius and his followers: "qui gulae atque edacitati servit."  ► cuppêdia, ae f. (Cic.)

30 gourmet: sophisticated palate, discriminating palate  ► palâtum subtîle  ¶ Hor.  ► ingenua gula  ¶ Mart. 6, 11, 5-6: "Tu Lucrina [scil. ostrea notae optimae] voras, me pascit aquosa pelôris [clams]; ¶ non minus ingenua est et mihi, Marce, gula."

30 haute cuisine

30 hunger:  I'm dying of hunger, I'm starving  fame crucior, fame enecor

30 meal  ► cibus, i m.  ► comestio, ônis f.  ► refectio, ônis f.  ¶ Souter, noting use in this sense from 4th c.  SulpSev. Dial. 1, 14, 1.  Peter Damian Epist. 6, 32 (PL 144, 423C): "ut vespertinae refectioni pulmentarium non paretur."  ► pastus, ûs m.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 97: "Hinc mos post pastum unum alterumve cyathum huius potûs [scil. coffeae] sumendi."  |  to have two meals a day rather than one  ► bis die potius quam semel cibum capere  ¶ CELS. 1, 1.  |  have a real meal, have a hearty meal, fill oneself up \\ saturari \ 1569 MERCURIALE 61: "Quod etenim maiores nostri ... vespere tantum saturarentur, dum cenare dicebantur – exceptis ... Syracusis, quos bis in die cibis impleri quasi res nova esset [Aristoteles] tradit – ... comprobatum est." \\cibis impleri \ 1569 MERCURIALE 61, quoted above.

30 perishable  fugiens, entis 1540 VIVES Exer. 353: "poma fugientia, quae aetati cedunt, nec servantur")

30 pitted (of fruit)  ênucleâtus, a, um

30 serve, put (a dish) on the table  apponere

30 spoil  v.i.  (of food: go bad)  corrumpi (PLAUT. Ps. 3, 2, 102: "corrumpitur jam cena."  ► fugere (to begin to spoil or perish) (SEN. Ep. 12, of fruit; CIC. Off. 3, 23, 91, of wine; 1540VIVES Exer. 353)  |  v.t.  (pamper: e.g., child)  delicâtum habere (PLAUT. Men. 119, Menaechmus to his wife: "nimiuim te habui delicatum; nunc adeo ut facturus dicam."  ► ? corrumpere

30 starchy  ► farinâceus, a, um  ¶ Rolander.  1771 WAY 18: "Ex herbaceo aut farinaceo genere plerumque cibum asciscat."  ► amylaceus, a, um* (Stearn 368)

30 wolf down, scarf down  vorâre  ► absorbêre  ► dêgluttîre

302

302    NUTRITION

302 antioxidant  antoxîdôticum, i* n. (Mod. Gr. αντιοξειδωτικό, αντοξειδωτικό)

302 calorie  caloria, ae* f.

302 calorie: burn calories  cf. Mod. Gr. θερμιδικές καύσεις   αεροβικος

302 diet (diminished or restricted consumption of food and drink)  ► parcus victus  ¶ Bonon. Acad. I, 309.  ► tenuis victus  ¶ Cic. Fin. 2, 90: "Negat enim [Epicurus] tenuissimo victu, id est contemptissimis escis et potionibus, minorem voluptatem percipi quam rebus exquisitissimis ad epulandum."  ► regimen, inis (*) n.  ¶ 1771 WAY 13: "Regimen idque sui generis est sedulo observandum: hoc sit cibus acescens vegetabilis," etc.  ► diaeta, ae f.  ¶ Ducange: "3. DIAETA ... Certa victûs ratio ex medicorum praeceptis."  1771 WAY 18: "Medicus ... eandem quâ antea usi sunt praescribit diaetam, ne tumores ... ex subitâ a cibo vegetabili ad cibum animalem transitione erumpant."  |  I'm on a diet  ► tenuiore victu utor  ►► Diaeta generally refers to an entire mode of life recommended or prescribed for health reasons, involving diet, activity, and place of residence; but occasionally the term is used with specific reference to diet.

302 diet (one's habitual consumption food and drink generally)  ► victus, ûs m.  ¶ 1652 TURS. 223, of a Byzantine emperor: "Cum neglectis medicorum praeceptis uberiore victu noxiisque cibis uteretur, temeritatem morte luit."  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 26: "Inter ea quae victum pertinent ... referendi sunt omnes cibi qui particulis viscidis atque tenacibus abundant."  ¶ 1771 WAY 13: "propter mutationem victûs."  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 127: "Damnosa prae primis est aquae in victu exsuperantia."  ► victûs ratio  ¶ Ducange s.v. diaeta in definition.  ¶ 1569 MERCURIALE 2: "totam eam medicinae partem, quae ad sanos et ad victûs rationem pertinet."  ¶ Bonon. Acad. I, 308.  |  change one's diet  ► cibos variare  ¶ Capitol. Macr. 1, 4: "quando cibos variaverit."  ►victûs rationem mutare

302 diet: macrobiotics  < macrobiotica, ae (or ê, ês)* f.  ¶ Cf. Anc. Gr.  μακροβιος , long-lived)

302 diet: vegetarian  carne abstinens (SEN.)  ► plantivorus, a, um*, ? frugivorus, a, um* (LRL)  |  I'm a vegetarian  carne abstineo, victu vegetali utor (cf. victus animalis, 1811 PALLAS 12: "evidentissimus enim [ordo ferarum] in dentium uniformitate, vita praedatoria, victu animali"; 1811 PALLAS 52: "omni ceterum animali victu, etiam piscibus aliisque maris eiectamentis contenti, si alia venatio desit."  |  I'm an ovo-lacto vegetarian (or strict vegetarian)  carne ovis lacticiniis abstine |  I'm a vegan  rebus omnibus ex animalibus effectis abstineo

302 diet: vegetarian diet  ► cibus vegetabilis  ¶ 1771 WAY 18: "Medicus ... eandem quâ antea usi sunt praescribit diaetam, ne tumores ... ex subitâ a cibo vegetabili ad cibum animalem transitione erumpant."

302 diet: vegetarian: carnivore  carnivorum, i n. (1846 GROSSE 13)

302 diet: vegetarian: herbivore  ► herbivorum, i n.  ¶ 1846 GROSSE 12: "In cuniculos et fortasse herbivora omnia minorem omnino vim exhiberi cannabi Indicâ."

302 fat: eat foods high in fat  pinguia comedere (Vulg. 2 Esd. 8, 10)

302 fat: fat-free  pinguedine vacans (v. carens)  ► pinguedine levatus

302 fat: high-fat, fatty  ► pinguis, e  ¶ 1771 WAY 13, in a list of foods to be avoided on a particular diet: pinguia omnia ("all fatty foods'")  ► cremore uber (of milk or milk products)  ¶Pharm. Bat. III. 146, of sheep's milk: "cremore uberius."

302 fat: low-fat 

302 fatty, oily, greasy  unguinôsus, a, um (Pharm. Bat. III. 146)

302 fiber, dietary fiber, roughage

302 food shortage  victuum pênûria (1652 TURS. 398)  ► victûs inopia

302 food supply  commeâtus, ûs m. (PLAUT.; CIC.; CAES.)  ► victuum commeâtus (1652 TURS. 400)

302 glycemic  glychaemicus, a, um* (Mod. Gr. γλυχαιμικός)

302 glycogen  glycogonum, i* n. (Mod. Gr. γλυκογόνο)

302 health food

302 healthy (producing good health, as of food), good for your health, good for you  ► salûbris, e  ¶ PLIN. 19, 171: "saluberrimum corpori sinapi."  1752 STUMPF 26: "accuratissimus alimentorum tam salubrium quam noxiorum arbiter, Galenus."  ► salûtifer, fera, ferum  ¶ OV.  MART.  APUL.  1843 TRAPPEN 74: "vis salutifera coffeae."  ► sanitati (v. ad sanitatem) proficuus  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 7: "si de dentium curâ ad sanitatem proficuâ commentaremur."  1843 TRAPPEN 12: "Alii omnem suam auctoritatem intenderunt ut coffeae potum non nocivum, immo sanitati proficuum demonstrarent."

302 healthy: unhealthy, bad for your health, bad for you  ► sanitati officiens  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 6-7: "Alia [scil. exempla] haud minus noxia et sanitati officientia nescimus quo fato nullam aut saltem admodum infrequentem medicam experta sunt censuram." \\ noxius, a, um  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 26: "accuratissimus alimentorum tam salubrium quam noxiorum arbiter, Galenus." 

302 hypoglycemia  hypoglychaemia, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. υπογλυχαιμία)

302 hypoglycemic  hypoglychaemicus, a, um*

302 nourishment (act of nourishing)  ► nûtrîtio, ônis f.  ¶ Prisc.  1752 STUMPF 11, of tooth pulp: "cui dentium nutritio ipsiusque fabricae vitreae coronalis reparatio deberi videtur."

302 nutrient  pars nutriens 1843 TRAPPEN 2, of coffee: "partibus nutrientibus scatet")

302 nutrition, nutritious, nutritional, nutritionist, nutritional deficiency  (cf. Mod. Gr. διατροφικός)

302 organic (of food)  ►  ►► EL: biologique; biologico; ecológico, orgánico; ökologisch, biologisch, Bio-Lebensmittel; βιολογικός.

302 protein  prôteïna, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. πρωτεΐνη)

302 roughage, dietary fiber

302 saturated fat  pinguamen saturum

302 saturated: monounsaturated  monacorestus, a, um* (Mod. Gr. μονοακόρεστος)

302 saturated: polyunsaturated  polyacorestus, a, um* (Mod. Gr. πολυακόρεστος)  |  polyunsaturated fat  pinguamen polyacorestum*;  fish are an excellent source of polyunsaturated fats  pisces pinguamina polyacoresta* abunDANTEr suppeditant

302 steroid  ? steroîdes, is n. (Mod. Gr. τα στεροειδή)

302 sugars: fructose

302 sugars: glucose  glycôsa, ae* f. (Mod. Gr. γλυκόζη)

302 sugars: lactose   saccharum lactis (Pharm. Bat. III. 146)

302 vitamin  vitamina, ae* f.  ►► Mod. Gr. βιταμίνη

302 vitamin: food supplement

302 vitamin: mineral 

302 weight: burly  corpulentus, a, um

302 weight: gain weight  ► corpus facere  ¶  ► impinguari  ¶ Tert.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 23, on the effects of Persian date wine: "facit impinguari homines."

302 weight: gain: lose weight  ► corpus amittere  ¶  ► macrescere  ¶ Varr.  Hor.

302 weight: malnourished  atrophus, i, um* (Anc. Gr.)

302 weight: malnutrition  atrophia, ae* f. (Anc. Gr.)

302 weight: overweight, obese  ► polysarcus, a, um*  ► obêsus, a, um  ► crassus, a, um

302 weight: overweight: body fat  ►► Mod. Gr. σωματικ ον  λίπος

302 weight: overweight: obesity, condition of being overweight  ► obêsitas, âtis f.  ¶ SUET.  1843 TRAPPEN 129, quoted below.  ► pinguêdo nimia  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 129, quoted below.  ► polysarcia, ae* f.  ¶ 1843 TRAPPEN 128: "Hinc vero nonnulli ... statureunt coffea iis expedire qui polysarchiâ et nimiâ pinguedine laborant, du vero alii ... illam obesitati favere perhibeant."  ► corpulentia morbida (v. nimia)

302 weight: underweight  ► asarcus, a, um*

302 weight: underweight: skeletal, anorexic  ► monogrammus, a um (also used substantively)  ¶ Lucil. ap. Non. 37, 11: "Monogrammi dicti sunt homines macie pertenues ac decolores; tractum a pictura, quae prius quam coloribus corporatur, umbrâ fingitur.  Lucilius lib. II: 'vix vivo homini ac monogrammo,' et XXVII: 'quae pietas? monogrammi quinque adducti pietatem vocant!'" ► qui macie pellûcet  ¶ ERASMUS Coll. 130: "Ex qua tandem corte aut caveâ nobis ades?  – Quid ita?  – Quia male saginatus. Quia macie pelluces totus, ariditate crepitas." 

302 weight: underweight: skeletal: you're all skin and bones  ► ossa ac pellis es totus  ¶ Plaut. Aul. 564-67, of an underfed sheep: "Quia ossa ac pellis totust, ita curâ macet.  ¶ Quin exta inspicere in sole ei vivo licet;  ¶ ita is pellucet quasi lanterna Punica."

31

31    MEAL

31 apéritif  propoma, atis (Pall.)  ► occursôria pôtio (APUL. 9, 23)

31 apéritif: digestif, after-dinner drink  epipoma, atis* n., pôtio dîgestôria (cf. PLIN. Val. 2, 8: medicamentum digestorium, "promoting digestion")

31 appetizer, first course  prômulsis, idis f. (CIC.)  ► gustus, ûs (MART.; JUV.)  ► gustâtiô, ônis f. (PETR.) 

31 banquet  epulae, arum f. pl.

31 banquet: dinner guest  convîva, ae m.

31 banquet: dinner party, dinner with friends  convîvium, i n.

31 cocktail party  compotatio, onis f., compotatiuncula, ae* f. (ERASMUS)

31 course  missus, ûs m. (Hist. Aug.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 297: "ne postea facturi simus magna intevalla inter missûs"; 1540 VIVES Exer. 350: "gestabant fercula primi missûs," of the dishes constituting the first course)  ► ferculum, i n. (also meaning "dish."  ► cena (prima, altera, tertia) (of courses of a dinner) (MART. 11, 31, 5 and 6)  ► mensa, ae f. (1540 VIVES Exer. 344: "Carnes et pisces in eadem mensa?  – Maxime, more Germanico"; but secunda mensa is always the dessert course)

31 dessert  secunda mensa (CIC. Att. 14, 6, 2: "haec ad te scripsi, appositâ secundâ mensâ," "when the dessert had been served"; (1540 VIVES Exer. 358: "muta orbes et quadras, da secundam mensam."  ► bellâria, orum n. pl. (PLAUT.; SUET.; (1540 VIVES Exer. 358)

31 dinner conversation, dinner talk  \\ sermônes convîvâles (v. convîviâles)  \ Macr. Sat. 1, 1: "Per omne spatium feriarum, meliorem diei partem seriis disputationibus occupantes, cenae tempore sermones conviviales agitant, ita ut nullum diei tempus docte aliquid vel lepide proferendi vacuum relinquatur."  \ 1569 MERCURIALE 74, describing the dinner-parties of the ancients: "Sic enim sermones convivales ad animi intelligentias afficiendas magno studio invenerunt."

31 dinner party  \\ convîvium, i n.

31 picnic  prandium subdiâlis, cêna subdiâlis

31 picnic basket  sportula, ae f. (in antiquity, of baskets used for presents of food)

31 picnic table  mensa subdiâlis

31 serving (at meal)  ► portio, ônis f.  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 16: "carnium portiones firmiores magisque fibrosae vel non satis percoctae."

32

32    COOK

32 beat, whip  peragitare (Col. 12, 46, 3: rudiculâ ligneâ peragitare)  ► concutere (Pharm. Bat. III. 147, in a pharmaceutical formula: "rudiculâ concutias loco frigido donec massa spumescit")

32 boil  acquâ coquere 1843 TRAPPEN 3, 7)  ► acquâ incoquere 1843 TRAPPEN 5)

32 boil:

32 boil: bake  \\ coquere  \ Vulg. Gen. 27, 17: "panes quos coxerat."  \ 1843 TRAPPEN 4: "ad panem ex iis coquendum."  ► in furno coquere

32 boil: baked  \\ furnâceus  \ Plin. 18, 105: "Panis ipsius varia genera persequi supervacuum videtur, alias ab opsoniis appellati, ut ostrearii ... nec non a coquendi ratione, ut furnacei vel artopticii aut in clibanis cocti."

32 boil: broil

32 boil: fry

32 boil: grill

32 boil: roast, toast  \\ assare (APUL.; Vulg.; Apic.)  ► (aliquid) assum curare (ERASMUS Coll. 160: "eme nobis armum ovillum; eum curabis eleganter assum."  ► torrêre (Verg.; Ov.; PLIN.) ► torrefacere (Col.)

32 boil: roasted  assus, a, um, tostus, a, um, torrefactus, a, um (Col.)

32 boil: steam  vapôrare (PLIN.)

32 boil: steamer

32 boil: stew  elixare (Apic.)

32 boil: stewed  elixus, a, um (HOR.; PLIN.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 355: pulli gallinacei elixi)

32 chop: chop finely, mince  ► minûtim concidere  ¶ CATO R.R. 123.  Pharm. Austr. 5.  ► minûtim dissecare  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 16: "non cultro minutim dissecantur."  ► minûtâtim concidere  ¶ Apic. 4, 3, 1: "coriandrum minutatim concides"; et passim.  ► comminuere  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 345: "Comminue paulum huius casei ut spargamus super hanc offam."

32 chop: dice, cube  tessellatim concidere (Apic. 4, 3: "porcinam coctam tessellatim concides")

32 ingredients  constituentia, ium n. pl. (Pharm. Austr. xvi)  ► ingredientia, ium* n. pl. (Hessler II. 27: "de formulis pharmaceuticis permulta ingredientia continentibus")

32 instant (adj.) (as in "instant oatmeal"), fast-cooking  ► speusticus, a, um  ¶ Plin. 18, 105, quoted under the entry biscuit (U.S.).

32 pickle  vb.  ► in muriâ condîre  ¶ PLIN. 14, 119: "Condiuntur in aceto ac muriâ."  ► in muriâ condere  ¶ Cato R.R. 7.  ► muriâ condere (v. condîre)  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 21-22.  ► in muriâ adservare  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 357.  ► muriâ inficere  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 21-22: "Neque horum classe plane excludenda sunt varia olera aliique fructûs qui in hortis coluntur, si aut aceto aut salis ommunis muriâ fuerint infecti, verbi causâ cucumeres muriâ nostrâ Halensi ... conditi."  ► muriâre  ¶ Pharm. Bat. III. 146.  ► in acêtô condîre  ¶ PLIN. 14, 119.  ► acêto condere (v. condîre)  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 21: "fructus aceto saccharove conditi."

32 pickle: marinade  \\

32 pickle: marinate  \\ macerare  \ Ter.  \ Plin. N.H.  \ Pharm. Austr. 3. 

32 pickled  ► muriâticus, a, um  ¶ PLAUT.  ► in muriâ (v. acêto) conditus (v. condîtus)

32 pickled: preserved, preserves

32 powdered: granulated

32 pulverize  in pulverem redigere (Marcus Empiricus 84: "haec omnia in tenuissimum pulverem redacta in unum permisce"; F. Bacon, Silva Silvarum no. 738, quoted in 1843 TRAPPEN 18: "illa [baca] in pulverem redacta")

32 pulverized, powdered  pulverisâtus, a, um* 1843 TRAPPEN 2, of a preparation made from coffee beans: "his seminibus, tostis, pulverisatis"; 1843 TRAPPEN 105)

32 purée  subst.  vb.  ►► cf. puls, liquamen

32 recipe  ► praecepta culînâria (n. pl.)  ► formula culînâria  ► formula, ae f.  ¶ Of pharmaceutical recipes:  1843 TRAPPEN 94: "praescribebatur haec formula," et passim.  Pharm. Austr.xiii: "elenchum ... formularum nonnullarum praeparatorum compositorum, quae a medicis saepe praescribuntur."  1752 STUMPF 30: "formulas pro componendis dentifriciis praescriptas."  ► formula parandi  ¶ Pharm. Austr. xi.  ► formula praeparandi  ¶ Pharm. Austr. xvi.

32 salted

32 smoked

32 stir  agitare (Maiansius 358 n. 2: "hippax caseus est equinus vel ... id quod in lacte equino sedit post quam agitatum est"; Pharm. Austr. xxv: "acidum sulfuricum saepius agitando sensim sensimque calefiat"; et passim)

32 stuffed (e.g., turkey, cabbage, pepper)  farsilis, e (Apic. 6, 14: "pullus farsilis ... fac impensam et imples pullum")

32 stuffing  ? fartilia, um n. pl. (TERT.)  ►► vide ThLL, etc.

32 undercooked  ► parum (v. non satis) percoctus  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 16: "carnium portiones firmiores magisque fibrosae vel non satis percoctae."

32 zest (rind, esp. of citrus fruit)

34

34    FOOD

34 cuisine: culinary  coquînârius, a, um (Apic.)  ► culînârius, a, um (Fronto)

34 delicacy, choice food or dish  cuppêdium, i n., scitamentum, i n.

34 delicious, scrumptuous  sapidissimus, a, um, gustatu gratissimus (1571 MATTIOLI 119)  ► ori gratissimus (1571 MATTIOLI 108)

34 delicious: tasty, that tastes good  palâto gratus 1843 TRAPPEN 3)

34 doggy-bag  capsula auferendis reliquiis apta

34 egg: boiled egg  ► ovum elixum  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 296.

34 egg: boiled: hard-boiled egg  ► ovum dûrâtum  ¶ HELFER citing Freire.  ► ovum coctione indûrâtum  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 22.  ► ovum excoctum

34 egg: boiled: soft-boiled egg  ► ovum hapalum  ¶ Apic.  ► ovum tremulum  ¶ Pharm. Bat. III. 152.

34 egg: fried egg  ► ovum frixum  ¶ 1540 VIVES Exer. 296.

34 egg: omelette  ova spongia (Apic.)  ► placenta ovorum

34 egg: pickled egg  ► ovum in muriâ conditum (v. condîtum)  ¶ Cf. 1752 STUMPF 22: "ova coctione indurata et infractis leviter testis muriâ condita, quo nomine Halensia huius generis ova, vulgo 'Sool-eyer' dicta, satis celebrata sunt."

34 egg: poached eggs

34 egg: scrambled eggs  ova permixta (Lev.)  ► ova agitata (HELFER citing Kirsch)

34 egg: yolk  ► lutea ovorum  ¶ Plin. 29, 42.

34 felafel  cicer frictum, isicium ciceris

34 French fries  mâla terrestria fricta, patâtae frictae  ►► tubera solani assa (EGGER S.L. 77)

34 grease  pingue, is n. (1540 VIVES Exer. 301: "non animadvertis te manicas tuas inficere pingui carnium?")

24 jam, jelly, preserves poma conditiva (cf. mala conditiva passim antiquitus); conditura

34 hamburger  isicium bubulum, isicium Hamburgense (EGGER S.L. 77)

34 left-overs  reliquiae, arum f. pl. (Plaut.)  ► pridiâna obsonia (Suet. Tib. 34: "ut parsimoniam publicam exemplo quoque iuvaret, sollemnibus ipse cenis pridiana saepe et semesa obsonia apposuit." ► pridiâna reliqua f. (Apul. Apol. 6);  I don't want left-overs tomorrow  cras de reliquiis non volo (PLAUT. Stich. 3, 2, 40)

34 main dish, pièce de résistance  caput cênae (CIC.; 1540 VIVES Exer. 296)

34 maple syrup  lacrima acerna

34 olive oil  oleum olivarum

34 paella (Spanish rice-based dish)  oryza patinâria (v. Hispanica) (cf. PLAUT. As. 1, 180: piscis patinarius)

34 ratatouille

34 salad  acêtâria, orum n. pl. (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 335, of tarragon: "estur passim in acetariis una cum lactucis aliisque oleribus")

34 sandwich  panis fartus (v. repletus)  ►► Pastillum fartum (EGGER S.L. 77).  Pastillum is found only in two ancient authors, both grammarians; it is defined as "in sacris libi genus rotundi," Paul. ex Fest. p. 250 Müll.  It may be related etymologically in some way to panis, but does not appear to be its deminutive, despite the statement of Festus ("forma panis parvi utique deminutivum est a pane," Paul. ex Fest. p. 222).  "Sandwich" does not in any case call for a diminutive of the word for bread.

34 sauce, gravy  embamma, atis n. (Col.; PLIN.)  ► liquâmen, inis n. (Col.; Pall.)  ► intinctus, ûs m. (a sauce into which meat or other foods are dipped) (PLIN.)

34 sauce: mayonnaise  liquâmen maionense* (cf. HELFER: liquâmen Magonicum)  ►► The etymology being incertain (see OED), it is best to follow closely the vernacular term.

34 sauce: tartar sauce  ► liquâmen Tataricum

34 slice  ► segmentum, i n.  ► quadra, ae f. (if square, as a slice of bread)  ► orbiculus, i m. (if round, as a slice of tomato)  ¶ Plin. 25, 148, of mandrake root: "[radix] concisa quoque in orbiculos servatur in vino."  ► cune(ol)us, i m. (if wedge-shaped, as of pie, pizza, melon)

34 snack  ?

34 snack: late afternoon snack (cf. English tea, Spanish tapas)  merenda, ae f. (PLAUT.)  ► antecênium, i n. (APUL.)

34 soup  ius, iuris n., iusculum, i n., sorbitio, ônis f.

34 soup: broth, bullion  carnis iûs (1540 VIVES Exer. 352; 1571 MATTIOLI 170: "ex pinguium carnium iure")

34 stew  ? iussulenta, orum n. pl. (1540 VIVES Exer. 300: "iussulenta haec iam conglaciant, adfer foculum mensarium," trans. "guisado."  |  beef stew  bubula iussulenta

34 syrup (thick sweet liquid)  ► syrûpus, i+ m.  ¶ Latham.  Ducange, defining as "iusculum medicum."  1771 WAY 15: "Partibus ialapii et rhabarbari aequalibus, syrupo sumendis, purgentur." 1843 TRAPPEN 107.  1846 GROSSE 11: "consistentia syrupi inspissati."  Pharm. Austr. xvii, xiii: "syrupus opiatus."  ► iulapium, i* n.  ¶   ►► EL: sirop; sciroppo; jarabe, almíbar; Sirup;  σιρ ó πι

34 tapioca  puls maniocae*

34 whole-wheat  ► autopŷrus, a, um  |  whole-wheat bread  ► panis autopŷrus  ¶ PLIN.  CAEL. AUR. Tard. 5, 136, on treatments for obesity: "Panem dabimus frigidum, fermentatum, autopyrum."  DUCANGE: "PANIS AUTOPYRUS, Ex quo nihil neque pollinis neque furfuris excretum vel ademptum, quasi totum in se triticum non imminutum habens."  12th c. Ernaldus abbas Bonae-vallis, Vita sancti Bernardi, 1, 6 (in PL 185, 272B), on the austerity of life at Clarivaux: "Panis ibi autopyrus pro similâ, pro careno sapa, pro rhombis olera, pro quibuslibet deliciis legumina ponebantur."  1540 VIVES Exer. 295.

341

341    VEGETABLES

341 /berry  bâca f., acinus, i m.  ►► The correspondence of these terms to English "berry" is inexact.  Both baca and acinus refer generally to small fruits (including tree-fruits): acinus is used especially of those with soft flesh, such as blackcurrants (PLIN. 24, 121), and in particular the grape, baca of those with firm flesh, such as olives, myrtle berries, and acorns (see AndréBotaniques.vv. acinus, baca).  Definitions of acinus as "grape-pit," as in LS, appear to be erroneous, arising most likely from a misreading of CIC. SEN. 15, 52: "ex acini vinaceo," where it is the wordvinaceum, not acinus, which means "pit, stone."

341 /fruit  (in ordinary usage: sweet, juicy, edible product of a plant)  pômum, i n.; (as technical botanical term: ripened ovary of flowering plant)  ►► The correspondence of pomum to the English term "fruit" (in its non-technical sense) is inexact: pomum is limited to the products of trees, and so excludes melons and many berries, but may include nuts (see AndréBotanique).  Fructus refers to whatever is produced for human use and enjoyment; thus, in the food domain, fructus arborum (QUINT. 8, 5, 26) is roughly "fruit," fructus apium (Phaedr. 3, 13, 15) "honey," fructus palmae (HIER.) "dates," and fructus maris (TERT.) "seafood."  Frûges normally refers to grains and legumes (DIG. 50, 16, 77), and sometimes fruits (grapes and tree-fruits) as well (see AndréBotanique; cf. CIC. N.D. 3, 86: "frugum fructuumque reliquorum perceptio").  See also note on berry.  |  DIG. 50, 16, 77: "'Frugem' pro reditu appellari, non solum [qui ex] frumentis aut leguminibus, verum et ex vino, silvis caeduis, cretifodinis, lapidicinis capitur, Iulianus scribit ... 'frumentum' autem id esse quod aristâ se teneat, recte Gallum definisse; lupinum vero et fabam fruges potius dici, quia non aristâ sed siliquâ continentur.  Quae servius apud âlfenum in frumento contineri putat."

341 /fruit cocktail, fruit salad  ? satura pomorum  ►► "Satura" pro "fruit medley" apud grammaticos tantum invenitur; nolim adhibetur nisi invenerim hoc sensu apud posteriores.

341 /legume  legûmen, inis n. (CIC.; PLIN.)

341 /produce stand, fruit stand  ► taberna holerârium  ► taberna pomâria  ► hôraeopôlium, i* n.

341 /produce, fresh produce, seasonal fruit or vegetables  ► pôma holeraque recentia (v. hôraea*)  ► fructûs hôraei*  ¶ 1752 STUMPF 21: "Hôc nomine varia in primis fructuum horaeorum genera citari possunt, exempli gratiâ diversae cerasorum species ... ribes, uvae vinaceae," etc.

341 /vegetable  holus, eris n.  ►► Holus refers to green vegetables and edible roots (see AndréAlimentation 34)  |  it is often used per excellentiam of vegetables of the cabbage family, as a synonym of brassica or caulis (see AndréBotanique s.v. holus).

341 artichoke head  (cardui v. cinarae) caput (1571 MATTIOLI 392: "carduus ... caulem edit longum, foliosum, capite echinato")

341 artichoke heart

341 artichoke, globe artichoke, French artichoke (Cynara scloymus L.)  carduus, i m. (PLIN. 19, 152-153; Pall.)  ► cinara, ae f. (Col.; Linné)  ►► The edible carduus or cinara of antiquity was cardoon (Cynara cardunculus)  ► from which the artichoke was probably derived by cultivation (AndréPlantes s.v. carduus, sense 2)

341 asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)  asparagus, i m. (PLIN.)

341 cabbage (Brassica oleracea, capitata group)   brassica capitâta (1571 MATTIOLI 226; cf. LinnéBrassica oleracea var. capitata)  ► caulis capitâtus  ►► The brassica or caulisof the ancients was similar to our loose-leafed members of the cabbage family, kale and collards; headed varieties were developed in the Middle Ages.  Caulis replaces brassica as the name for this vegetable in the first century C.E. (see AndréPlantes s.v. caulis).  Holus (in its general sense, green vegetable or root) is quite often used per excellentiam of the same vegetable, as a synonym ofbrassica or caulis (see, s.v. holusAndréBotanique, and Jones, "Index").

341 cabbage dish: stuffed cabbage  brassica farsilis

341 cabbage part: head (of cabbage, lettuce)  caput, itis n. (PLIN. 141)

341 cabbage: broccoli (Brassica oleracea, italica group)  brassica Italica, cymae, arum f. pl. (PLIN.; Col.; for the identification of cymae, or sprouts of brassica, with broccoli, see Jones, "Index," and André, note to edition of Apicius)

341 cabbage: broccolini, broccoli rabe (Brassica rapa ruvo, also called Brassica rapa rapifera, Brassica ruvo, and Brassica campestris ruvo

341 cabbage: Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea, gemmifera group)   brassica gemmifera, brassica Bruxellensis (cf. Fr. choux de Bruxelles, Ger. Brüsseler Kohl, It. cavoletto di Bruxelles)  ► gemmae Bruxellenses (f. pl.)  ►► EL:  λα αχανάκι Βρυξελλών

341 cabbage: cauliflower (Brassica oleracea, botrytis group)   cauliflôra, ae* f. (a former botanical name)  ► brassica botrytis* (cf. LinnéBrassica oleracea var. botrytis)

341 cabbage: Chinese cabbage: bok choy (Brassica rapa, chinensis group)  brassica Sinensis (cf. LinnéBrassica chinensis)

341 cabbage: Chinese cabbage: napa cabbage (Brassica rapa, pekinensis group)  brassica Pekinensis

341 cabbage: collards, collard greens (Brassica oleracea, acephala group)  brassica lêvis (1571 MATTIOLI 224)  ► brassica Lusitâna, brassica acephala (appropriate for both collard greens and kale)  ►► Collards and kale are closely related, belonging to the same cultivar group; so if distinguishing them is not essential, both may be called brassica acephala (or evenbrassica or caulis simply, as the ancient vegetable, a loose-leafed plant, resembled collards and kale, not our cabbage).  The epithet Lusitana is suggested by the importance of collards in Portugal and Brazil.  (They are also cultivated in the southern U.S. and parts of Africa.)

341 cabbage: kale (Brassica oleracea, acephala group)  brassica Sabellica (PLIN. 19, 141; 1571 MATTIOLI 225)  ► brassica hiemâlis, brassica acephala (appropriate for both collard greens and kale)  ►► Collards and kale are closely related, belonging to the same cultivar group; so if distinguishing them is not essential, both may be called brassica acephala (or even brassicaor caulis simply, as the ancient vegetable, a loose-leafed plant, resembled collards and kale, not our cabbage).  On the similarity of the ancients' brassica Sabellica to our kale, see Schiemann (281, 285).  The epithet hiemalis is suggested by the winter-hardiness of kale; it is grown chiefly in northern climates.

341 cabbage: kohlrabi (Brassica oleracea, gongylodes group, also called Brassica caulorapa)  caulorâpa, ae* f. (former botanical species name of the plant)  ► rapocaulis, is* (DUCANGE s.v. ravacaulus in def.: "pro rapuocaulis, caulis species quae vulgo 'choux-rave'"; see Schiemann 285, mentioning name rapecaulum)  ► brassica gongylôdês* (cf. LinnéBrassica oleracea var. gongylôdês)   ►► EL: chou-rave; colinabo; Kohlrabi

341 cabbage: red cabbage  brassica rubra (v. purpurea) (cf. LinnéBrassica oleracea var. rubra)

341 cabbage: sauerkraut  holus acidum (PLIN. 26, 88; see AndréBotanique s.v. holus)  ► brassica acida (SCHELLER)

341 cabbage: savoy cabbage  brassica Sabaud(ic)a (v. crispa) (cf. Linné Brassica oleracea var. sabauda)

341 cress: garden cress (Lepidium sativum)  nasturtium, i n.

341 cress: watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium-aquaticum, also called Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum and Sisymbrium nasturtium-aquaticum L.)  sisymbrium, i n. (PLIN. 20, 247; for the identification of the term as used in antiquity with watercress, see AndréPlantes, and Jones, "Index."  ► sisymbrium aquâticum (1571 MATTIOLI 243)  ► nasturtium aquaticum (Linné, as species name: nasturtium-aquaticum)

341 dandelion (genus Taraxacum)  aphaca, ae f. (PLIN. 21, 89; for the identification, see AndréPlantes; cf. 1571 MATTIOLI 259: "dens leonis ... Graecis, praesertimque Theophrasto αφακα ."  ► dens leonis (1571 MATTIOLI 259)  ► taraxacum, i+ (LATHAM citing 14th c. source; Linné, as species name; cf. OED citing 12th c. source for the form tarasacon; cf. also 1571MATTIOLI 259: teraxecon)  ►► Linné called the common dandelion Leontodon taraxacum (its current botanical name is Taraxacum officinale).

341 fruit: avocado (Persea americana, formerly called Laurus persea L.)  ► avacâtum, i* n.  ¶ Cf. Span. aguacate, from Nahuatl ahuacatl; cf. also Fr. avocat, Ital./Germ./Greekavocado, and similar words in many languages.  ► ? persêum, i* n.  Cf. Linn., persea, as species name (now genus name); Linnaeus borrowed the name of an Egyptian tree known to the ancients, περσεα ; its fruit was called  περσειον . ►► The Spanish -gu- in aguacate represents a sound similar to English w (Latin v in the classical pronunciation).  EL: avocat; avocado; aguacate, palta, cura, petro; Avocado;  αβοκαντο Nahuatl ahuacatl ("testicle"); "avocado" in many other languages.

341 fruit: avocado: guacamole  avacâti* liquâmen (v. puls)  ►► Nahuatl ahuacamolli ("avocado sauce")

341 fruit: cucumber (Cucumis sativus)  cucumis, eris m. (Col.; PLIN.)

341 fruit: cucumber: gherkin, cornichon  cucumis minûtus

341 fruit: cucumber: pickle (U.S.), pickled cucumber  ► cucumis muriâticus  ► cucumis in muriâ (v. in acêto) conditus (v. condîtus)  ► cucumis muriâ conditus (v. condîtus)  ¶1752 STUMPF 21-22: "cucumeres muriâ nostrâ Halensi, quam vernaculo sermone 'Soole' appellant, conditi."  |  dill pickle  cucumis muriâticus ex anêtho

341 fruit: eggplant (U.S.), aubergine (Br.) (Solanum melongena)  melongêna, ae+ f. (OED s.v. melongena, citing 13th c. source; LATHAM citing 13th c. source for the formmelongenia1571 MATTIOLI 734)  ►► For the length of the penultimate vowel, see the Greek and oriental source-words listed in OED etymological note (cf. also the Italian cognate "melanzana").  EL: aubergine; melanzana; berenjena; Aubergine, Eierfrucht, Melanzani;  μ ελιτζάν

341 fruit: melon  (Cucumis melo)  mêlopepo, ônis m. (PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 151)  ► mêlo, ônis m. (Pall.; Arn.) (for the identification of both words, see AndréPlantes, and Jones, "Index")

341 fruit: melon: cantaloupe, muskmelon, rockmelon (Cucumis melo, reticulatus or cantalupensis group)  mêlo (v. mêlopepo) Cantalûpensis, mêlo (v. mêlopepo) muscâtus (formuscatus, see Souter citing Oribas.)

341 fruit: melon: honeydew melon (Cucumis melo, inodorus group)  mêlo inodôrus  ►► The inodorus group also includes the Crenshaw and Casaba melon.

341 fruit: melon: watermelon (Citrullus lanatus, formerly called Cucurbita citrullus L.)  ► pepo, ônis m.  ¶ PLIN.  TERT.  1315 MARCO POLO B 1, 30.  For the identification with "watermelon," see AndréPlantes, and Jones, "Index."  ► citrullus, i+ m.  ¶ LATHAM citing 13th-century source.  NIERMEYER, defining as "citrouille, courge – citrul, pumpkin." DUCANGE: "CITROLUS, ex Italico citrollo, nostris citrouille [pumkpin] ... CITRULLUS, eâdem notione."  OED s.v. citrul, mentioning the Latin word as medieval.  LINN. as species name.  1798DESFONTAINES iv, in discussion of plants cultivated in North Africa: "In Barbariae plagis septentrionalibus coluntur ... citrulli bene multi summe aquosi et refrigerantes."  Niermeyer's and Ducange's definitions of medieval citrullus and citrolus as "pumkpin" must be mistaken, as the pumpkin originated in the New World.  Both lexicographers probably simply assumed the identity of Latincitrullus with French citrouille.    ►► 1571 MATTIOLI 271: anguria.

341 fruit: okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)  okrum, i* n. (Rolander)  ►► EL: Fr./Sp. gombo; Germ./Dutch/Swed. okra;  μ πάμια

341 fruit: okra: dish: gumbo

341 fruit: pepper (condiment: Piper nigrum)  piper, eris n.;  (vegetable: genus Capsicum)  capsicum, i* n., piper Indicum (1571 MATTIOLI 322)  ►► OED s.v. capsicum: "Gul. Piso, De Indiae utriusque Re Nat. et Med. (1658) has 'qviya sive Piper Brasiliense.'"  ||  EL: poivron; peperone; chile, pimiento; Paprika;  π ιπεριά

341 fruit: pepper component: capsaicin  capsicînum, i* n.

341 fruit: pepper dish: chili  (bean-based dish: chili beans)  phaseolus piperâtus (v. ex capsico*)  |  (bean-less dish, as Texas-style chili, or hot-dog chili)  minûtal piperâtum (v. ex capsico*)

341 fruit: pepper dish: stuffed pepper, chile relleno  capsicum* farsile

341 fruit: pepper dish: Tabasco sauce  piperâtum Tabascânum

341 fruit: pepper sauce (made from hot peppers), hot sauce   piperâtum, i n. (CELS.; Apic.)

341 fruit: pepper spray  piper lacrimatorium (v. lacrimificum*)

341 fruit: pepper: bell pepper, sweet pepper  capsicum* dulce (cf. Fr. piment doux)  ► capsicum* campanulatum* (for campanulatus, see Stearns 381)

341 fruit: pepper: cayenne pepper  capsicum* (v. piper) Caiennense, piper Brasiliense (OED s.v. cayenne, quoting Willem Piso, De Indiae utriusque re naturali et medica, 1658)

341 fruit: pepper: chile poblano  capsicum* (v. piper) Angelense  ►► "Poblano" refers to the Mexican city of Puebla, originally Puebla de los Àngeles, in Latin writings Angelorum Civitas.

341 fruit: pepper: chili pepper, hot pepper  capsicum* fervidum (v. acre)  ►► EL: piment; peperoncino; chile, pimiento; Peperoni

341 fruit: pepper: chili powder  capsicum* contrîtum (v. tûsum v. contûsum) (cf. 1571 MATTIOLI 322: "recentia cornicula [pepper pods] tusa")

341 fruit: pepper: habanero pepper  capsicum* (v. piper) Havanense 

341 fruit: pepper: jalapeño pepper  capsicum* (v. piper) Xalapense

341 fruit: pepper: paprika  capsicum* Hungaricum (v. Hispânum v. cordiforme) contrîtum (v. tûsum v. contûsum) (for adj. cordiformis, see BARTAL; Stearn 391)

341 fruit: pepper: pimento, pimiento, cherry pepper, paprika pepper  capsicum* Hungaricum (v. Hispânum v. cordiforme)  ►► EL: piment; paprica; pimiento; Paprika; Hung. paprika.

341 fruit: squash (genus Cucurbita)  cucurbita, ae f., cucurbita Indica (1571 MATTIOLI 267)  ►► See note s.v. gourd.

341 fruit: squash: gourd  cucurbita lagênâria*  ►► Lagenaria is the genus name of the calabash or bottle gourd.  In antiquity, the term cucurbita applied specifically to the calabash; the epithetlagenaria is needed because of the transference of cucurbita in NL to the squash family (originating in the New World).

341 fruit: squash: pumpkin  (as a loosely defined category of squashes)  cucurbita (Indica v. esculenta)  |  (of the sort of pumpkin typically displayed at Halloween) cucurbita lanternâria

341 fruit: squash: zucchini (U.S.), courgette (Br.), Italian squash (a variety of Cucurbita pepo)  cucurbita Italica

341 fruit: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., also called Lycopersicon esculentum)  lycopersicum, i* n. (Bauhin, Hist. 621; Linné; LRL)  ► tomâta, ae* f. (HELFER; cf. Bauhin, Hist. 621: "tumatle."  ► pômum amôris (Bauhin, Hist. 621)  ►► EL: la tomate, pomme d'or, pomme d'amour, pomme du Pérou; pomodoro; el tomate, jitomate; die Tomate, Paradiesapfel; ντοματα Nahuatl tomatl

341 fruit: tomato juice  sucus lycopersico* (v. tomâtae*) expressus, sucus lycopersici* (v. tomatae*)

341 fruit: tomato paste  cremor lycopersici* (v. tomâtae*)  ►► It. concentrato di pomodoro

341 fruit: tomato sauce  liquâmen lycopersici* (v. tomâtae*)

341 fruit: tomato: catsup (U.S.), ketchup (U.S.), tomato sauce (Br.)  lycopersicâtum, i* n. (for the formation, cf. piperatumCELS.Apic., of a pepper sauce)  ► condîmentum ex lycopersico (v. tomâtâ) 

341 fruit: tomato: cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum cerasiforme)  lycopersicum* cerasiforme*, tomâta* cerasiformis*

341 fruit: tomato: crushed tomatoes  lycopersicum* tûsum (v. contûsum)  ► tomâta* tûsa (v. contûsa)

341 fruit: tomato: lycopene  lycopênum, i* n. ►► EL: le lycopène; licopeno; das Lycopin, Lycopin

341 fruit: tomato: salsa (cruda or mexicana), pico de gallo  piperâtum Mexicânum, piperâtum ex lycopersico crûdo (v. tomâtâ crûdâ)

341 legume: azuki beans, adzuki beans (Vigna angularis)  phaseolus azuki

341 legume: beans  (as a very general term, loosely coextensive with "legume."  legûmen, inis n. (CIC.; PLIN.)  |  (more specifically, the common bean, botanical genusPhaseolus, including pinto, black, white or navy, red or kidney, lima, and green beans)  phaseolus, i (*) m. (in antiquity, of the cowpea: Col; Plin; of the common bean: 1571MATTIOLI 189; Linné, as genus name)  ►► The ancient phaseolus was the cowpea or field pea, an important food crop in Europe through the Middle Ages.  When the common bean (indigenous to America) came into use in Europe, largely supplanting the cowpea, both the Latin phaseolus and Romance derivatives (It. fagiolo, Span. frijol) were transferred to the new plant and food.  This retrofitting of the ancient term provides us a convenient name for the common bean, far more important today than the cowpea (which can be specified by retronyms consisting of phaseolus and an epithet).  Speakers of English tend incorrectly to equate "bean" with the Latin faba.  ("Bean" in English originally referred to the broad bean onlyspecifically, giving rise to conventional dictionary definitions of faba as simply "bean.."  ►► EL: haricot; fagiolo; frijol, judía; φασόλι

341 legume: beans, common: black turtle beans, black beans (a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  phaseolus niger  ►► Sp. frijoles negros

341 legume: beans, common: green beans, string beans, snap beans (immature pods of Phaseolus vulgaris)  phaseoli virides (m. pl.) (Col. 12, 9, 1; Ed. Diocl. 6, 33; Apic. 5, 8, 1; Oribas. Syn. 4, 12; cf. 1571 MATTIOLI 189, in description of phaseoli: "cornicula [pods], dum viridia sunt et tenera, elixantur, et cum pipere in acetariis eduntur."   ►► The cited passages refer to the green, immature pods of the cowpea (phaseolus in the ancient sense)  ► which the ancients picked and ate as we do those of the common bean (see PLIN. 18, 125: "siliquae ... passiolorum [i.e. phaseolorum] cum ipsis manduntur granis"; see also AndréAlimentation 39).  Our green beans and dried beans come from the same plant (various varieties of Phaseolusvulgaris)  |  they are simply harvested at different stages.

341 legume: beans, common: kidney beans, red beans (a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  phaseolus ruber, phaseolus rêniformis* (for rêniformis, see Stearn p. 482)  ►► Sp. habichuelas coloradas

341 legume: beans, common: pinto beans, mottled beans (a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  phaseolus guttâtus (v. maculâtus)  ►► Sp. habichuelas pintas, frijoles pintos

341 legume: beans, common: white beans, navy beans, Great Northern beans, haricot beans, cannellini (a variety of Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  phaseolus albus  ►► Sp. habichuelas blancas

341 legume: beans: butter beans, lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus L., also called Phaseolus limensis)  phaseolus Limensis (cf. Fr. haricot de Lima, Span. frijol de Lima; Germ.Limabohne)  ► phaseolus lûnâtus (Linné)  ►► EL:  φ ασόλι της Λίμας

341 legume: beans: dish: baked beans  phaseolus furnâceus

341 legume: beans: dish: Boston baked beans  phaseolus Bostoniensis, olla pHaseoli Bostoniensis

341 legume: beans: dish: cassoulet  phaseolus Aquîtânus, olla pHaseoli Aquîtâna

341 legume: beans: dish: feijoada  phaseolus Brasilicus, olla pHaseoli Brasilica

341 legume: beans: dish: pork and beans  phaseolus ex suillâ

341 legume: beans: dish: refried beans  phaseolus bis coctus  ►► Sp. frijoles refritos

341 legume: beans: runner beans, scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.)  phaseolus coccineus (Linné)  ►► The flowers of many varieties are a brilliant scarlet color.  EL: haricot d'Espagne; Feuerbohne. 

341 legume: broad beans, fava beans, faba beans (Vicia faba L., also called Faba sativa)  faba, ae f. (VARR.; CIC.; PLIN.; 1571 MATTIOLI 183)

341 legume: chickpeas, garbanzos (Cicer arietinum L.)  cicer, eris n.  ►► Like most Latin legume names, cicer is a mass (or non-count) noun, and thus has no plural (see VARR. L.L. 8, 25: "singularia solum sunt multa, ut cicer, siser; nemo enim dicit cicera, sisera").  A single chickpea may be called granum ciceris.

341 legume: chickpeas: falafel  cicer frictum (HOR. A. P. 249)  ► faba fricta, insicium ciceris (v. fabae)

341 legume: chickpeas: hummus  puls ciceris (cf. puls fabacea, Macr. Sat. 1, 12, 33)  ► ? cicer contrîtum (v. tûsum v. contûsum)

341 legume: cowpea: black-eyed peas (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata) phaseolus ocellâtus (cf. Fr. haricot à oeil noir, Germ. Augenbohne)  ►► The black-eyed pea is a sort of cowpea. 

341 legume: cowpeas, field peas, Southern peas (Vigna unguiculata)  phaseolus veterum, phaseolus boârius (cf. Fr. pois à vaches, Germ. Kuhbohne, terms arising from the legume's use as cattle fodder)  ►► The term phaseolus referred in antiquity to the cowpea specifically, but was transferred to the common bean on its introduction from America (see explanatory note underbeans).  Latin writers since the Renaissance have often added veterum ("of the ancients." to supply retronyms in such situations.  EL: mongette, dolique, haricot à oeil noir, pois à vaches; costeña, frijol de costa, frijol carita; Kuhbohne, Augenbohne.

341 legume: lentils (Lens culinaris)  lens, lentis f. (Verg.; PLIN.; Col.)  ► lenticula, ae f. (CELS.; Pall.)  ►► Like most Latin legume names, lens is a mass (or non-count) noun, and thus has no plural.  A single lentil may be called granum lentis.

341 legume: mung beans (Vigna radiata, also called Phaseolus radiatus or Phaseolus aureus)  phaseolus mung  ►► EL: haricot mungo; Mungbohne

341 legume: mung: bean sprout  pHaseoli surculus

341 legume: peas (Pisum sativum L.)  pîsum, i n. 

341 legume: peas: green peas, garden peas, sweet peas  pîsum recens, pîsum viride (cf. phaseoli virides, Col.Apic., of the "green beans" – actually green cowpeas – of the ancients)  ►► Like most Latin legume names, pisum is normally a mass (or non-count) noun, lacking the plural.  A single pea may be called granum pisi.

341 legume: peas: snow peas, snap peas, sugarsnap peas  ? pisaceae* virides (cf. Apic. 5, 6: "fabaciae virides," of young pods of the fava or broad bean used as "green beans"; for the adj.pisaceus+, see LATHAM citing 15th c. source)  ►► Fr. pois mange-tout

341 legume: peas: split peas, dried peas  pîsum fractum (cf. Ed. Diocl. 1, 13: "pisae fractae"; pisa for pisum is late ancient)  ► pîsum siccâtum

341 legume: peas: split-pea soup  sorbitio (v. iûs) pîsi fracti (v. siccâti)

341 legume: soy milk  lac soiae*

341 legume: soy: edamame  soia* viridis

341 legume: soy: miso  soia* fermentâta

341 legume: soy: tofu, bean curd  coagulum soiae*

341 legume: soybeans (Glycine max, also called Dolichos soja L.)  soia, ae* f. (Linné)  ►► EL: soja; soia; soja; Sojabohne;  σογια .

341 legume: soynuts  soia* assa

341 lemon grass, citronella grass (genus Cymbopogon)  citrônella, ae* f.  ►► EL: citronnelle; citronella;  caña santa;  Zitronengras, Citronella.  Cymbopogon citratus is the principal species for cooking.

341 lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)  lactûca, ae f.;  head lettuce, iceberg lettuce  lactûca capitâta (1571 MATTIOLI 272)  |  looseleaf lettuce  lactûca acephala

341 lettuce: arugula (U.S.), rocket (Br.)  êrûca, ae f. (HOR.; PLIN.; Linné; for identification with arugula, see AndréPlantes, and Jones, "Index